Resources Contact Us Home
Browse by: INVENTOR PATENT HOLDER PATENT NUMBER DATE
 
 
Piperazine and piperidine compounds
RE41425 Piperazine and piperidine compounds
Patent Drawings:

Inventor: Feenstra, et al.
Date Issued: July 6, 2010
Application: 12/081,710
Filed: April 18, 2008
Inventors: Feenstra; Roelof Willem (Weesp, NL)
Den Hartog; Jacobus A. J. (Weesp, NL)
Kruse; Cornelis G. (Weesp, NL)
Tulp; Martinus T. M. (Weesp, NL)
Long; Stephen K. (Weesp, NL)
Assignee: Duphar International Research B.V. (Weesp, NL)
Primary Examiner: Anderson; Rebecca L
Assistant Examiner: Havlin; Robert
Attorney Or Agent: Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, L.L.P.
U.S. Class: 544/364
Field Of Search: 544/364; 514/254
International Class: C07D 295/12; A61K 31/496
U.S Patent Documents:
Foreign Patent Documents: 19637237; 19637237; 0 189 612; 0 190 472; 0 508 347; 0 561 319; 0 574 313; 633260; 0 633 260; 0 650 964; WO 93/04684; WO 93/04684; WO 95/02592; WO 95/02592; WO 96/02246; WO 96/10568; WO 97/03067; WO 97/36893; 97/36893; WO 97/36893; 98/11068; WO 98/11068
Other References: Van Steen et al., "Structure-Affinity Relationship Studies on 5-HT.sub.IAReceptor Ligands. 2. Heterobicyclic Phenylpiperazines with N4-AralkylSubstituents", J. Med. Chem., 37(17):2761-2773 (1994). cited by other.
Van der Heyden & Bradford, A rapidly acquired one-way conditioned avoidance procedure in rats as a primary screening test for antipsychotics: influence of shock intensity on avoidance performance, Behav. Brain Res., 31:61-67 (1988). cited by other.
Van Hest et al., Flesinoxan shows antidepressant activity in a DRL 72-s screen, Psychopharmacology, 107:474-479 (1992). cited by other.
Van der Poel et al., Temporal pattering of ultrasonic distress calls in the adult rat: effects of morphine and benzodiazepines, Pschopharmacology, 97:147-148 (1989). cited by other.









Abstract: A group of new piperazine and piperidine compounds having interesting advantageous pharmacological properties and have the formula (a) ##STR00001## wherein A represents a heterocyclic group having 5-7 ring atoms wherein 1-3 heteroatoms selected from the group O, N and S are present, R.sub.1 is hydrogen or fluoro, R.sub.2 is C.sub.1-4-alkyl, C.sub.1-4-alkoxy or an oxo group, and p is 0, 1 or 2, Z represents carbon or nitrogen, and the dotted line represents a single bond when Z is nitrogen, and represents a single or double bond when Z is carbon, R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 independently are hydrogen or C.sub.1-4-alkyl, n has the value 1 or 2, R.sub.5 is 2-pyridyl, 3-pyridyl or 4-pyridyl substituted at the meta-position with respect to the methylene bridge with a group Y, and optionally substituted with (R.sub.6)q, Y is a phenyl, furanyl or thienyl group, which groups may be substituted with 1-3 substituents from the group hydroxy, halogen, CF.sub.3, C.sub.1-4-alkoxy, C.sub.1-4-alkyl, cyano aminocarbonyl, mono- or di-C.sub.1-4-alkylaminocarbonyl, R.sub.6 is halogen, hydroxy, C.sub.1-4-alkoxy or C.sub.1-4-alkyl, and q is 0, 1, 2 or 3 and salts thereof, are disclosed.
Claim: What is claimed is:

