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Cranberry variety named `HyRed`
PP14225 Cranberry variety named `HyRed`
Patent Drawings:Drawing: PP14225-4    Drawing: PP14225-5    Drawing: PP14225-6    
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Inventor: McCown, et al.
Date Issued: October 14, 2003
Application: 10/172,533
Filed: June 13, 2002
Inventors: McCown; Brent H. (Madison, WI)
Normington; Peter (Pittsville, WI)
Zeldin; Eric L. (Madison, WI)
Assignee: Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (Madison, WI)
Primary Examiner: Campell; Bruce R.
Assistant Examiner: Haas; W C
Attorney Or Agent: Wood, Phillips, Katz, Clark & Mortimer
U.S. Class: PLT/156
Field Of Search: PLT/156
International Class:
U.S Patent Documents:
Foreign Patent Documents:
Other References: Anonymous. `HyRed Cranberry Released` 2002.*.
Viegas, Jennifer. Discovery News "Super Cranberry in the Works" Nov. 20, 2001.*.
Gallepp, George "Researchers Hope that New Cranberry will Brightern the Future for Wisconsin Growers" in University of Wisconsin-Madison CALS News and Features, posted Nov. 5, 2001*.
Anonymous. "Super-Cranberries on the Way" Yahooligans! News Nov. 26, 2001*.
Anonymous. New Cranberry has More Red Pigment Wisconsin State--Tuesday, Nov. 6, 2001 Business C10..

Abstract: A new and distinct variety of cranberry is described. The variety has been named `HyRed` and is derived from a cross of the `Stevens` variety and Ben Lear No. 8. The `HyRed` variety exhibits significantly higher red pigment, short seasonal maturity, excellent vigor, and a yield comparable to other commercial varieties.
Claim: We claim:

1. The new and distinct variety of cranberry plant herein described and illustrated, and identified by the characteristics enumerated above.
Description: Latin name of the genus and species of the plant claimed: Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.

Variety denomination: HyRed.


The present invention relates to a new and distinctive cranberry clonal variety having significantly higher red pigment, short seasonal maturity, improved vigor and a yield at least comparable to other commercial varieties.

The American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is a small fruit grown in the temperate regions of the world. The United States is presently the major producer of cranberries, with the combined Wisconsin and Massachusetts harvests accountingfor about 80% of the total U.S. annual production.

Although the cranberry is well known for its tart flavor, the principal value component is its red pigment (anthocyanin) content, measured as total anthocyanin (TAcy) in mg per 100 grams fresh fruit. The importance of the pigment content isrecognized by most processors as they are known to give a color incentive payment for the delivery of cranberries having a TAcy greater than 30. The incentive payment can be economically important, especially during years of low fruit prices.

Unfortunately, cranberry growers in regions with colder fall weather, such as the north-central portion of the United States, often harvest their cultivars before full fruit color development to avoid freezing injury and icing problems in thelow-lying cranberry beds. As a result, regions with a longer growing season, such as Washington and Oregon, produce cranberries with average TAcy levels of 50-60 mg of red pigment/100 gms, whereas cranberries grown in Wisconsin average a TAcy level at33 mg/100 gms.

Cranberry selections grown today have not yet experienced the extensive breeding as seen in other fruit-bearing species. Many selections were derived directly from native areas or from managed beds of mixed origin. For example, `Ben Lear`(unpatented) is a cranberry selection taken directly from the wild in Wisconsin in the early 1900s, and is widely grown in short-seasonal areas due to its early fruit development and high color content. The average TAcy content for `Ben Lear` inWisconsin is a TAcy of 42.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture undertook, in cooperation with state experimental stations, one generation of breeding in an attempt to improve U.S. cranberry cultivars. The breeding resulted in the introduction of the `Stevens`(unpatented) variety in the 1950s. The `Stevens` variety is today the most widely grown cultivar and is characterized by dependably high yields, but only moderate color development, especially in short-seasonal regions such as Wisconsin (Wisconsinaverage TAcy of 34). Another cultivar released from this program, `Pilgrim` (unpatented), is less widely grown than `Stevens` is characterized by relatively large, but more lightly colored fruit than `Stevens`.


The present invention relates to a new and distinct cranberry variety. The variety is designated `HyRed` and is derived from a cross of the `Stevens` variety and a selection designated as `Ben Lear #8`, (unpatented) which was derived from anopen-pollinated population of seedlings of `Ben Lear`. `HyRed` exhibits significantly higher red pigment (up to 3 fold higher), short seasonal maturity, excellent vigor, and a yield at least comparable to other commercial varieties.

