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Transistor with asymmetric silicon germanium source region
8035098 Transistor with asymmetric silicon germanium source region
Patent Drawings:Drawing: 8035098-2    Drawing: 8035098-3    Drawing: 8035098-4    Drawing: 8035098-5    
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Inventor: Chen, et al.
Date Issued: October 11, 2011
Application: 11/278,618
Filed: April 4, 2006
Inventors: Chen; Jian (Austin, TX)
Buller; James F. (Austin, TX)
Sultan; Akif (Austin, TX)
Assignee: GLOBALFOUNDRIES Inc. (Grand Cayman, KY)
Primary Examiner: Fahmy; Wael
Assistant Examiner: Salerno; Sarah
Attorney Or Agent: Williams, Morgan & Amerson, P.C.
U.S. Class: 257/19; 257/E31.035; 257/E33.009; 438/286; 438/300
Field Of Search: 257/19; 257/E33.009; 257/E31.035; 257/E29.104; 257/E29.193; 257/347; 257/E29.279; 438/286; 438/300
International Class: H01L 29/06; H01L 21/336
U.S Patent Documents:
Foreign Patent Documents:
Other References:









Abstract: The present invention is directed to a transistor with an asymmetric silicon germanium source region, and various methods of making same. In one illustrative embodiment, the transistor includes a gate electrode formed above a semiconducting substrate comprised of silicon, a doped source region comprising a region of epitaxially grown silicon that is doped with germanium formed in the semiconducting substrate and a doped drain region formed in the semiconducting substrate.
Claim: What is claimed:

1. A transistor, comprising: a gate electrode formed above a semiconducting substrate comprised of silicon; a doped source region comprising a region of epitaxially grownsilicon-germanium disposed in a trench defined in said semiconducting substrate; and a doped drain region formed in material of said semiconducting substrate, wherein the entire doped drain region is formed in a region of said semiconducting substratenot doped with germanium, wherein said gate electrode, doped source region, and doped drain region define a planar transistor, wherein said doped source region and said doped drain region have the same conductivity type and are asymmetric with respect tosaid region of epitaxially grown silicon-germanium.

2. The transistor of claim 1, further comprising: a first conductive contact that is conductively coupled to said source region; and a second conductive contact that is conductively coupled to said drain region.

3. The transistor of claim 1, wherein said epitaxially grown silicon-germanium region comprises from approximately 10-25% germanium.

4. The transistor of claim 1, wherein said region of epitaxially grown silicon-germanium has a thickness ranging from 200-800 .ANG..

5. The transistor of claim 1, further comprising a metal silicide layer formed on each of said gate electrode, source region and drain region.

6. The transistor of claim 1, wherein said semiconducting substrate is an SOI substrate and said transistor is formed in an active layer of said SOI substrate.

7. The transistor of claim 1, wherein said semiconducting substrate is a bulk silicon substrate.

8. The transistor of claim 1, wherein said source region and said drain region are doped with an N-type dopant material.

9. The transistor of claim 1, wherein said source region and said drain region are doped with a P-type dopant material.

10. A transistor, comprising: a gate electrode formed above a semiconducting substrate comprised of silicon; a doped source region comprising a region of epitaxially grown silicon-germanium that comprises approximately 10-25% germaniumdisposed in a trench defined in said semiconducting substrate; and a doped drain region formed in material of said semiconducting substrate, wherein the entire doped drain region is formed in a region of said semiconducting substrate not doped withgermanium, wherein said gate electrode, doped source region, and doped drain region define a planar transistor, said doped source region and said doped drain region have the same conductivity type, and said doped source region and said doped drain regionare asymmetric with respect to said region of epitaxially grown silicon-germanium.

11. The transistor of claim 10, further comprising: a first conductive contact that is conductively coupled to said source region; and a second conductive contact that is conductively coupled to said drain region.

12. The transistor of claim 10, wherein said region of epitaxially grown silicon-germanium has a thickness ranging from 200-800 .ANG..

13. The transistor of claim 10, further comprising a metal silicide layer formed on each of said gate electrode, source region and drain region.

14. The transistor of claim 10, wherein said semiconducting substrate is an SOI substrate and said transistor is formed in an active layer of said SOI substrate.

15. The transistor of claim 10, wherein said semiconducting substrate is a bulk silicon substrate.

16. The transistor of claim 10, wherein said source region and said drain region are doped with an N-type dopant material.

17. The transistor of claim 10, wherein said source region and said drain region are doped with a P-type dopant material.
Description: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention is generally directed to the field of integrated circuit devices, and, more particularly, to a transistor with an asymmetric silicon germanium source region, and various methods of making same.

2. Description of the Related Art

The manufacturing of semiconductor devices may involve many process steps. For example, semiconductor fabrication typically involves processes such as deposition processes, etching processes, thermal growth processes, various heat treatmentprocesses, ion implantation, photolithography, etc. Such processes may be performed in any of a variety of different combinations to produce semiconductor devices that are useful in a wide variety of applications.

