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Plasma deposition of amorphous semiconductors at microwave frequencies
8273641 Plasma deposition of amorphous semiconductors at microwave frequencies
Patent Drawings:Drawing: 8273641-10    Drawing: 8273641-11    Drawing: 8273641-12    Drawing: 8273641-13    Drawing: 8273641-14    Drawing: 8273641-15    Drawing: 8273641-16    Drawing: 8273641-17    Drawing: 8273641-18    Drawing: 8273641-2    
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Inventor: Ovshinsky
Date Issued: September 25, 2012
Application: 12/983,203
Filed: December 31, 2010
Inventors: Ovshinsky; Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)
Assignee: Ovshinsky Innovation LLC (Bloomfield Hills, MI)
Primary Examiner: Ahmadi; Mohsen
Assistant Examiner:
Attorney Or Agent: Bray; Kevin L.
U.S. Class: 438/478; 257/E21.09; 257/E21.101; 257/E21.297; 438/482; 438/485; 438/772; 438/777; 438/96
Field Of Search: 257/E21.09; 257/E21.101; 257/E21.297
International Class: H01L 21/00; H01L 21/36; H01L 21/20; H01L 21/469; H01L 21/205
U.S Patent Documents:
Foreign Patent Documents:
Other References:









Abstract: Apparatus and method for plasma deposition of thin film photovoltaic materials at microwave frequencies. The apparatus avoids unintended deposition on windows or other microwave transmission elements that couple microwave energy to deposition species. The apparatus includes a microwave applicator with one or more conduits passing therethrough that carry deposition species. The applicator transfers microwave energy to the deposition species to activate or energize them to a reactive state. The conduits physically isolate deposition species that would react or otherwise combine to form a thin film material at the point of microwave power transfer and deliver the microwave-excited species to a deposition chamber. One or more supplemental material streams may be delivered directly to the deposition chamber without passing through the microwave applicator and may combine with deposition species exiting the one or more conduits to form a thin film material. Precursors for the microwave-excited deposition species include fluorinated forms of silicon. Precursors delivered as supplemental material streams include hydrogenated forms of silicon. The invention allows for the ultrafast formation of silicon-containing amorphous semiconductors that exhibit high mobility, low porosity, little or no Staebler-Wronski degradation, and low defect concentration.
Claim: I claim:

1. A method of making a thin film material comprising: providing a fluorinated precursor; subjecting said fluorinated precursor to microwave radiation in a first region of microwaveexcitation to form a deposition medium; delivering said deposition medium to a deposition chamber spaced apart from said first region of microwave excitation, said deposition chamber including a substrate; delivering a non-fluorinated precursor to saiddeposition chamber, said non-fluorinated precursor not passing through said first region of microwave excitation, said non-fluorinated precursor passing through a second region of microwave excitation, said second region of microwave excitationtransferring microwave energy to said non-fluorinated precursor; and forming a thin film material on said substrate from said deposition medium and said non-fluorinated precursor.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein said fluorinated precursor comprises silicon.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein said fluorinated precursor comprises SiF.sub.4.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein said fluorinated precursor lacks hydrogen.

5. The method of claim 1, further comprising combining said fluorinated precursor with an inert gas and subjecting said inert gas to said microwave radiation in said first region of microwave excitation.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the molar ratio of said inert gas to said fluorinated precursor is between 0.5 and 5.

7. The method of claim 5, wherein the molar ratio of said inert gas to said fluorinated precursor is between 1 and 3.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein said microwave radiation has a frequency of 2.45 GHz.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein said deposition medium is ionized.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein said deposition medium comprises a plasma.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein said non-fluorinated precursor comprises silicon.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein said non-fluorinated precursor further comprises hydrogen.

13. The method of claim 12, wherein said non-fluorinated precursor comprises silane.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the molar ratio of said silane to said fluorinated precursor is between 0.6 and 4.0.

15. The method of claim 13, wherein the molar ratio of said silane to said fluorinated precursor is between 1.0 and 3.5.

16. The method of claim 13, wherein the molar ratio of said silane to said fluorinated precursor is between 1.5 and 3.0.

17. The method of claim 12, wherein said non-fluorinated precursor comprises disilane.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the molar ratio of said disilane to said fluorinated precursor is between 0.3 and 2.0.

19. The method of claim 17, wherein the molar ratio of said disilane to said fluorinated precursor is between 0.5 and 1.75.

20. The method of claim 17, wherein the molar ratio of said disilane to said fluorinated precursor is between 0.75 and 1.5.

21. The method of claim 1, wherein said thin film product comprises silicon.

22. The method of claim 21, wherein said thin film product further comprises fluorine.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein the atomic concentration of fluorine is between 0.1% and 7%.

24. The method of claim 22, wherein the atomic concentration of fluorine is between 0.2% and 5%.

25. The method of claim 22, wherein the atomic concentration of fluorine is between 0.5% and 4%.

26. The method of claim 22, wherein said thin film product further comprises hydrogen.

27. The method of claim 26, wherein the atomic concentration of hydrogen is between 1% and 8%.

28. The method of claim 27, wherein the atomic concentration of fluorine is between 0.1% and 7%.

29. The method of claim 26, wherein the atomic concentration of hydrogen is between 2% and 6%.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein the atomic concentration of fluorine is between 0.2% and 5%.

31. The method of claim 26, wherein the atomic concentration of hydrogen is between 3% and 5%.

32. The method of claim 31, wherein the atomic concentration of fluorine is between 0.5% and 4%.

33. The method of claim 1, wherein said thin film material comprises a first element from said fluorinated precursor and a second element from said non-fluorinated precursor.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein said first element is fluorine and said second element is hydrogen.

35. The method of claim 1, wherein a bond of said non-fluorinated precursor is cleaved in said second region of microwave excitation.

36. The method of claim 35, wherein said non-fluorinated precursor is ionized in said second region of microwave excitation.

37. The method of claim 1, wherein said deposition medium passes through second region of microwave excitation, said second region of microwave excitation transferring microwave energy to said deposition medium.

38. The method of claim 1, wherein said second region of microwave excitation receives microwave energy from said first region of microwave excitation.
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