In 1990, a limited breeding program was launched with the goal of developing for Wisconsin and other regions with short growing seasons, cranberry hybrids that produce dependably high yields of early-maturing, high color fruit. It was hoped thatsuch hybrids would dependably capture available color incentives and provide for an early harvest so as to allow an extended harvest season, thus optimizing harvest and handling operations and reducing the risk of unpredictable late-season weatherevents.


FIG. 1 shows a sample of `HyRed` fruit as compared to `Stevens` fruit harvested from the same cranberry bed in Wisconsin: (Top) harvested on Sep. 19, 1996; and (Bottom) harvested on Oct. 3, 1996.

FIG. 2 shows a sample of `HyRed` fruit as compared to `Ben Lear` fruit harvested in mid-September from the same cranberry bed in Wisconsin.

FIG. 3 shows fruiting cranberry vines of `HyRed` and `Pilgrim` taken in mid-September from adjacent plots in northern Wisconsin.


The distinctive characteristics of the new `HyRed` variety are summarized in table 1 and described in detail below. The color designations made herein are made with reference to The Horticulture Color Chart, R. F. Wilson (1941).

As illustrated in FIGS. 1-3, fruit from the `HyRed` variety develops excellent coloration even when covered deeply within the vine mat. The `HyRed` fruit exhibits a color comparable to Carmine No. 21 when fully ripened and has a shape that issomewhat blocky. Although the TAcy content of the `HyRed` fruit may sometimes reach as high as three times greater than Wisconsin grown `Stevens` and `Ben Lear` cultivars, its acidity and sugar content is similar to `Stevens` and `Ben Lear`. The`HyRed` variety flowers, colors, and also ripens earlier than either `Stevens` or `Ben Lear`, but exhibits a vigor similar to that of the vigorous `Stevens` selection. `HyRed` also retains the ease of clonal propagation through cuttings, a commontechnique for most cranberry selections.

The combination of the above `HyRed` characteristics easily differentiates `HyRed`, from both its parents, `Stevens`, and the most widely grown cultivar with which it may be confused, `Ben Lear`. The above characteristics also provide the`HyRed` variety with benefits not recognized in other commercially grown varieties. For example, the ability of `HyRed` fruit to develop excellent coloration when covered deeply within the vine mat results in fewer poorly colored berries and provides amore uniform harvest. The early flowering, coloring, and ripening of the `HyRed` fruit also allows for a harvest earlier than `Stevens` or `Ben Lear`, if desired, thus optimizing harvest and handling operations and reducing the risk of unpredictablelate-season weather events. The similarity of the acidity and sugar content between `HyRed`, `Stevens` and `Ben Lear` also allows `HyRed` to be used in common cranberry products typically dominated by `Stevens` and `Ben Lear`.

TABLE 1 Comparison Chart Character HyRed Stevens Ben Lear Typical Fruit Shape Elliptical blocky Elliptical Elliptical with squared shoulders Mid-September >40 <15 <20 TAcy in Wisconsin (mg/100 gms) Mid-September 2.1-2.6 2.2-2.62.2-2.6 Acidity (Titer) Mid-September 7.3-7.7 7.3-7.7 7.3-7.7 Percent Solid (.degree.BRIX) General Vigor High High Medium General Yield High High Medium Flowering Time 2 weeks earlier -- 1 week earlier (compared to Stevens) Ripening Period 2+weeks earlier -- 1+ weeks earlier (compared to Stevens) Harvesting Period 2+ weeks earlier -- 1+ weeks earlier (compared to Stevens) Cloning by cuttings Easy Easy Easy

`HyRed` was selected as a single plant from over 700 cloned individual seedlings planted in a test plot in a grower's field in central Wisconsin. The seedlings were derived from a controlled pollination of `Stevens` and `Ben Lear #8`. `Ben Lear#8` is derived from an open-pollinated population of the `Ben Lear` variety, and originates from a selection by Dr. Don Boone, UW-Madison, from the type collection at DuBay Cranberries, Portage County, Wis. The controlled pollinations were performed ina greenhouse using potted plants, with the resulting seeds germinated in vitro and the resultant plants micropropagated.

