Strawberry plant named `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans`
||Strawberry plant named `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans`
||July 18, 2006
||September 16, 2004
||Khanizadeh; Shahrokh (Baie D'Urfe, CA)
||Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Foo (St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, CA)|
||Para; Annette H
|Attorney Or Agent:
||Goudreau Gage DubucGauvreau; Julie
|Field Of Search:
|U.S Patent Documents:
|Foreign Patent Documents:
||Baldwin, E. A. et al., Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1995, 35 (6), pp 509-524. cited by other.
Gao, X. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2000, 48, pp 1485-1490. cited by oth- er.
Kalt, W. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47, pp 4638-4644. cited by other.
Khanizadeh, S. et al., HortScience, 1999, 34 (4), pp 743-744. cited by oth- er.
Mayr, U. et al., J. Phytopathology, 1997, 145, pp 69-75. cited by other.
Slinkard, K. et al., Am. J. Enol. Viticult., 1977, 28 (1), pp. 49-55. cite- d by other.
Tsao, R. et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51, pp 6445-6451. cited by other.
Tsao, R. et al., J. of Chromatography A., 2003, 1018, pp 29-40. cited by other.
Wang, S.Y. et al., J. Small Fruit and Viticulture, 1994, 2 (4), pp 39-49. cited by other.
||A new and distinct June-bearing strawberry cultivar named `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` is primarily adapted to the growing conditions of Eastern Central Canada and shows resistance to leaf diseases. Its high yields of very large, firm, light-red colored fruits, its long shelf life and high levels and activity of antioxidants essentially characterize `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans`.
||What is claimed is:
1. A new and distinct strawberry plant named `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` as described and illustrated herein.
||Genus/species designation: Fragaria.times.ananassa.
Varietal denomination: `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans`.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a new and distinct June bearing strawberry cultivar designated as `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans`. This cultivar belongs to the genus Fragaria (.times.ananassa Dutch.), whose fruits are juicy, edible and usually red,and are cultivated for culinary purposes.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The new cultivar, tested as FIO9624-11, is the progeny of a cross made by Shahrokh Khanizadeh between `L'Acadie`.sup.1 and the selection SJ8916-1.times.Pink Panda. `L'Acadie` is a June bearing strawberry cultivar (Fragaria.times.ananassa Dutch.)bred for Eastern Central Canada and more specifically for Quebec growing conditions. `L'Acadie` is noted for large, firm fruits, moderate resistance to leaf diseases, partial resistance to red stele (Phytophthora fragariae Hickman), and keeping qualityof several days after picking or maturity in the field. The selection SJ8916-1.times.Pink Panda has been used as parent for several years due to its hardiness, fruit quality and disease resistance in non replicated trails.
The cross took place in 1996 at the Horticultural Research and Development Center of the Agriculture and Agrifood Canada Research Station in St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. The `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` strawberry was asexually propagated byrunners at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada sub-station in L'Acadie, Quebec and extensively tested at the same location, where it has been tested since 1997. It was further tested in semi-commercial sites by Les Fraises de L' le d'Orleans Inc. inSaint Laurent, Ile d'Orleans, Quebec, Canada and by private partners, Meiosis Ltd in Kent, UK. `Saint-Laurent d'Qrleans` is now an established and stable cultivar.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
`Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` is recommended for Eastern Central Canada, especially in areas where the climate is similar to that in the strawberry production areas of Quebec, such as i'Ile d'Orleans. Typically, strawberry production in Quebecoccurs in areas with winter temperatures down to -30.degree. C. and warm and humid summers with unpredictable mixture of sun and rain (drought some seasons, constant rain other seasons). The very large, firm, light-red colored fruits, total yield incommercial fields, high antioxidant activity and the leaf disease resistance essentially characterize `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans`, as compared to the well-known variety `Kent` for example. The fruits of `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` are ideal for pick yourown, fresh market and shipping.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The accompanying color photographs show typical specimens of the new variety at various stages of development as nearly true as it is possible to make in color reproductions.