1. A compound having the formula (a) ##STR00016## wherein A represents a heterocyclic group having 5-7 ring atoms wherein 1-3 heteroatoms selected from the group O, N and Sare present, R.sub.1 is hydrogen or fluoro, R.sub.2 is C.sub.1-4-alkyl, C.sub.1-4-alkoxy or an oxo group, and p is 0, 1 or 2, Z represents carbon or nitrogen, and the dotted line represents a single bond when Z is nitrogen, and represents a single ordouble bond when Z is carbon, R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 independently are hydrogen or C.sub.1-4-alkyl, n has the value 1 or 2, R.sub.5 is 2-pyridyl, 3-pyridyl or 4-pyridyl substituted at the meta-position with respect to the methylene bridge with a group Y,and optionally substituted with (R.sub.6)q, Y is a phenyl, furanyl or thienyl group, which groups may be substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from the group hydroxy, halogen, CF.sub.3, C.sub.1-4-alkoxy, C.sub.1-4-alkyl, cyano, aminocarbonyl, mono-or di-C.sub.1-4-alkylaminocarbonyl, R.sub.6 is halogen, hydroxy, C.sub.1-4-alkoxy or C.sub.1-4-alkyl, and q is 0, 1, 2 or 3, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

2. A compound according to claim 1, wherein A together with the phenyl group represents a group having the formula b, c, d, e, f or g ##STR00017## and wherein n is 1, and R.sub.1, .[.(R.sub.2)p,.]. .Iadd.R.sub.2, .Iaddend.R.sub.3, R.sub.4,R.sub.5, .[.(R.sub.6)q,.]. .Iadd.R.sub.6, p, q, .Iaddend.Y and Z have the meanings given in claim 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

3. A compound according to claim 2, wherein A together with the phenyl group represents a group of the formula (c) or (d), wherein R.sub.5 has the meaning given in claim 1, Y is phenyl, R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are hydrogen, R.sub.6 is hydroxy,methoxy or halogen, q is 0 or 1 and Z is nitrogen, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

4. A compound according to claim 3, wherein A together with the phenyl group represents a group of the formula (d), wherein R.sub.1, .[.(R.sub.2)p,.]. R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are hydrogen, .Iadd.p is 0, .Iaddend.n is 1, Z is nitrogen, and R.sub.5is the group 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-pyrid-3-yl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

5. A method for preparing a compound of the formula (a) according to claim 1, said method comprising a) reacting a compound of formula ##STR00018## with a compound of the formula R.sub.5--CH.sub.2--X, wherein X is a leaving group; or b)reacting a compound of the formula ##STR00019## wherein .[.R.sub.5' has the same meaning as R.sub.5 as given in claim 1, with the proviso that the bromine atom is at the meta-position with respect to the methylene bridge.]. .Iadd.R'.sub.5 is 2-pyridyl,3-pyridyl or 4-pyridyl substituted at the meta-position with respect to the methylene bridge with the bromine atom.Iaddend., with a compound of the formula B(OH).sub.2--Y, in which each substituent has the meanings given in claim 1.

6. A pharmaceutical composition, said composition comprising a pharmaceutically effective amount of at least one compound according to claim 1 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

7. A method of preparing a pharmaceutical composition for treating a CNS disorder, said method comprising .[.including in.]. .Iadd.adding to .Iaddend.said composition a pharmaceutically effective amount of at least one compound of the formula(a) according to claim 1 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

8. A method of treating a CNS disorder, said method comprising administering to a host in need of said treatment an effective amount of a compound of formula (a) according to claim 1.

9. A compound of the formula ##STR00020## wherein R.sub.1, (R.sub.2)p, Z, n, R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 have the meanings given in claim 1, and .[.R.sub.5' has the same meaning as R.sub.5 given in claim 1, with the proviso that the bromine atom is atthe meta-position with respect to the methylene bridge.]. .Iadd.R'.sub.5 is 2-pyridyl, 3-pyridyl or 4-pyridyl substituted at the meta-position with respect to the methylene bridge with the bromine atom.Iaddend..

.Iadd.10. A pharmaceutical composition, said composition comprising a pharmaceutically effective amount of at least one compound according to claim 4 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier..Iaddend.

.Iadd.11. A method of preparing a pharmaceutical composition for treating a CNS disorder, said method comprising adding to said composition a pharmaceutically effective amount of at least one compound according to claim 4 and a pharmaceuticallyacceptable carrier..Iaddend.

