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Color look-up table on film
8411102 Color look-up table on film
Patent Drawings:Drawing: 8411102-2    Drawing: 8411102-3    Drawing: 8411102-4    Drawing: 8411102-5    
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(4 images)

Inventor: Lin, et al.
Date Issued: April 2, 2013
Application:
Filed:
Inventors:
Assignee:
Primary Examiner: Sajous; Wesner
Assistant Examiner:
Attorney Or Agent: Shedd; Robert D.LaPeruta; Robert
U.S. Class: 345/589; 345/600; 345/601; 345/606; 345/643; 358/3.23; 358/3.26; 358/515; 358/523; 358/525; 382/162; 382/164; 382/266; 382/274
Field Of Search: 345/581; 345/589; 345/600; 345/601; 345/606; 345/611; 345/612; 345/619; 345/643; 345/644; 345/647; 345/658; 348/96; 348/180; 348/497; 348/498; 358/3.01; 358/3.15; 358/3.23; 358/3.26; 358/515; 358/516; 358/517; 358/518; 358/519; 358/523; 358/525; 358/533; 358/461; 358/447; 358/448; 358/463; 358/1.9
International Class: G09G 5/00; G06K 9/40; G06K 9/00; G03F 3/08; H04N 1/46; H04N 1/40; G09G 5/02; G06T 5/00
U.S Patent Documents:
Foreign Patent Documents:
Other References: International Search Report, dated Oct. 23, 2007. cited by applicant.









Abstract: A color look-up table includes a plurality of images recorded on a film. Each of the images being recorded on a separate picture of the film and containing at least a first level and a second level. The first and second levels having different pixel color values and are arranged to form a detectable geometric pattern on each of the pictures.
Claim: The invention claimed is:

1. A color look-up table, comprising: a plurality of images on film, each of the images being a separate image and containing at least a first color level and a secondcolor level; and, the first and second color levels having different values: wherein the first and second color levels are arranged to form a detectable geometric pattern on each of the images; wherein the first and second color levels are arranged incolumns and rows; wherein an outer edge of the first and second color levels define a perimeter of the image; and wherein color differences between the first and color second levels define first and second cross-bars that intersect the perimeter.

2. The color look-up table of claim 1, wherein the first and second color levels alternating along the columns and rows.

3. The color look-up table of claim 1, wherein the first cross-bars extend substantially parallel to each other and the second cross bars extend substantially parallel to each other.

4. The color look-up table of claim 1, wherein the first and second cross-bars intersect the perimeter at an angle of about 90 degrees.

5. A method comprising the steps of: recording a plurality of images on film to form a color look-up table; providing, via a processor each of the images with at least first and second color levels with different values; arranging the firstand second color levels to form a detectable geometric pattern; and arranging the first and second color levels in columns and rows and alternating the first and second color levels along the columns and rows.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the arranging step further includes arranging an outer edge of the first and second color levels to define a perimeter of the image.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein the arranging step further includes color differences between the first and second color levels to define first and second cross-bars that intersect the perimeter.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the arranging step further includes arranging the first cross-bars to extend substantially parallel to each other and the second cross bars to extend substantially parallel to each other.

9. The method of claim 7, wherein the arranging step further includes arranging the first and second cross-bars to intersect the perimeter at an angle of about 90 degrees.
Description: CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application relates to U.S. application Ser. Nos. 12/450,259 filed on Sep. 18, 2009 which published as US 2010-0046833A1.

This application claims the benefit, under 35 U.S.C. .sctn.365 of International Application PCT/US2007/006831, filed Mar. 20, 2007, which was published in accordance with PCT Article 21(2) on Sep. 25, 2008 in English.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a method for recording a color look-up table on film wherein at least two levels are recorded on each picture of the film, and the levels are recorded such that a detectable geometric pattern is formed. Theinvention further relates to a method of recording and using the same.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

In order to be able to restore colors in pictures of a film, a color look-up table is recorded on the film. The color look-up table is typically recorded on the film, for example, in 21 levels. The value of each level is recorded on a pictureof the film. After the pictures that contain the color look-up table are scanned, a scanner, computer, or other devices restore the colors of the pictures in the film based on the color look-up table.