FIG. 1 shows a schematic pedigree of `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans`.
FIG. 2 shows a close-up view of a `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` fruit;
FIG. 3 shows a comparison of trifoliates between `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` and `Kent`; and
FIG. 4 shows a comparison of internal fruit characteristics between `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` and `Kent`.
DETAILED BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
`Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` is a June bearing strawberry cultivar (Fragaria.times.ananassa Duch.) with an early flowering date and mid-season harvest maturity. It is a progeny (FIO9624-11) resulting from a cross between two recent released fromthe Horticulture Research and Development Center (HRDC) of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, `L'Acadie` and the selection `SJ8916-1.times.Pink Panda`. `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` has high yields of very large, firm, light-red colored fruits and performs amuch longer storage life than the standard variety `Kent`, used by many growers. It also shows higher levels of antioxidant activity than `Kent`, which makes it ideal for growers who need to store the fruits for several days or ship them to otherprovinces for marketing.
The selection was named after the village of St-Laurent d'Orleans, which is located at the south of l'Ile d'Orleans, Quebec. In this area the principal economy comes from agriculture, with a major emphasis on vegetable and strawberry production. This village is known as a capital of strawberry production in Quebec and is recognized for high quality fruits production.
Plants of `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` are of medium vigor, have a flat globose growing habit and produce 4 to 5 inflorescences per crown. They can tolerate winter air temperatures down to -30.degree. C. with 10 cm straw mulch cover, and performvery well in both heavy fine textured, course textured and light soil conditions.
Plant: Habit.--Globose. Density (of individual plants in hill culture or plants/m 2 for matted rows).--Medium to dense. Number of crowns per plant.--Average 2. Vigor.--Medium to strong. Low temperature tolerance.--High.
Stolon: Number.--Medium. Thickness.--Average 2.4 mm.
`Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` fruits, fruit production and fruit quality characteristics.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Cumulative yield (g.m.sup.-1 of row), fruit weight, firmness, flavour, skin color, shelf life at room temperature and ripening season of `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` as compared to `Kent` and `Yamaska` Averages of fourreplicates from 2002 harvest Total Wt./ Shelf Ripen- yield fruit Firm- Skin life at ing Genotypes (g/m.sup.-1).sup.x (g).sup.x ness.sup.y Flavor.sup.y color.sup.y- 20.degree. C..sup.x season.sup.w Saint- Laurent 14553.8 11.3 4.0 4.0 2.7 5.0 LM d'OrleansYamaska 5871.1 10.6 3.6 3.5 3.6 5.0 L Kent 8403.6 8.2 2.8 4.0 3.4 1.5 EM Prob .ltoreq. ** * * Ns * * -- 0.05 .sup.xData taken from a 1-meter long representative portion of a 2-meter matted row (width 50 cm). .sup.yData were transformed to arcsin priorto analysis of variance (SAS institute, 1988).sup.2. Firmness: 1 = very soft, 5 = very firm Flavor: 1 = poor, 5 = excellent Skin color: 1 = very pale, 5 = dark red .sup.xNumber of days at room temperature (20.degree. C.) for which the fruits were morethan 95% marketable. .sup.wL =Late, LM = Late-Midseason, M = Midseason, EM = Early-Midseason. Significance: ** 0.01, * 0.05, Ns not significant
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans`, as compared to `Kent`.sup.x Data collected in L'Acadie site (Quebec) Total antioxidant capacity Content TEAC.sup.a FRAP.sup.b Totalphenols.sup.c (.mu.mol.mg.sup.-1) (.mu.M) (ppm) Genotype crude aqueous lipophilic crude crude Saint-Laurent 242.5 247.9 40.2 2478.4 139.4 d'Orleans Kent 198.8 228.6 29.6 2131.5 106.1 Least Significant 32.9 24.0 9.8 1191.1 77.5 Difference (LSD).sup.aTEAC: Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity expressed as .mu.mol Trolox equivalent mg.sup.-1 dry weight .sup.bFRAP: Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant expressed as .mu.M FRAP .sup.cTotal phenols expressed as ppm gallic acid equivalent.