.Iadd.12. A method of treating a CNS disorder, said method comprising administering to a host in need of said treatment an effective amount of at least one compound according to claim 4..Iaddend.
Description: The invention relates to a group of new piperazine and piperidine compounds having interesting pharmacological properties. The inventors have discovered that compounds of the formula (a) ##STR00002## wherein A represents a heterocyclicgroup having 5-7 ring atoms, wherein 1-3 heteroatoms selected from the group O, N and S are present, R.sub.1 is hydrogen or fluoro, R.sub.2 is C.sub.1-4-alkyl, C.sub.1-4-alkoxy or an oxo group, and p is 0, 1 or 2, Z represents carbon or nitrogen, and thedotted line represents a single bond when Z is nitrogen, and represents a single or double bond when Z is carbon, R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 independently are hydrogen or C.sub.1-4-alkyl, n has the value 1 or 2, R.sub.5 is 2-pyridyl, 3-pyridyl or 4-pyridylsubstituted at the meta-position with respect to the methylene bridge with a group Y, and optionally substituted with (R.sub.6)q, Y is a phenyl, furanyl or thienyl group, which groups may be substituted with 1-3 substituents selected from the grouphydroxy, halogen, CF.sub.3, C.sub.1-4-alkoxy, C.sub.1-4-alkyl, cyano, aminocarbonyl, mono- or di-C.sub.1-4-alkylaminocarbonyl, R.sub.6 is halogen, hydroxy, C.sub.1-4-alkoxy or C.sub.1-4-alkyl, and q is 0, 1, 2 or 3, and the salts thereof have interestingand advantageous pharmacological properties.

Preferred compounds according to the invention are the compounds of formula (a) wherein A together with the phenyl group represents a group of the formula b, c, d, e, f or g ##STR00003## wherein n is 1 and R.sub.1 and (R.sub.2)p, R.sub.3,R.sub.4, R.sub.5, (R.sub.6).sub.q, Y and Z have the above meanings, and the salts thereof.

Particularly preferred are the inventive compounds of formula (a) wherein A together with the phenyl group represents a group of the formula (c) or (d), R.sub.5 has the above meaning and Y is phenyl which may be substituted as mentioned above,and wherein R.sub.2 has the above mentioned meaning, p=0 or 1, n is 1, R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are hydrogen, R.sub.6 is hydroxy, methoxy or halogen, q is 0 or 1, Z is nitrogen, and the salts thereof.

Particularly preferred is the compound having formula (a) wherein A together with the phenyl group represents the group of the formula (d), wherein R.sub.1, (R.sub.2).sub.p, R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are hydrogen, n is 1, Z is nitrogen, and R.sub.5 isthe group 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-pyrid-3-yl, and the salts thereof.

It is known from EP 0650964 that compounds of the formula ##STR00004## wherein R.sub.0 is C.sub.1-4-alkyl, which compounds can be substituted in the phenyl group and/or heterocyclic group and/or the piperazine group, act on the central nervoussystem by binding to 5-HT receptors. In particular these compounds bind to subtypes of the 5-HT-receptor, i.e. 5-HT.sub.1A and 5-HT.sub.1D receptors.

It has now surprisingly been found that the compounds according to the invention show affinities for the dopamine D.sub.2 receptor (pK.sub.i range 7-9.5) and dopamine D.sub.4 receptor (pK.sub.i range 6.5-9.5) without significant preference forone of the above mentioned two receptors. Moreover, the compounds according to the invention show affinity for serotonin 5-HT.sub.1A receptors (pK.sub.i range 7-9.5). This combination of affinities for dopamine and serotonin receptors is useful for thetreatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and might allow for a more complete treatment of all disease symptoms, e.g., positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive deficits.

The inventive compounds also show varying activities as either partial agonists or antagonists at dopamine D.sub.2-, D.sub.3-, and D.sub.4- receptors. Some inventive compounds show agonist-like effects at dopamine receptors, however theypotently antagonize apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in mice (ED.sub.50 values<1 mg/kg p.o). The inventive compounds further show varying activity as 5-HT.sub.1A receptor agonists and induce aspects of the serotinin behavioral syndrome todiffering intensities.

The inventive compounds are active in therapeutic models sensitive to clinically relevant antipsychotics (e.g., the conditioned avoidance response; Van der Heyden & Bradford, Behav. Brain Res., 1988, 31:61-67, the disclosure of which isincorporated herein by reference), antidepressants (e.g., differential reinforcement of low rate responses; van Hest et al., Psychopharmacology, 1992, 107:474-479, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference), and anxiolytics (e.g.,suppression of stress-induced vocalization; van der Poel et al., Psychopharmacology, 1989, 97:147-148, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference).

In contrast to clinically relevant dopamine D.sub.2 receptor antagonists, the described compounds have a low propensity to induce catalepsy in rodents and as such are likely to induce less extrapyramidal side effects than existing antipsychoticagents.

