Apple variety Jonagold de Coster
||Apple variety Jonagold de Coster
||December 1, 1992
||November 29, 1990
||Swillen; Georges M. (Wersbeek, BE)
||The De Coster Group (Molenbeek-Wersbeek, BE)|
||Feyrer; James R.
|Attorney Or Agent:
||Farley; Eugene D.
|Field Of Search:
|U.S Patent Documents:
||PP5937; PP6148; PP7146; PP7590
|Foreign Patent Documents:
||Goddrie, P. D., et al., Jonagold Color Varieties, Proefstation Voor de Fruittelt, Wilhelmindorp, Belgium, Nov. 1990, 24 pages..
||The Jonagold De Coster strain of Jonagold apple tree characterized particularly by the bright red color of its fruit, the high color percentage of its fruit, and by its freedom from virus infection.
1. The new and distinct variety of apple tree as described and illustrated characterized particularly by the unique color of its fruit, by its unique virus free condition from inception,and characterized further by its high percentage of early first pick, a vigorous and highly productive tree growth habit, good fruit storage properties, and superior fruit flavor.
||Thisinvention relates to a new and distinct variety of apple tree named Jonagold De Coster, sometimes denominated "Decosta".
The new apple variety was discovered in a cultivated orchard located in MOLENBEEK-WERSBEEK, Hageland, Belgium as a spontaneous whole tree mutation of Jonagold (Unpatented). Neither this tree nor its parent had been treated in any manner designedto induce sports.
The new apple tree cultivar was one of the block of apple trees propagated on M9 rootstock with Jonagold budwood. Its most unique characteristic is its desirable fruit color.
With respect to fruit color, Jonagold De Coster exhibits a higher degree of color development than standard Jonagold. Although as the percentage of red color on the fruit increases with the season, the shade of red color remains throughout theseason the bright wind red color that standard Jonagold is known for. Its color characteristics may best be summarized in the following Table.
______________________________________ Jonagold De Coster Jonagored Jonagold ______________________________________ Early color Similar to Brownish brown- Light develop- Standard red color through- green to ment of Jonagold with out thegrowing dark green fruit some pink to season, darkening red additional and redening in color visible early September from July through early September Fruit finish Very bright wine Dark red to brown Bright, color - red tone similar red; 821Currant wine red shade to standard red to 822 Cardinal with white Jonagold with no red, RHCCL to yellow brown tones. background Finish tone is between 818 Jasper red and 818 Orient red, RHCCL Fruit finish Many fruits Many fruits with Many color - % with 85%-95% 85-95% red color, fruits red color, some some apples with 20- light stripes blush finish, 30% red others bold color stripes stripes over a white to yellow back- ground ______________________________________ RubinstarDaliguy Jonica ______________________________________ Early color Starts very Light green Light green develop- early- at the dark green ment of end August in fruit a brownish way Fruit finish Transforms from Bright wine- Brown to color - browninto dark red with pink-red shade red white to yellow back- ground Fruit finish Many fruits Many fruits Many fruit color - % with 90-100% with 30-40% colors red color red color with 70% stripes over in a pink- a white to red. yellow back-Others stay ground with brownish more inten- pink red sity than standard ______________________________________
RHCCL -- Royal Horticultural Colour Chart of London
With respect to virus, both the budwood and rootstock of the original mutation were controlled by the N.A.K.B. of Holland and labeled as virus free. The current scion wood in the U.S.A. also is virus free, as certified by the Washington StateDepartment of Agriculture.
The new apple tree variety has been asexually propagated through three generations and its new characteristics shown to be stable and reproducible.
The three generations have been asexually propagated through T-budding and benchgrafting onto certified virus-free rootstocks. The trees of the first, second and third generation and 10,000 control trees in their second leaf in an orchard atDronten, Holland have been controlled individually by the staff of the Belgian National Research Station, the Dutch Fruit Advisory Team, and the staff of the Dutch Government Research Bureau.
More than 150,000 trees produced apples in 1991 in orchards planted in Belgium, The Netherlands, France, and North, South and Eastern Germany. All the apples so produced were checked and found to be of uniform and stable color.