Fruit: Ratio of length/maximum width.--Slightly longer than broad. Size.--Average 10.0 to 14.9 g. Predominant shape.--Round and globose conic. Difference in shape between primary and secondary fruits.--None to very slight. Band withoutachenes.--Medium. Unevenness of surface.--Very weak to medium. Skin color.--RHS 45A and 46A. Evenness of color.--Slightly uneven. Glossiness.--Strong. Insertion of achenes.--Slightly below surface of fruit. Color of achenes.--RHS 150C. Hollowcenter size.--Absent. Insertion of calyx.--Slightly set above fruit to level with fruit. Pose of the calyx segments.--Flat. Size of the calyx in relation to fruit diameter.--Slightly smaller to slightly larger. Adherence of the calyx.--Strong. Firmness of flesh (when fully ripe).--Firm. Color of flesh.--RHS 46A to 187A. Evenness of color of flesh.--Slightly uneven to slightly even. Sweetness.--Medium. Acidity.--Medium to medium strong. Time of flowering (50% of plants of firstflower).--Early. Harvest maturity (50% of plants with ripe fruits).--Mid-season. Type of bearing.--Not everbearing.
`Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` differs from its parents (`L'Acadie` and the selection `SJ8916-1.times.Pink Panda`) in terms of fruit shape, fruit quality and yield. `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` fruits are round and globose-conic with non-reflexedsepals, the tips of which sometimes touch the fruit. `L'Acadie` fruits are conic with a white small neck under the semi-reflexed calyx and a glossier surface than `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans`. The selection `SJ8916-1.times.Pink Panda` has fruits that arefirmer than those of `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` but a much lower yield.
`Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` produces perfect white flowers, which when pollinated and ripen fully result in attractive and large red shiny fruits (FIG. 2). The flesh is medium to dark red (RHS 46A to 187A) almost throughout and firm. Fresh fruitsstore well for up to 4-5 days at room temperature and longer under refrigeration.
`Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` produces significantly higher yield and larger fruits size than `Kent` (Table 1) in replicated trials at several locations. The fruits are also firmer, with lighter red skin color, and have longer shelf life at roomtemperature than `Kent` (Table 1). `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` is a late mid-season cultivar with fifty percent of primary fruits ripe by early July in L'Acadie, Quebec.
Total antioxidant activity of the fruit of `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` measured by ABTS cation radical-scavenging assay.sup.3 showed high TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) levels in the crude and aqueous extract (242.5 and 247.9.mu.mol/mg, respectively) while the lipophilic extract (40.2 .mu.mol/mg) showed the lowest activity (Table 2). Thus, the antioxidant capacity recorded to `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` was higher than that of the `Kent` cultivar (Table 2). However, theantioxidant capacity measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics and phenolic composition (benzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, ellagic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins) performed according to Tsao et al..sup.4, Slinkard andSingleton.sup.5 and by HPLC analysis.sup.6 did not show significant differences between the two cultivars (Table 2), except for benzoic acids and anthocyanins, for which `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` showed lower levels than `Kent` (6.4, 10.5 ppm gallic acidequivalent and 77.2, 103.8 ppm cyanidins-3-galactoside equivalent, respectively).
The potential of `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` (antioxidant content and high activity) could contribute to its quality preservation and disease resistance. Indeed, the phenolic compounds of various fruits have been widely shown to protect planttissues against external stresses and participate to disease resistance.sup.7,8,9. These compounds may act as flavorants, colorants or antioxidants to extend shelf life and enhance quality preservation.sup.10. Moreover, release of new strawberry fruitswith higher antioxidants capacity levels may be able to stimulate greater interest in the nutraceutical aspects to strawberry consumption and potentially help to reduce risks of cancers and heart diseases.