The .sup.5-HT.sub.1A receptor agonism inherent in the inventive compounds may be responsible for the reduced tendency to induce extrapyramidal effects and the therapeutic effects observed in behavioral models sensitive to either antidepressantsor anxiolytics.

The inventive compounds are additionally expected to be of value for the treatment of affective disorders or diseases of the central nervous system caused by disturbances in either the dopaminergic or serotinergic systems, for example:Parkinson's disease, aggression, anxiety disorders, autism, vertigo, depression, disturbances of cognition or memory, and in particular schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

Suitable acids with which the inventive compounds can form pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts are, for example, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and organic acids such as citric acid, fumaric acid,maleic acid, tartaric acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, p-toluene sulphonic acid, methanesulphonic acid and naphtalene-sulphonic acid.

The compounds of the invention can be brought into forms for administration by means of well known processes using auxiliary substances such as liquid and solid carrier materials.

The compounds of the invention can be obtained according to methods (A and B) which are described below. The piperazines used in these methods are indicated as I-H to III-H, wherein I to III represent the following groups: ##STR00005##

The synthesis of these piperazines I-H to II-H is described in EP 0189612, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

The H-atom of the N--H moiety of compounds I-H to III-H can be replaced by group Q in two different chemical ways (A and B), eventually leading to the compounds of the invention. In FIG. 2, the meanings of Q1 to Q9 are shown. ##STR00006##Synthesis route A

The compounds listed in table A (vide infra) were prepared via the synthesis depicted in scheme A1 (vide infra): a piperazine was reacted with a compound Q--X (X.dbd.Cl, Br) in e.g., acetonitrile with Et(i-Pr).sub.2N acting as a base; in somecases Kl (or Nal) be used instead of Et(i-Pr).sub.2N. ##STR00007## Synthesis route B

The compounds listed in table B (vide infra) were prepared via the synthesis depicted in scheme Bi (vide infra): a piperazine was reacted with 3-bromo-5-chloromethylpyridine to yield the intermediate b1 (scheme B2), which was coupled with aboronic acid derivative by means of a so-called Suzuki cross-coupling reaction. ##STR00008##

A preferred method for preparing a compound of the formula (a) as defined above, comprises either reacting a compound of formula ##STR00009## with a compound of the formula R.sub.5--CH.sub.2--X, wherein X is a leaving group and the remainingsubstituents R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, Z, A, p, n and R.sub.5 are as defined above for formula (a), or reacting a compound of formula ##STR00010## wherein .[.R.sub.5'.]. .Iadd.R'.sub.5 .Iaddend.has the same meaning as R.sub.5 given above informula (a), with the proviso that the bromine atom is at the meta-position with respect to the methylene bridge, with a compound of the formula B(OH).sub.2--Y, wherein .[.B and Y have.]. .Iadd.each substituent has .Iaddend.the same meanings as given informula (a) above.

The preparation of the compounds of formula (a) and of a number of intermediate compounds will now be described in detail in the following nonlimiting

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Procedure A1 (scheme A1):

To a suspension of 1-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-5-yl) piperazine monohydrochloride III-H.HCl (1.1 g, 4.25 mmol) in CH.sub.3CN (40 ml) was added Q4-Cl (1.0 g, 3.87 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (2.45 g, 19 mmol). The mixture was stirred atreflux for 3 hrs. After cooling and evaporation of the solvent in vacuo, the residue was taken up in CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2, washed with 5% NaHCO.sub.3 solution, saturated NaCl, dried (Na.sub.2SO.sub.4), filtered, and evaporated in vacuo. The resulting darkoil was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2/MeOH/NH.sub.4OH, 97.25 /2.5/0.25) to give A8 (0.9 g, 58%) as an oil. The product was converted to its monohydrochloride salt; the residue was dissolved in Et.sub.2O and treatedwith 1 eq. of ethanolic HCl. The product precipitated as a white solid. The solid A8.HCl was collected by filtration and dried: mp 233-5.degree. C., dec; .sup.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO/CDCl.sub.3, 4/1) .delta. (ppm) 3.1-3.6 (cluster, 8H), 4.24 (m, 4H),4.58 (s, 2H), 6.49 (d, 1H, J=8 Hz), 6.55 (d, 1H, J=8 Hz), 6.74 (t, 1H, J=8 Hz), 7.34 (m, 2H), 7.91 (m, 2H), 8.77 (m, 1H), 8.9 (m, 1H), 9.10 (m, 1H), 11.8 (br s, 1 H, NH.sup.+).