Also, the trees have been planted and observed in all of the research stations supervising apple variety trials in Europe. These stations are located in Velm, Belgium; Wilhelminadorp, Zeewolde, Numansdorp, Horst, Geldermalsen, The Netherlands;York, Ahrweiler, and Bavendorf, Germany; Haidegg, Austria; Laimburg, Italy; Angers, Marsillarges, France, and elsewhere in the world. In all of these stations Jonagold De Coster has been named among the best mutations of Jonagold.
FIG. 1 is a view of the Jonagold De Coster apple tree variety of my discovery shown as it was discovered between a pair of standard Jonagold apple trees of the same stock, growing in the same block of trees.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of the new variety, illustrating the manner in which it was grown in Belgium, slender spindle fashion, with wide branch angles.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged view illustrating the appearance and color of the mature fruits of the new apple tree variety.
FIG. 4 is a comparative display of the fruits of the new apple variety in a mature state comparing them, with particular reference to color, with the standard Jonagold apple variety and the Jonagored apple variety in the same mature state.
FIGS. 5 and 6 are elevational and sectional views, respectively of the new variety.
FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 are detailed views of the reference Jonagold strains, Jonagored, Rubinstar and Jonica.
FIGS. 10, 11 and 12 are comparative displays illustrating the appearance of the new apple variety in comparison with that of the reference Jonagold mutations Jonagored, Rubinstar and Jonica.
In greater detail, the characteristics of thenewly discovered Jonagold De Coster apple tree variety are as follows:
Tree: Upright, rather vigorous with wide spreading branches, medium in size, not as strong as Golden Delicious.
Bearing habit.--Medium size, regular annular bearer, highly productive.
Trunk.--Thick, upright, smooth, gray color.
Branches.--Moderately thick, strong wide angles, very spreading, smooth gray bark.
Leaves.--Very large, medium to dark green with green veins.
Spurs.--Strong, closely set.
Bark.--Gray, a somewhat lighter shade than standard Jonagold. This contrasts with the bark of the Jonagored variety which is a darker shade of brown than that of standard Jonagold.
Disease status.--Virus free; susceptible to scab and mildew.
Vigor.--The same as standard virus-free Jonagold. This compares with the vigor of Jonagored which is 15-30% less than standard due to the expression of apple rubbery wood virus.
Productivity.--Same as virus free Jonagold, but greater than Jonagored.
Pollination.--Bloom is mid-season. The variety is triploid with sterile pollen. Can be pollinated by: Alkmene, Benoni, Cox's Orange Pippin, Delcorf, Discovery, Elan, Elise, Elstar, Fiesta, Gala, Gloster, James Grieve, Lombarts Calville,Melrose, Rafzubin, Vista Bella, Zoeta Oranje.
Shape.--Large fruit, high conical shape with the thickest point at half of the height, often leaning over going to the calyx end, very slightly ribbed.
Stem.--Long, 25 to 35 mm, thin.
Cavity.--Medium, obtuse, broad, shallow, light russet on some.
Calyx.--Large to medium large, closed, quite shallow.
Lobes.--Medium, broad, obtuse.
Basin.--Medium, wide obtuse, furrowed.
Skin.--Smooth, glossy, medium thickness and toughness.
Color.--Uniform bright wine red up into calyx and cavity, background color is yellow to light red, uniform pink-reddish nature begins in July covering a major portion of the fruit (80-95%) with finishing tone appearing in early September.
Lenticels.--Numerous, tan, obscure, almost invisible, very small points.
Calyx tube.--Long, narrow, funnel-shaped.
Core.--Small and round, closed.
Seeds.--Large, wide, tan to auburn.
Flesh.--White-yellow to yellow, firm, crisp, medium texture, juicy, sweet to aromatic-sour taste with outstanding flavor.
Quality.--Very good to excellent.
Storage.--Can be stored in regular cold storage until January and in ultra-low oxygen storage until July.
