Chrysanthemum plant named Yellow Nicole
||Chrysanthemum plant named Yellow Nicole
||May 31, 1994
||November 25, 1992
||VandenBerg; Cornelis P. (Salinas, CA)
||Yoder Brothers, Inc. (Barberton, OH)|
||Locker; Howard J.
|Attorney Or Agent:
||Foley & Lardner
|Field Of Search:
|U.S Patent Documents:
||PP5986; PP6613; PP7423; PP7577; PP7578; 4616099
|Foreign Patent Documents:
||Chan, 1966, "Chrysanthemum and rose mutations induced by X-rays", Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc., pp. 613-620..
Broertjes, 1966, "Mutation breeding of chrysanthemums", Euphytica, 15:156-162..
Dowrick, et al., 1966, "The induction of mutations in chrysanthemum using X- and gamma radiation", Euphytica, 15:204-210..
Broertjes, et al., 1980, "A mutant of a mutant of a . . . Irradiation of progressive radiation-induced mutants in a mutation breeding programme with C. morifolium," Euphytica, 29:525-530..
Gosling, ed., 1979, "The Chrysanthemum Manual--6th edition", The National Chrysanthemum Society, London, Essex Telegraph Press, Ltd.; pp. 329-336..
Broertjes, et al., 1978, "Application of Mutation Breeding Methods in the Improvement of Vegetatively Propagated Crops", Elsevier Sci. Pub. Co., New York, pp. 162-175..
Searle, et al., 1968, "Chrysanthemums the Year Round", Blanford Press, London, pp. 27-29, 320-327..
||A Chrysanthemum plant named Yellow Nicole particularly characterized by its flat capitulum form; decorative capitulum type; yellow ray floret color; diameter across face of capitulum of 57 to 64 mm when fully opened; branching pattern is spreading and prolific, with 7 to 9 breaks after pinch when grown outside under natural daylength in fall flowerings, and 6 breaks after pinch when grown in 10 cm pots for spring flowerings; natural season flower date of August 14 to 20 when planting rooted cuttings on June 25 in Salinas, Calif., and September 15 to 21 when planting rooted cuttings June 15 in Hightstown, N.J.; flowering response of 45 to 48 days after rooting in no light/no shade programs in spring in Salinas, Calif.; plant height of 23 to 28 cm when grown in fall under natural daylength with no growth regulators, and 13 to 15 cm when grown in 10 cm pots in spring with 1 application of 2500 ppm B-9 SP; and durable, uniform performance.
1. A new and distinct Chrysanthemum plant named Yellow Nicole, as described and illustrated.
||The present invention comprisesa new and distinct cultivar of Chrysanthemum, botanically known as Dendranthema grandiflora, and referred to by the cultivar name Yellow Nicole.
Yellow Nicole, identified as 8424 (85-033B01), is a product of a mutation induction program. The new cultivar was discovered and selected by Cornelis P. VandenBerg on Nov. 13, 1989, in a controlled environment in Salinas, Calif. as oneflowering plant within a flowering block established as rooted cuttings from stock plants which had been exposed as unrooted cuttings to an X-ray source of 1500 rads in Fort Myers, Fla. on Jun. 8, 1989. The irradiated parent cultivar was the cultivaridentified as Nicole, disclosed in U.S. Plant Pat. No. 7,517. Nicole is described as a flat decorative spray pot mum and garden mum with a white ray floret color and a light yellow center of capitulum; diameter across face of capitulum of 44 to 64 mmwhen fully opened; spreading and prolific branching pattern, with 7 to 10 branches after pinch; average natural season flower date of August 13 to 26 in Salinas, Calif. and September 16 to 27 in Hightstown, N.J.; photoperiodic flowering response toshort days in photoperiodic controlled flowering programs of 45 to 49 days; and durable, uniform performance. The above description of Nicole has a slightly wider range of values than disclosed in U.S. Plant Pat. No. 7,517 for Nicole, based oncontinued flower trials after the application for Nicole was filed.
The irradiation program resulting in Yellow Nicole had as its primary objective the expansion of color ranges of the parent cultivar Nicole. The irradiation program comprised irradiating cuttings of the parent cultivar at irradiation levels of1500, 1750 and 2000 rads. A total of 1412 cuttings harvested from a total of 225 irradiated plants were planted on Sep. 11, Sep. 4 and Aug. 21, 1989, respectively. Of these, 23 initial selections were made, which selections were then revegetated andreflowered. Four consecutive flowerings resulted in discarding 20 of the original 23 selections on Aug. 29, 1990. One selection never revegetated and was discarded on Feb. 13, 1990. Two selections were maintained as PIs (Possible Introductions) andtrialed for one year, ultimately resulting in the decision to introduce selection 8424 as Yellow Nicole and selection 8417 as Cream Nicole the latter being disclosed in applicant's pending application Ser. No. 07/982,951.