Example 2

Procedure A1 (scheme A1):

A suspension of 2-(p-fluorophenyl)-4-bromomethylpyridine Q5-Br (0.71 g, 2.67 mmol), and 1-(2-benzoxazolinone-4-yl) piperazine I-H.HCl (0.58 g, 2.27 mmol) in DMF (20 ml) together with 2.1 equivalents of Et.sub.3N was stirred at room temperaturefor 2 h. The resulting clear solution was concentrated to give a red oil which was purified by flash column chromatography (SiO.sub.2, eluting with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2/MeOH/NH.sub.4OH, 92/7.5/0.5) to give A9 (0.28 g, 26%) as a yellow solid: mp 213-4.degree. C.; .sup.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO/CDCl.sub.3, 4/1) .delta. (ppm) 2.62 (m, 4H), 3.24 (m, 4H), 3.64 (s, 2H), 6.59 (d, 1 H, J=8 Hz), 6.63 (d, 1H, J=8 Hz), 7.01 (t, 1H, J=8 Hz), 7.27 (m, 2H), 7.32 (m, 1H), 7.85 (m, 1H), 8.13 (m, 2H), 8.6 (m, 1H), 11.5 (s, 1H).

According to the syntheses given above, the other compounds A1-A12 were prepared in a similar way.

TABLE-US-00001 TABLE A melting point compound piperazine Q X salt .degree. C. A1 II 1 Cl fb 105-6 A2 III 1 Cl fb 125-6 A3 II 2 Cl fb 132-3 A4 I 2 Cl fb 233-5 A5 III 3 Cl HCl 208 A6 I 4 Cl fb 214-5 A7 I 3 Cl fb 172-3 A8 III 4 Cl HCl 233-5 d A9 I5 Br fb 213-4 A10 III 5 Br 2HCl 162 d A11 III 6 Cl 2HCl 223 d A12 I 6 Cl 2HCl 270-5 d fb = free base, d = decomposition

Example 3

Procedure B1 (scheme B1)

A solution of b1 (1.07 g, 2.75 mmol) and Pd(PPh.sub.3).sub.4 (0.1 g, 0.08 mmol) in DME (5 ml) was stirred at room temperature for 10 minutes under a N.sub.2 atmosphere. Then 2-thiopheneboronic acid (0.39 g, 3.0 mmol) and an aqueous solution ofNa.sub.2CO.sub.3 (2.75 ml of a 2M solution) were consecutively added and the mixture was allowed to react at reflux temperature for 1 hr. The solution was cooled, diluted with H.sub.2O, and extracted with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2. The organic phase wasevaporated to dryness in vacuo to give the crude product B1, which was purified by flash chromatography (CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2/MeOH, 98/2) and then converted to its monohydrochloride salt to obtain B1.HCl (0.8 g, 74%) as a white solid: mp 160.degree. C.,dec., material turned sticky; .sup.1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl.sub.3) .delta. (ppm) 3.0-3.8 (br b , 8H, NH.sup.+, H.sub.2O), 4.25 (m, 4H), 4.63 (br s, 2H), 6.54 (d, 1H, J=8 Hz), 6.64 (d, 1H, J=8 Hz), 6.75 (t, 1H, J=8 Hz), 7.14 (m, 1H), 7.43 (d, 1H, J=5 Hz),7.74 (m, 1H).

According to the synthesis given above, the compounds B2-B3 were prepared in a similar way.