Further comparisons of the characteristics of my new apple variety Jonagold De Coster with standard Jonagold and the more significant Jonagold mutants, Jonagored, Rubinstar, Daliguy and Jonica (Schneica) are tabulated as follows:
TABLE I ______________________________________ Tree Jonagold De Coster Jonagored ______________________________________ growth upright vigorous rather vigorous Bearing habit regular annual bearer regular annual bearer Trunk andmoderately thick moderately thick branches No spur growth bark color grey dark brown vigor same as standard VF Jonagored grows 5-10% more than standard VF productivity 100% 90% ______________________________________ Tree Standard VF Jonagold Rubinstar ______________________________________ growth upright less upright less vigorous much less vigorous Bearing habit tendency to biannual regular annual bearer Trunk and moderately thick thin branches bark color dark grey very dark grey vigor virusinfected grows 10% less than Standard VF productivity 100% 80% ______________________________________ Tree Daliguy Jonica ______________________________________ growth upright less upright less vigorous much less vigorous Bearing habit tendency to biannual regular annual bearer Trunk and moderately thick tin branches bark color dark grey grey vigor same as VF grows Standard VF 10% less than Standard VF productivity 90% 80% ______________________________________
TABLE II ______________________________________ PICKING DATE % FIRST PICK ______________________________________ Jonagold De Coster 9.19.1990 65.8 Jonagored 9.19.1990 61.8 Standard Jonagold 9.19.1990 20.0 Rubinstar 9.24.1990 86.5 Daliguy 9.19.1990 30.0 Jonica 9.26.1990 60.9 ______________________________________
TABLE III ______________________________________ Fruit Jonagold De Coster Jonagored ______________________________________ Shape not as large more very large uniform in size not uniform globose conical size oblongconical Stem long long Calyx quite shallow shallow closed some half-open Cavity broad rather small medium deep medium to little deep Skin smooth smooth Color uniform wine-red dark red to background green purple to yellow when little to no ripe little background striping striping Lenticels numerous numerous Calyx tube long narrow long narrow Core small and round small and round Seeds large wide large wide Flesh white yellowish yellowish ______________________________________ Fruit Standard Jonagold Rubinstar ______________________________________ Shape large smaller not uniform in size more uniform in size globose conical flat globose Stem Long medium long Calyx shallow quite shallow some half-open some half-open Cavity broad broad mediumto deep medium deep Skin smooth very smooth Color tomato red with a unform dark green to yellow red with very background little green little stripes background Lenticels less less Calyx tube not so long narrow long narrow Core small and roundnot small, and flat Seeds large wide very small and very thin Flesh yellowish yellowish ______________________________________ Fruit Daliguy Jonica ______________________________________ Shape large rather large not uniform in size not uniform globose conical in size flat globose Stem long medium long Calyx shallow shallow some half-open closed Cavity broad rather small medium to deep medium to little deep Skin smooth very smooth Color intense tomato red dull brown red with a greento to pink red yellow background with green to yellow background Lenticels less less Calyx tube not so long, narrow short wide Core small and round not small and flat Seeds large wide very large, very wide Flesh yellowish white yellowish ______________________________________
TABLE IV ______________________________________ Blooming period muta- 1989 1990 1991 tion A B C A B C A B C ______________________________________ Jona- 5/02 5/05 5/14 4/12 4/16 5/09 4/17 4/26 5/13 gold De- Coster Jona- 4/20 4/29 5/144/11 4/15 5/08 4/16 4/23 5/09 gored Jonica 4/19 5/02 5/15 4/11 4/17 5/07 4/15 4/23 5/08 Rubin- 4/19 5/02 5/14 4/11 4/16 5/08 4/17 4/23 5/09 star ______________________________________ A: bloom start B: full bloom C: end of bloom
TABLE V ______________________________________ Trunk growth in cm on rootstock M9 Planting Mutation date 1989 1990 1991 total ______________________________________ Jonica 1988 3.22 1.65 3.41 8.28 Jonagored replanted 2.18 1.49 3.63 7.30 1988 Rubinstar replanted 1.16 1.30 2.84 5.30 1988 Jonica replanted 0.97 1.34 2.84 5.15 Jonagold 1989 2.56 2.22 3.46 8.24 De Coster ______________________________________ Trunk diameter is measured 30 cm above the ground.