The above-described color look-up table, however, has the drawback that when a film is in need of restoration, 21 levels do not provide sufficient resolution to accurately restore the film. Increasing the amount of levels recorded on the film,however, directly increases the amount of space needed on the film to record the color look-up table. Additionally, there is no current method to correct geometric distortions in the film due to film degradation.

It is therefore desirable to provide a color look-up table that can provide sufficient resolution to accurately restore the film without taking-up excessive space on the film. It is further desirable to provide a color look-up table thatenables geometric distortion due to film degradation to be detected and corrected.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention provides a color look-up table having a plurality of images recorded on a film. Each of the images being recorded on a separate picture of the film and containing at least a first level and a second level. The first and secondlevels having different pixel color values and are arranged to form a detectable geometric pattern on each of the pictures. The invention further provides a method of recording and using the same.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings.

FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of a color look-up table provided on a reel of film according to the invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of an image recorded on the color look-up table of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of a first image recorded on the color look-up table of FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is a flow chart showing a method of use of the color look-up table of FIG. 1.

FIG. 5 is an image having distortions prior to correction.

FIG. 6 is the image of FIG. 5 after correction according to the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

FIG. 1 shows a color look-up table 1 according to the invention. As shown in FIG. 1, the color look-up table 1 comprises a series of images 2 (or steps) formed over a plurality of pictures 3 (or frames) on a film 4. The color look-up table 1may be formed, for example, over a plurality of the pictures 3 at a beginning of a reel of the film 4. The color look-up table 1 contains representative pixel information that may be used for restoring colors in the film 4. The color look-up table 1corresponds to one color component on the film 4, for example, red, green, or blue.

The color look-up table 1 in the film 4 may have 8-bits, 10 bits, 12 bits, or 16 bits to represent a pixel. As shown in Table 1, which is illustrated below, if the film 4 uses 8 bits to represent a pixel, then the color look-up table 1 may have256 possible pixel color values (which can be referred to as color values, levels or intensities). Table 1 can be the color look-up table for red, green, or blue. (In other words each color has its own look-up table.) If the film 4 uses 10 bits torepresent a pixel, then the color look-up table 1 may have 1024 possible pixel color values. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, however, that the number of bits used to represent a pixel may vary depending on the desired application ofthe color look-up table 1.

TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 True Intensity vs. Level Recorded Level L.sub.n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 8-bits 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 10-bits 0 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 144 160 176 192 208 224 240256 272 28- 8 Level L.sub.n 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 8-bits 76 80 84 88 92 96 100 104 108 112 116 120 124 128 132 136 10-bits 304 320 336 352 368 384 400 416 432 448 464 480 496 512 528 544 Level L.sub.n 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 4344 45 46 47 48 49 50 8-bits 140 144 148 152 156 160 164 168 172 176 180 184 188 192 196 200 10-bits 560 576 592 608 624 640 656 672 688 704 720 736 452 468 784 800 Level L.sub.n 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 8-bits 204 208 212 216 220 224 228232 236 240 244 248 252 256 10-bits 816 832 848 864 880 896 912 928 944 960 976 992 1008 1024

The pixel color values are recorded on the film 4 in levels. The more levels that are recorded on the film 4, the greater the resolution of the images reproduced. In Table 1, 65 levels (0-64) are recorded on the film 4. It will be appreciatedby those skilled in the art, however, that the number of levels recorded on the film 4 may vary depending on the desired image and the amount of available storage space.

The configuration of the color look-up table 1 will now be described in greater detail. As shown in FIG. 1, the color look-up table 1 comprises the images 2. As shown in FIG. 2, each of the images 2 contains a first level 5 (or a firstintensity level 5) and a second level 6 (or a second intensity level 6). In the illustrated embodiment, the first level 5 is represented by the formula (L.sub.n), and the second level 6 is represented by the formula (L.sub.n+32). The value of nincreases with each of the images 2 and is determined by the number of levels that are to be recorded on the film 4. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the value of n increases with each of the images 2 from 0-32, because 65 levels are recordedon the film 4. The first and second levels 5, 6 are substantially recorded in columns 12 and rows 13. The first and second levels 5, 6 substantially alternate along the columns 12 and the rows 13 such that the first level 5 is positioned next to thesecond level 6.