TABLE-US-00002 TABLE B melting point compound piperazine Q salt .degree. C. B1 III 7 HCl turns sticky at 160 B2 III 8 HCl 224-5 B3 III 9 HCl 238-9

Intermediates used in route A Intermediates Q--X: Q1-Cl:

This intermediate was synthesized as depicted in scheme A2: ##STR00011## Step i (scheme A2):

This step was carried out analogously to the procedure described in J. Het. Chem., 12, (1975), 443, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

Step ii (scheme A2):

While stirring at room temperature, 4.8 g *28.5 mmol) of 2-phenyl-6-methyl-pyridine were dissolved in 50 ml of chloroform after which a solution of 7.8 g of 75% mCPBA (33.9 mmol) in 75 ml of chloroform were added dropwise. The reaction mixtureshowed only a slight rise in temperature. After stirring for 1.5 hr, the reaction mixture was shaken twice with 5% aqueous NaHCO.sub.3 solution and twice with an aqueous solution of Na.sub.2S.sub.2O.sub.3 to remove the excess of mCPBA, after which thereaction mixture proved to be negative on wet Kl/starch paper, The organic layer was dried on MgSO.sub.4. Removal of the drying agent by filtration and solvent by evaporation in vacuo yielded an oil which crystallized upon scratching to give 5.5 g(105%) of crude of 2-phenyl-6-methyl-pyridine-N-oxide, which was employed in the next step without further purification.

Step iii (scheme A2):

A stirred solution of the crude 2-phenyl-6-methyl-pyridine-N-oxide (5.2 g, 28.5 mmol) in Ac.sub.2O (25 ml) was heated at reflux temperature for 2 hrs. The Ac.sub.2O was removed with the aid of an oil pump (10 mm) at 40.degree. C. to yield a redoil which was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel with Et.sub.2O/petroleum benzine=1/1 as the eluent and yielded 2-phenyl-6-(acetoxymethyl)-pyridine (4.6 g, 70%) as an oil.

Step iv (scheme A2:)

4.5 g of 2-phenyl-6-(acetoxymethyl)-pyridine (20 mmol) was treated with an aqueous HCl solution (15%, 10 ml) and the mixture was heated at reflux temperature while stirring. After 30 minutes the reaction mixture was concentrated with the aid ofan oil pump (10 mm) at 40.degree. C., CH.sub.3CN was added, and the mixture was evaporated to dryness in vacuo and yielded 2-phenyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-pyridine (3.0 g, 80%) as an oil.

Step v (scheme A2):

To a stirred solution of 2-phenyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-pyridine (1.0 g, 5.4 mmol) in CHCl.sub.3 (7 ml) at room temperature was added dropwise SOCl.sub.2 (1.22 g, 10.2 mmol) and the mixture was heated at 60.degree. C. for 20 minutes. Afterevaporation of the solvent in vacuo, the residue was purified by trituration with Et.sub.2O. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtrition and dried to give 2-phenyl-6-(chloromethyl)-pyridinium chloride Q1-Cl (1.2 g, 92%) as a white solid.

Q2-Cl:

Q2-Cl was prepared analogously to the synthesis of Q1-Cl.

Q3-Cl

Q3-Cl was prepared analogously to the synthesis of Q4-Cl (vide infra).

Q4-Cl:

This intermediate was synthesized as depicted in scheme A3: ##STR00012## Step i (scheme A3);

A stirred mixture of 3-bromo-5-pyridine-carboxylic acid (10.1 g, 50 mmol) and H.sub.2SO.sub.4 (1.5 ml) in EtOH (150 ml) was refluxed for 6 hrs. After cooling, the solvent was removed by evaporation in vacuo. The residue as diluted with H.sub.2O(100 ml), basified with 5% NaHCO.sub.3 (aq) solution and extracted with ether (4.times.100 ml). The combined organic extracts were washed with saturated NaCl and dried over Na.sub.2SO.sub.4. Filtration and concentration in vacuo of the filtrate yielded3-bromo-5-pyridine-carboxylic acid ethyl ester as an oil that solidified on standing: (9.8 g, 85%).

Step ii (scheme A3):

To a stirred solution of 3-bromo-5-pyridine-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (9.5 g, 41.3 mmol) in EtOH (96%, 220 ml), NaBH.sub.4 (14.4 g, 380 mmol) was added slowly at 25.degree. C.

The reaction was mildly endothermic. The mixture was stirred under an nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature for 6 hrs. The resulting milky mixture was diluted with H.sub.2O (150 ml), the EtOH was evaporated in vacuo and the residue wasextracted with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (3.times.). The combined organic layers were dried on Na.sub.2SO.sub.4. After filtration the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give 9 g of a crude oil which was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (eluent:Et.sub.2O) to give 3-bromo-5-hydroxymethyl-pyridine (3.5 g, 45%).