TABLE VI ______________________________________ Taste Total value for internal: 2 .times. aroma + 2 .times. sour-sweet propor- characteristics tion + 2 .times. firmness + 2 .times. juiciness Sour-Sweet Firm- Total Mutant Aroma proportion ness Juiciness Value ______________________________________ Jonica 5,48 .+-. 5,87 .+-. 0,41 5,88 .+-. 6,36 .+-. 0,42 47,19 .+-. 0,44* 0,33 2,57 Decoster 5,65 .+-. 6,26 .+-. 0,41 6,32 .+-. 6,25 .+-. 0,49 48,96 .+-. 0,41 0,34 2,62 Rubinstar 5,39 .+-. 6,0 .+-. 0,40 6,09 .+-. 6,43 .+-. 0,42 47,83 .+-. 0,41 0,38 2,38 Jonagored 5,30 .+-. 5,43 .+-. 0,45 5,68 .+-. 5,67 .+-. 0,44 44,17 .+-. 0,40 0,38 2,56 ______________________________________
TABLE VII ______________________________________ Surface Color Group Mutant Identification Mark ______________________________________ Group 1 Jonica Bright-red blush with green ground color Group 2 De Coster Group in between from bright-red to dark-red with green ground color Group 3 Jonagored Dark-red; little to no green ground color ______________________________________
TABLE VIII ______________________________________ COMPARISON OF JONAGOLDMUTANTS (Selective sample of 5 apples) ______________________________________ Appearance: * Color: Jonica: uniform colored, dull brown red, the color changes graduallyfrom green to red, the green side is green over the whole length. Jonagored: dark red to purple, striped, almost no green color, change from green to red is very diffuse. Rubinstar: uniform dark red, little green ground color, change from green to red is diffuse. DeCoster: between bright and dark red, lightly striped, change from red to green is diffuse and not over the whole length. Lenticels: DeCoster & Jonagored have many lenticels; Rubinstar and Jonica have a moderate number oflenticels. Shape: Jonica and Rubinstar are rounded quadrangular; Jonagored: asymetrical DeCoster: a little higher, a little sloping. Average number of pips: Jonica: 3,0 Jonagored: 2,6 Rubinstar: 4,0 DeCoster: 2,6 Diameter of core: Jonica:2,76 cm Jonagored: 2,88 cm Rubinstar: 3,18 cm DeCoster: 3,0 cm Jonagored Height Width Height/Width 72,84 82,02 0,89 66,09 75,31 0,88 69,70 77,22 0,50 76,77 84,12 0,91 74,01 78,95 0,94 0,90 = Average Dark red to purple-red colored stripedcoloring little to no green ground color nose mostly red colored many lenticels. Rubinstar Height Width Height/Width 78,24 80,86 0,97 69,72 75,92 0,92 74,64 81,60 0,91 78,13 78,76 0,99 75,98 78,93 0,96 0,95 = Average Dark red (in 1991 lessdark than in 1989 and 1990) homogeneously colored little to no green ground color moderate number of lenticels. DeCoster Height Width Height/Width 67,07 71,52 0,94 73,50 75,60 0,97 69,38 78,78 0,88 68,86 75,16 0,92 67,15 79,25 0.85 0,91 =Average Between bright red and dark red striped coloring much surface is green colored at one side less high many lenticels. Jonica Height Width Height/Width 68,48 73,05 0,94 72,46 75,69 0,96 70,94 74,77 0,95 68,82 74,56 0,92 72,32 79,26 0,91 0,94 = Average Bright red homogeneously colored moderate number of lenticels nose may be green much surface is green colored. ______________________________________ (Source: Gegevens van de Nationale Proeftuin voor Grootfruit, SintTruiden
In summary, the unique characteristics of my newly discovered apple tree variety Jonagold De Coster are as follows:
The unique and striking color of the fruit, between dark and bright red.
Its original and continued virus free-status.
A high percentage of early first pick.
A vigorous and highly productive tree growth habit, creating a large tree volume with a very large potential fruit-bearing surface, which is well used.
Good fruit storage properties.
Superior fruit flavor.
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