Although the images 2 are shown and described herein as each having been recorded with only two of the levels, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that either a single level or more than two of the levels may be recorded on eachof the images 2 depending on the desired image and the amount of available storage space. Additionally, although the levels are shown and described herein as being formed in four columns and four rows, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the artthat the levels may be formed in any number of columns and/or the rows depending on the desired image and the amount of available storage space.

A feature of the invention is that the images 2 containing the first and second levels 5, 6 on the pictures 3, form detectable geometric patterns on each of the pictures 3. (Detectable geometric pattern means that each level 5, 6 is a fieldhaving a defined boundary that can be mathematically characterized.) For example, an outer edge of the first and second levels 5, 6 defines a perimeter 7 of the image 2 on the picture 3. Additionally, the color differences between the first and secondlevels 5, 6 as the first and second levels 5, 6 alternate along the columns 12 and the rows 13 define a plurality of intersecting first cross-bars 10 and second cross-bars 11. In the illustrated embodiment, the first cross-bars 10 extend substantiallyparallel to each other, and the second cross-bars 11 extend substantially parallel to each other. The first and second cross-bars 10, 11 intersect at an angle of about 90 degrees. The first and second cross-bars 10, 11 intersect the perimeter 7 at anangle of about 90 degrees.

A method for providing the color look-up table 1 on the film 4 will now be described in greater detail. As shown in FIG. 1, a first image 2a is recorded on a first picture 3a of the film 4. As shown in FIG. 3, the first image 2a (which can bea first frame on the film) contains the first level 5 and the second level 6. The first level 5 contains pixel color values corresponding to Level 0 (L.sub.0), which is the lowest level illustrated in Table 1. The second level 6 contains pixel colorvalues corresponding to Level 32 (L.sub.0+32 or L.sub.32), which is the substantially middle level illustrated in Table 1. The first and second levels 5, 6 are recorded in the columns 12 and the rows 13 such that the first and second levels 5, 6alternate along the columns 12 and the rows 13.

As shown in FIG. 1, a second image 2b is recorded on a second picture 3b of the film 4. The second image 2b contains the first levels 5 and the second levels 6 too. The first level 5 contains pixel color values corresponding to Level 1(L.sub.1), which is one level above the lowest level illustrated in Table 1. The second level 6 contains pixel color values corresponding to Level 33 (L.sub.1+32 or L.sub.33), which is one level above the substantially middle value illustrated in Table1. The first and second levels 5, 6 are recorded in the columns 12 and the rows 13 such that the first and second levels 5, 6 alternate along the columns 12 and the rows 13.

The images 2 are continued to be recorded on the film 4 until all 65 levels are recorded on the film 4. In the illustrated embodiment, the color look-up table 1 can contain 33 of the images 2 wherein each of the images 2 is a step and containstwo of the levels shown in Table 1. For example, if the color values are based on 10 bit system, Level 0 (L.sub.0) will have a true intensity value of 0 and Level 32 (L.sub.0+32 or L.sub.32) will have a true intensity value of 512. The combination ofLevel 0 (L.sub.0) and Level 32 (L.sub.0+32 or L.sub.32) can comprise a step 1 or a 1.sup.st frame on the color look-up table 1 of the film. Level 1 (L.sub.1) will have a true intensity value of 16 and Level 33 (L.sub.1+32 or L.sub.33) will have a trueintensity value of 528. The combination of Level 1 (L.sub.1) and Level 33 (L.sub.1+32 or L.sub.33) can comprise a step 2 or a 2.sup.nd frame on the color look-up table 1 of the film. Level 31 (L.sub.31) will have a true intensity value of 496 and Level63 (L.sub.31+32 or L.sub.63) will have a true intensity value of 1008. The combination of Level 31 (L.sub.31) and Level 63 (L.sub.31+32 or L.sub.63) can comprise a step 32 or a 32.sup.nd frame on the color look-up table 1 of the film. (Following afinal step 33, the following frames or pictures of the film can contain the actual motion pictures images.) An example color look-up table 1 for a system with 65 levels according to the invention is shown in Table 2. In this particular example Level L32appears twice (i.e., once in step 1 and again in step 33).

TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Example Color Look-up Table Step No. in Color Table L(n) = Ln L(n + 32) = Ln + 32 1 L(0) L(32) 2 L(1) L(33) 3 L(2) L(34) 4 L(3) L(35) 5 L(4) L(36) 6 L(5) L(37) 7 L(6) L(38) 8 L(7) L(39) 9 L(8) L(40) 10 L(9) L(41) 11 L(10)L(42) 12 L(11) L(43) 13 L(12) L(44) 14 L(13) L(45) 15 L(14) L(46) 16 L(15) L(47) 17 L(16) L(48) 18 L(17) L(49) 19 L(18) L(50) 20 L(19) L(51) 21 L(20) L(52) 22 L(21) L(53) 23 L(22) L(54) 24 L(23) L(55) 25 L(24) L(56) 26 L(25) L(57) 27 L(26) L(58) 28 L(27)L(59) 29 L(28) L(60) 30 L(29) L(61) 31 L(30) L(62) 32 L(31) L(63) 33 L(32) L(64)

It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the images 2 may be recorded on the film 4 more than one time to ensure accuracy. Additionally, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the images 2 may be recorded on thefilm 4 more than one time to record more than one color component on the film 4.

A feature of the invention is that the color look-up table is capable of detecting and correcting geometric distortion of the film. A method of using the color look-up table 1 will now be described with reference to the flowchart 20 shown inFIG. 4. As shown in FIG. 4, at process step 21, the entire film 4 including the color look-up table 1 is scanned by a conventional scanning method. At process step 22, as the color look-up table 1 is scanned, a scanner, a computer, or other devicedetects the first and second levels 5, 6 on the pictures 3. At process step 23, a scanner, a computer, or other device builds a color look-up table on the scanner, computer, or other device. At process step 24, the scanner, computer, or other devicemakes color corrections in the pictures 3 of the film 4 based on the information retrieved from the color look-up table 1 to restore the film 4, for example, to its original condition. Because the method of scanning the film 4 and making colorcorrections therein are well known in the art, further description thereof has been omitted.

At process step 25, as the color look-up table 1 is scanned, a scanner, a computer, or other device detects the geometric pattern formed on the pictures 3. For example, in the first picture 3a shown in FIG. 3, the perimeter 7 and the first andsecond cross-bars 10, 11 of the first image 2a are detected. At points where the first and second cross-bars 10, 11 intersect, a substantially 90 degree angle should be detected indicating that the first and second cross-bars 10, 11 are substantiallystraight lines. Additionally, at points where the first and second cross-bars 10, 11 intersect the perimeter 7, a substantially 90 degree angle should be detected indicating that the perimeter 7 is formed of substantially straight lines. The detectedposition of the perimeter 7 and the first and second cross-bars 10, 11 of the images 2 may be represented by at least one equation.

At process step 26, if the perimeter 7 of the images 2 and/or the first and second cross-bars 10, 11 of the images 2 are found not to be substantially straight lines, then an affine transformation is generated to correct deviations in thegeometric pattern. At process step 27, the affine transformation is applied to warp content in all of the pictures 3 in the film 4 thereby correcting the geometry of all of the pictures 3 in the film 4. Additionally, interpolation for color pixels noton the integer grip may be made. As a result of this correction, any physical distortion appearing on the film 4 can be removed.

As shown in the flowchart 20, the detection of the first and second levels 5, 6 on the pictures 3 at process step 22 and the detection of the geometric pattern on the pictures 3 at process step 25 may occur simultaneously. The building of thecolor look-up table at process step 23 and the generation of the affine transformation at process step 26 may also occur simultaneously. Additionally, the color correction at process step 24 and the geometric correction of the content of the pictures 3in the film 4 at process step 27 may be performed simultaneously. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, however, that process steps 22, 23, and 24 may alternatively occur either before or after process steps 25, 26, and 27.