Step iii (scheme A3):

To a solution of 3-bromo-5-hydroxymethyl-pyridine (3.3 g, 17.5 mmol) in toluene (35 ml) was added Pd(PPh.sub.3).sub.4 (0.6 g, 0.52 mmol), an aqueous solution of Na.sub.2CO.sub.3 (17.5 ml of a 2M solution) and p-fluorphenylboronic acid (2.65 g, 19mmol, dissolved in 8.5 ml EtOH). The mixture was heated at 80-90.degree. C. for 1 hr and vigorously stirred. After the reaction was completed, the biphasic reaction mixture was cooled, the organic layer was collected and washed with saturated NaCl. The aqueous layer was washed with EtOAc and the combined organic layers were dried on Na.sub.2SO.sub.4. The drying agent was removed by filtration and the solvent was evaporated in vacuo to give a dark oil which was purified by flash chromatography onsilica gel (eluent: CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2/MeOH/NH.sub.4OH, 95/4.5/0.5) and yielded 3-(p-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyl-pyridine (3.0 g, 84%). The product was converted into its monohydrochloride salt; the residue was dissolved in Et.sub.2O and treated with16.5 eq of ethanolic HCl. The product 3-(p-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyl-pyridinium hydrochloride Q4-OH.HCl precipitated as a white solid which was collected by filtration and subsequent drying.

Step iv (scheme A3):

3-(p-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyl-pyridinium hydrochloride Q4-OH.HCl (3.5 g, 14.7 mmol) was added to an excess of SOCl.sub.2 (20 ml) and the mixture was heated at 60.degree. C. to start the reaction (generation of HCl). After completeconversion of the starting material (45 min), the reaction mixture was cooled and excess SOCl.sub.2 was removed in vacuo to leave a dry residue. Crystallization from Et.sub.2O provided 3-(p-fluorophenyl)-5-chloromethyl-pyridinium hydrochloride Q4-Cl.HCl(2.5 g, 66%).

Q5-Br:

The synthesis of Q5-Br is depicted in scheme A4: ##STR00013## Step i (scheme A4):

A solution of 2-bromo-4-methyl-pyridine (10 g, 58 mmol) and Pd(PPh.sub.3).sub.4 (1.5 g, 1.3 mmol) in toluene (110 ml) was stirred at room temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently an aqueous solution of Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 (58 ml of a2M solution) and p-fluorophenylboronic acid (8.93 g, 63.8 mmol) were added and the resulting mixture was allowed to react at 90-100.degree. C. for 4 hrs. The mixture was cooled, the aqueous layer was separated and extracted with EtOAc (2.times.). Thecombined EtOAc and toluene fractions were dried on MgSO.sub.4. Filtration of the drying agent and removal of the solvent in vacuo yielded a pink oil (28 g). Distillation gave pure 2-(p-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-pyridine (6.10 g, 56%); bp 110-116.degree. C. (6-7 mbar) as a colorless oil.

Step ii (scheme A4):

A mixture of 2-(p-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-pyridine (0.5 g, 2.67 mmol), N-bromosuccinimide (0.48 g, 2.69 mmol), and a catalytic amount of benzoylperoxide in CCl.sub.4 (50 ml) was stirred at reflux temperature and irradiated by means of an ordinary250-W UV lamp for 4 hrs. Afterwards, the reaction mixture was cooled and subsequently triturated with Et.sub.2O/petroleum benzine. The precipitate was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give2-(p-fluorophenyl)-4-bromomethyl-pyridine (0.63 g, 88%, unstable) as a dark yellow oil.

Q6-Cl:

Scheme A5

The intermediate Q6-Cl was synthesized according to the scheme given below (scheme A5): ##STR00014## Step i (scheme A5):

4-(p-fluorophenyl)pyridine (13 g, 75 mmol) was dissolved in glacial acetic acid (100%; 50 ml) at 70-80.degree. C. Subsequently H.sub.2O.sub.2 (35%; 8 ml) was added while stirring. After 4 hrs an additional portion of H.sub.2O.sub.2 (35%; 5 ml)was added. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool after which it was evaporated to dryness in vacuo leaving a yellow solid which was diluted with H.sub.2O (150 ml), basified with an aqueous solution of NaOH (150 ml of a 2M solution), and extractedwith CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2 (100 ml). The organic layer was separated and dried on Na.sub.2SO.sub.4. After removal of the drying agent by filtration and evaporation of the solvent in vacuo, 13 g (91%) of the desired product 4-(p-fluorophenyl)pyridine-N-oxidewere isolated.