`HyRed` was originally selected in 1993 for its early color and high fruit bud set. The selection was then brought back into micropropagation, asexually reproduced, and replanted in test plots of various sizes (20 to 200 m.sup.2) from 1994through 1997. The plantings were done in two distinct growing regions, central Wisconsin and northern Wisconsin. The central Wisconsin region is typified by a 170 day season with nearly 3000 growing degree days (base of F.). The northernregion is typified by a 110 day season with 2500 growing degree days. The test plots also included plantings of `Stevens` or `Pilgrim` cultivars to serve as standards for comparison. Because of the unique and high cost production techniques required togrow cranberries, areas for test plots were necessarily limited to open space available in commercial beds. Replicated and comparative plots were utilized when feasible.

The `HyRed` fruit from the 4 to 7 year old plots were sampled periodically, and color analyses performed using procedures based on the method of Fuleki and Francis, "Quantitative methods for anthocyanins: Extraction and determination of totalanthocyanin in cranberries", J. Food Sci., 33:72-77 (1968). The samples were taken primarily in mid-September, usually about 2 weeks before the beginning of the commercial harvest. In every year, `HyRed` presented TAcy readings at least twice that ofcomparable plots of `Stevens` (Table 2). `HyRed` also exhibited prominent early coloration, even in late August, and a greater rate of increase in pigment content than `Stevens` through the September ripening period (Table 3).

TABLE 2 Comparison between fruit color of `Stevens` and `HyRed` TAcy Content Harvest Year TAcy Content Harvest Year1997 2000 Central Central Northern Cultivar Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin Stevens 22.2 17.1 24.6 HyRed 58.1 51.2 53.0

TABLE 3 Fruit color development of `Stevens` and `HyRed` over the 1997 growing season TAcy Content Cultivar 28-Aug 3-Sep 10-Sep 17-Sep 24-Sep 1-Oct Stevens 5.8 9.2 12.2 22.2 31.3 44.1 HyRed 27.4 34.2 39.3 58.1 86.3 115.2

Anthocyanins of cranberry are generally located almost entirely in the epidermal layers of the fruit. One factor which is believed to contribute to high extractable fruit color in cranberry is small fruit size, due in part to the influence ofsurface area to weight ratio on the total pigment content for each fruit. A negative correlation between yield and some of the flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, has also been suggested. However, differences in fruit size and yield between`HyRed` and other cultivars have been minor when compared to the differences in extractable color. For example, as shown in Table 4, early harvests of fruit from `HyRed` and the commercial cultivar `Pilgrim` which is known for its large fruit, inadjacent plots in northern Wisconsin have shown a markedly greater pigment content in `HyRed`, fruit for both years. Differences in fruit yield and fruit size were negligible or much less pronounced. In all plantings, the fruit size of `HyRed` hasaveraged above 1.5 g, which is similar to the average fruit size of `Ben Lear` and `Stevens` grown in comparable locations in Wisconsin (data not shown). Thus, `HyRed` appears to be able to develop high levels of extractable pigmentation simultaneouslywith good fruit size and yield.

TABLE 4 Pigment content, fruit size and total fruit yield comparison Harvest Year 2000 Harvest Year 2001 Average Average Average Total Average Total Individual Sample Individual Sample TAcy Berry Berry TAcy Berry Berry Cultivar ContentWeight Weight Content Weight Weight Pilgrim 17.0 1.09 g 62.8 g 13.7 1.64 g 60.9 g HyRed 53.0 1.77 g 61.8 g 39.4 1.60 g 54.6 g

In 2000, analyses of two additional fruit quality traits, titratable acidity and percent total soluble solids (.degree. BRIX), was conducted at Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc. using standard procedures adapted from Ballington et al., "Fruitquality characterization of 11 Vaccinium species," J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 109:684-689 (1984). Fruit was harvested durinig late September 2000 from adjacent plots at two production locations Wisconsin. Three pooled samples were taken from harvestsin randomly tossed rings within the plot at each location. ANOVA indicated no significant differences for a fruit trait (P=0/05) between selections at a location. As illustrated in Tables 5 and 6, `HyRed` fruit did not show any significant differencesin these traits when compared to either the standard `Stevens` cultivar or `Pilgrim` cultivar grown in the same location.

TABLE 5 Titratable acidity and percent total soluble solids comparison, Mid-September harvest samples, central Wisconsin. Titratable acidity Cultivar (meq/g dry wt) .degree.BRIX Stevens 2.40 8.64 HyRed 2.40 8.47

TABLE 6 Titratable acidity and percent total soluble solids comparison, Mid-September harvest samples, northern Wisconsin. Titratable acidity Cultivar (meq/g dry wt) .degree.BRIX Pilgrim 2.46 7.54 HyRed 2.41 7.94

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