Leaf: Green color of upper side.--RHS 137C or 138A. Green color of lower side.--RHS 138C. Blistering (interveinal blisters).--Very weak to medium weak. Number of leaflets.--Three. Terminal leaflet: Profile.--Cupped. Length/widthratio.--Slightly longer than broad. Shape of base.--Obtuse. Shape of teeth.--Acute to obtuse. Petiole: Length.--Average 17 cm. Pubescence.--Medium to medium dense. Pose of hairs.--Outwards. Color of top.--RHS 138C. Color of bottom.--RHS 185A.
Inflorescence, Fruiting Truss and Flower Characteristics
Inflorescence: Position relative to foliage.--Below to level with. Fruiting truss: Attitude of fruiting trusses (at first picking).--Semi erect. Length of fruiting trusses.--Average of 12 to 15 cm measured from the crown to the 1.sup.st split. Flowers: Flower size.--Average 2.6 cm for secondary flowers. Corolla size.--Average 2.8 cm for secondary flowers. Calyx size.--Average 2.8 cm. Color of opened flower.--White. Diameter of calyx relative to corolla.--Smaller to same size. Diameter ofinner calyx relative to outer (on secondary flowers).--Same size. Spacing of petals (secondary flowers with 5 to 6 petals).--Free to touching. Size of petals.--Average 0.9 cm. Petal length/width ratio (on secondary flowers).--As long as broad tolonger than broad.
`Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` demonstrates a higher degree of resistance to leaf diseases as compared to `Kent`. `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` is moderately susceptible to leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae (Tul.) Lindau) and resistant to moderatelyresistant to leaf scorch (Diplocarpon earlina Ell. & Ev.). `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` also ranked as low susceptibility to verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum Reinke & Berth.) as compared to `Jewel` and `Seascape` that ranked intermediate (datanot shown).
Tests and Trials
Tests and trials for `Saint-Laurent d'Orleans` were conducted in matted rows at the Agriculture & Agrifood Canada experimental farm in l'Acadie, Quebec since 1997. A completely randomized design for four replicates (4 plots) was used to evaluatethe selections. Each experimental unit was a 4-meter long plot, 50 cm wide. A representative 2 m section of the plot was used for data collection. The remainder was used as guard row.
1. Khanizadeh, S., B. Theriault, O. Carisse and D. Buszard, 1999. AC-L'Acadie Strawberry. HortScience 34(4):743-744. 2. SAS Institute. 1988. Statistical analysis system. SAS/STAT, SAS/BASIC guide for personal computers, version 6.04(ed.) SAS Inst. Cary, N.C. 3. Gao, X., M. Ohlander, N. Jeppsson, L. Bjork and V. Trajkovski, 2000. Changes in antioxidants effects and their relationship to phytonutrients of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) during maturation. J. Agric. FoodChem. 48:1485-1490. 4. Tsao, R., R. Yang and J. C. Yang. 2003. Antioxidant isoflavones in Osage Orange, Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 6445-6451. 5. Slinkard, K. and V. L. Singleton. 1977. Total phenol analysis:automation and comparison with manual methods. Am. J. Enol. Viticult. 28:49-55. 6. Tsao, R. and R. Yang. 2003. Optimization of a new mobile phase to known the complex and real Polyphenolic composition: towards a total phenolic index usinghigh-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A. 1018:29-40. 7. Wang, S. Y., J. L. Maas, J. A. Payne and G. Galleta. 1994, Ellagic acid in small fruits, mayhaws, and other plants. J. Small Fruit and Viticulture 2 (4): 39-49. 8. Mayr, U.,Michalek, S., Treutter, D. and W. Feucht. 1997, Phenolic compounds of apple and their relationship to scab resistance. J. Phytopathology 145: 69-75. 9. Kalt, W., C. F. Forney, A. Martin, and R. L. Prior. 1999. Antioxidant capacity, vitamin C,phenolics, and anthocyanins after fresh storage of small fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 4638-4644. 10. Baldwin E. A., M. O. Nisperos-Carriedo and R. A. Baker. 1995. Use of edible coatings to preserve quality of lightly processed products. Crit.Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 35:509-24.
* * * * *