Step ii (scheme A5):

To 13 g of .sup.4-(p-fluorophenyl)pyridine-N-oxide (68.7 mmol) was added Me.sub.2SO.sub.4 (8.6 g, 68 mmol) at 80.degree. C. under an N.sub.2 atmosphere after which the mixture was stirred a 100-110.degree. C. for 2 hrs. The mixture was cooledand 70% dioxan/water was poured into the reaction mixture. The obtained dark brown solution was added dropwise to a stirred solution of NaCN (10 g, 0.20 mol) in H.sub.2O (85 ml) at 15-20.degree. C. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 hrs. The reaction mixture was filtered, the residue was washed with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2, which was added to the biphasic filtrate. The organic layer of the filtrate was dried on Na.sub.2SO.sub.4. Removal of the drying agent by filtration and evaporation of thesolvent in vacuo, yielded the desired compound as a light brown solid which was purified by crystallization from EtOH (300 ml) to provide 2-cyano-4-(p-fluorophenyl)pyridine (8.6 g, 68%): mp 194-195.degree. C.

Step iii (scheme A5):

A stirred solution of 2-cyano-4-(p-fluorophenyl)pyridine (8.6 g, 46.7 mmol) in saturated HCl-MeOH (200 ml) was allowed to react at reflux temperature for 6 hrs. The resulting pink solution was concentrated in vacuo to a volume of approximately50 ml, after which it was diluted with 250 ml of water. The latter solution was basified with an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4OH (25%), and extracted with CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2. The organic layer was dried on Na.sub.2SO.sub.4. Removal of the drying agent byfiltration and evaporation of the solvent in vacuo, yielded the desired product 4-(p-fluorophenyl)pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester as a pink solid (5.0 g, 46%): mp 97-8.degree. C.

Step iv (scheme A5):

NaBH.sub.4 (8.2 g, 0.2 mol) was added portionwise to a stirred solution of 4-(p-fluorophenyl)pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (5.0 g, 21.6 mmol) in EtOH (96%, 100 ml) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 hrs. The solventwas removed at reduced pressure after which water was added. Subsequently extraction with EtOAc took place. The organic layer was dried on MgSO.sub.4. Removal of the drying agent and evaporation of the solvent in vacuo yielded an oil which wasdissolved in MeOH and treated with 1.1 eq. HCl/EtOH to afford 2-hydroxymethyl-4-(p-fluorophenyl)pyridinium hydrochloride Q6-OH.HCl as a yellow foam (4.47 g, 87%).

Step v (scheme A5):

This reaction was performed analogously to step iv in scheme A3.

Intermediates used in route B.

Intermediate b1:

This intermediate was synthesized as depicted in scheme B2: ##STR00015## Step i (scheme B2):

To a suspension of 1-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-5-yl)piperazine monohydrochloride (5.4g, 21 mmol) in CH.sub.3CN (125 mmol) was added 3-bromo-5-chloromethyl-pyridine (4.6 g, 19 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (12.3 g, 95 mmol). The mixture wasstirred at reflux temperature for 30 min. After cooling of the mixture and evaporation of the solvent in vacuo, the residue was taken up in (CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2, washed with 5% NaHCO.sub.3 (aq) solution, saturated NaCl (aq) solution after which the organicfraction was dried on Na.sub.2SO.sub.4. After removal of the drying agent by filtration and solvent by evaporation in vacuo, the residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH.sub.2Cl.sub.2/MeOH/NH.sub.4OH, 97.25/2.5/0.25) to give b1(7.2 g, 97%) as an oil.

* * * * *
 
 
  Recently Added Patents
Stackable via package and method
Optical reflector assemblies for use optical rotary joints
Implantable medical device charging
Method for forming thin film pattern and flat display device having the same
Lamp
Multiple channel distributed system and method
Control apparatus, communication control method executed by the control apparatus, communication control program controlling the control apparatus, and data processing system
  Randomly Featured Patents
Methods and systems for medication management
Separation of light gases from halogens
Search techniques for page-based document layouts
Roofing washer-dispensing and fastener-driving machine
Image display system and method
Benchmark profiling for distributed systems
Up and down directional signal for an elevator
Tool for cleansing tooth root canals
Traction enhancing system
Wire winding device for a high power level transformer