The first act of asexual reproduction of Yellow Nicole was accomplished when vegetative cuttings were taken from the initial selection in December 1989 in a controlled environment in Salinas, Calif., by technicians working under supervision ofCornelis P. VandenBerg.
Horticultural examination of controlled flowerings of successive plantings has shown that the unique combination of characteristics as herein disclosed for Yellow Nicole are firmly fixed and are retained through successive generations of asexualreproduction.
Yellow Nicole has not been observed under all possible environmental conditions. The phenotype may vary significantly with variations in environment such as temperature, light intensity and daylength, without, however, any variance in genotype.
The following observations, measurements and comparisons describe plants grown in controlled open areas in Salinas, Calif., and in Hightstown, N.J. Rooted cuttings were established in soil and maintained outdoors under the natural temperatureand daylength prevailing during June through October. Spring flowerings were conducted in Salinas, Calif. under greenhouse conditions which approximate those generally used in commercial practice for small pot spring garden mum production.
The following traits have been repeatedly observed and are determined to be basic characteristics of Yellow Nicole, which, in combination, distinguish this Chrysanthemum as a new and distinct cultivar:
1. Flat capitulum form.
2. Decorative capitulum type.
3. Yellow ray floret color.
4. Diameter across face of capitulum of 57 to 64 mm when fully opened.
5. Branching pattern is spreading and prolific, with 7 to 9 breaks after pinch when grown outside under natural daylength in fall flowerings, and 6 breaks after pinch when grown in 10 cm pots for spring flowerings.
6. Natural season flower date of August 14 to 20 when planting rooted cuttings on June 25 in Salinas, Calif., and September 15 to 21 when planting rooted cuttings June 15 in Hightstown, N.J.
7. Flowering response of 45 to 48 days after rooting in no light/no shade programs in spring.
8. Plant height of 23 to 28 cm when grown in fall under natural daylength with no growth regulators, and 13 to 15 cm when grown in 10 cm pots in spring with 1 application of 2500 ppm B-9 SP.
9. Durable, uniform performance.
The accompanying photographic drawing is a color photograph of Yellow Nicole grown as a pinched garden mum under natural season outside conditions in Salinas, Calif., with the colors being as nearly trueas possible with illustrations of this type.
Of the commercial cultivars known to the inventor, the most similar in comparison to Yellow Nicole is the parent cultivar Nicole. In the above description of Yellow Nicole the ranges of values forYellow Nicole are much narrower than the ranges of values given for Nicole. This is based on the fact that Nicole was flowered over many years, while Yellow Nicole was flowered over a period of only one and a half years. Most traits of Yellow Nicoleare similar to those of Nicole, except for the ray floret color. The ray floret color of Yellow Nicole is yellow, while the ray floret color of Nicole is white with a light yellow center of capitulum. No additional differences when compared with Nicolehave been noted.
In comparison with Cream Nicole, Yellow Nicole has a 3-4 mm larger diameter of capitulum and an approximately 3 cm taller plant height.
In the following description color references are made to the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart. The color values were determined on plant material grown as a pinched garden mum grown under natural season outside conditions in Salinas,Calif. on Aug. 14, 1992.
Botanical.--Dendranthema grandiflora cv Yellow Nicole.
Commercial.--Flat decorative spray pot mum and garden mum.
Diameter across face.--57 to 64 mm when fully opened.
B. Corolla of ray florets:
Color (general tonality from a distance of three meters).--Yellow.
Color (upper surface).--8A, maturing on outer petals to 8B and 8C.
Color (under surface).--8B.
Shape.--Flat, straight, oblong.
C. Corolla of disc florets: Not present.
D. Reproductive organs:
Gynoecium.--Present on ray florets.
A. General appearance:
Height.--23 to 28 cm when grown in fall under natural daylength with no growth regulators, and 13 to 15 cm when grown in 10 cm pots in spring with 1 application of 2500 ppm B-9 SP.
Branching pattern.--Spreading and prolific, with 7 to 9 breaks after pinch when grown outside under natural daylength in fall flowerings, and 6 breaks after pinch when grown in 10 cm pots for spring flowerings.
Color (upper surface).--147A.
Color (under surface).--147B.
Shape.--Lobed, slightly serrated; see photograph.
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