Although the color look-up table 1 shown and described herein is used for color correction and geometry restoration in the restoration of the film 4, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the color look-up table 1 may be usedfor other purposes and in other applications. For example, the color look-up table 1 may be used in visible picture recording, printing for archiving, etc.

In the color look-up table 1 according to the invention, 65 levels are recorded on the film 4, which enables the color look-up table 1 to support higher resolution images. Additionally, because two levels are recorded in each of the images 2,the color look-up table 1 can be condensed into fewer of the pictures 3 on the film 4. Since the levels alternate with respect to the columns 10 and the rows 11, the images 2 are additionally provided with a geometric construction that enables geometricdistortion to be detected and corrected.

An important point is that distortions of the frames or pictures of the film containing the color-look-up table 1 and the film having the actual motion pictures images are likely to distort similarly. With this concept in mind, an approach foruse of the invention will be described. An image 2 shown in FIG. 5, illustrates the film having distortions which can be visually observed because the borders between the first levels 5 and a second levels 6 are warped. FIG. 6 illustrates how theborders and the first levels 5 and second levels 6 could ideally be shaped or how they may appear after correction. From FIG. 6, one can compute coordinates of each vertex a to y by checking all edges. (The cross point of two edges is a vertex.) Thecoordinates of each point is (a.sub.x, a.sub.y), (b.sub.x, b.sub.y), . . . (y.sub.x, y.sub.y). One can then find a transform for each block. For example, block abgf could be characterized as follows: (a.sub.x,a.sub.y).about.(a'.sub.x,a'.sub.y),(b.sub.x,b.sub.y).about.(b'.sub.x,b'.sub.y), (g.sub.x,g.sub.y).about.(g'.sub.x,g'.sub.y), and (f.sub.x,f.sub.y).about.(f'.sub.x,f'.sub.y). The values of x' and y' can be described as follows: y x'=Ax+By+C y'=Dx+Ey+F A transform T for these equations canbe written as T=[A,B,C;D,E,F]. This leads to Aa.sub.x+Ba.sub.y+C=a.sub.x' Da.sub.x+Ea.sub.y+F=a.sub.y' Ab.sub.x+Bb.sub.y+C=b.sub.x' Db.sub.x+Eb.sub.y+F=b.sub.y' Ag.sub.x+Bg.sub.y+C=g.sub.x' Dg.sub.x+Eg.sub.y+F=g.sub.y' Af.sub.x+Bf.sub.y+C=f.sub.x'Df.sub.x+Ef.sub.y+F=f.sub.y' With these 8 equations, one can find the 6-parameter affine transform T and implement the transform to appropriately warp each point in the block abgf to a'b'g'f' and get the correct image geometry. The warp determined forthese images 2 of the color look-up table can then be used to appropriately warp/shape pictures 3 (or frames) on a film 4 having the motion picture images. With this methodology for correcting distortion in mind, a feature of the invention is that thefilm has the capability of correcting physical distortion characterized in that at least one of image is recorded on a film; each of these images are recorded on a separate picture of the film; and each of these images contains at least one first field(or level) 5' and at least one second field (or level) 6' having detectable boundaries, wherein the first and second fields do not necessarily have different pixel color values, but may have some other distinguishable attribute (e.g. in texture,polarization, etc.). Essentially, the methodology for this feature of the invention is to use the process steps 21, 25, 26 and 27 described in FIG. 4. It is to be understood that there can be a plurality of first fields and second fields in an image.

The foregoing illustrates some of the possibilities for practicing the invention. Many other embodiments are possible within the scope and spirit of the invention. For example, although the color look-up table 1 is illustrated as having twolevels recorded in each of the images 2, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that more than two levels may be recorded in each of the images 2. Additionally, although the color look-up table 1 is illustrated as having a total of 65levels, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the number of levels may vary depending on the desired application of the color look-up table 1.

It is, therefore, intended that the foregoing description be regarded as illustrative rather than limiting, and that the scope of the invention is given by the appended claims together with their full range of equivalents.

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