In general, there is a constant drive within the semiconductor industry to increase the operating speed and efficiency of various integrated circuit devices, e.g., microprocessors, memory devices, and the like. This drive is fueled by consumerdemands for computers and electronic devices that operate at increasingly greater speeds and efficiency. This demand for increased speed and efficiency has resulted in a continual reduction in the size of semiconductor devices, e.g., transistors, aswell as the packing density of such devices on an integrated circuit device. That is, many components of a typical field effect transistor (FET), e.g., channel length, junction depths, gate insulation thickness, and the like, are reduced. For example,all other things being equal, the smaller the channel length of the transistor or the thinner the gate insulation layer, the faster the transistor will operate. Thus, there is a constant drive to reduce the size, or scale, of the components of a typicaltransistor to increase the overall speed of the transistor, as well as integrated circuit devices incorporating such transistors.

Modern field effect transistors comprise a gate electrode, a gate insulation layer, a source region and a drain region. When an appropriate voltage is applied to the gate electrode, a channel region is formed between the source region and thedrain region and electrons (or holes) flow between the source region and drain region. The source and drain regions of such transistors are normally the same. For example, for an NMOS transistor, both the source and drain regions are formed byintroducing an N-type dopant material, e.g., arsenic, into the semiconductor material. For a PMOS transistor, the source and drain regions are formed by introducing a P-type dopant material, e.g., boron, into the semiconductor material. In some cases,there may be a difference in the dopant concentration of the source and drain regions.

Such transistors with symmetric source and drain regions are sufficient for many applications, as evidenced by their widespread use within the industry. However, in some applications, it may be desirable to make transistors that depart fromthis traditional structure to enhance the performance of the device.

The present invention is directed to various methods and systems that may solve, or at least reduce, some or all of the aforementioned problems.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The following presents a simplified summary of the invention in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the invention. This summary is not an exhaustive overview of the invention. It is not intended to identify key orcritical elements of the invention or to delineate the scope of the invention. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is discussed later.

Generally, the present invention is directed to a transistor with an asymmetric silicon germanium source region, and various methods of making same. In one illustrative embodiment, the transistor includes a gate electrode formed above asemiconducting substrate comprised of silicon, a doped source region comprising a region of epitaxially grown silicon that is doped with germanium formed in the semiconducting substrate and a doped drain region formed in the semiconducting substrate.

In another illustrative embodiment, the transistor comprises a gate electrode formed above a semiconducting substrate comprised of silicon, a doped source region comprising a region of epitaxially grown silicon that comprises approximately10-25% germanium formed in the semiconducting substrate and a doped drain region formed in the semiconducting substrate.

In one illustrative embodiment, the method comprises forming a gate electrode above a semiconducting substrate, etching a trench into the semiconducting substrate between one side of the gate electrode and an isolation structure, forming asilicon germanium structure in the trench and forming a doped source region and a doped drain region, the doped source region being formed at least partially in the silicon germanium structure, the doped drain region being formed in the semiconductingsubstrate.

In another illustrative embodiment, the method comprises forming a gate electrode above a semiconducting substrate, etching a trench into the semiconducting substrate between one side of the gate electrode and an isolation structure, epitaxiallygrowing a layer of silicon in the trench while introducing germanium during the epitaxial growth process to thereby form a silicon germanium structure in the trench, and forming a doped source region and a doped drain region, the doped source regionbeing formed at least partially in the silicon germanium structure, the doped drain region being formed in the semiconducting substrate.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention may be understood by reference to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numerals identify like elements, and in which:

FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional side view of an illustrative embodiment of a transistor in accordance with one aspect of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional side view depicting an early stage of manufacture of an illustrative transistor in accordance with one illustrative embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a view of the device depicted in FIG. 2 having a trench formed therein for the source region of the illustrative transistor depicted herein;

FIG. 4 is a view of the device depicted in FIG. 3 after a layer of epitaxially grown silicon is formed in the trench for the source region;

FIG. 5 is a view of the device depicted in FIG. 4 wherein dopant materials are implanted to form the LDD regions on the source and drain regions of the illustrative transistor depicted herein;

FIG. 6 is a view of the device depicted in FIG. 5 wherein a source/drain implant procedure is performed to form the source and drain regions of the illustrative transistor depicted herein; and

FIG. 7 is an illustrative cross-sectional view of the transistor described herein.

While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof have been shown by way of example in the drawings and are herein described in detail. It should be understood, however, that thedescription herein of specific embodiments is not intended to limit the invention to the particular forms disclosed, but on the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope ofthe invention as defined by the appended claims.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Illustrative embodiments of the invention are described below. In the interest of clarity, not all features of an actual implementation are described in this specification. It will of course be appreciated that in the development of any suchactual embodiment, numerous implementation-specific decisions must be made to achieve the developers' specific goals, such as compliance with system-related and business-related constraints, which will vary from one implementation to another. Moreover,it will be appreciated that such a development effort might be complex and time-consuming, but would nevertheless be a routine undertaking for those of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of this disclosure.

The present invention will now be described with reference to the attached figures. Various structures and regions are schematically depicted in the drawings for purposes of explanation only and so as to not obscure the present invention withdetails that are well known to those skilled in the art. The relative sizes of the various structures and regions depicted in the drawings may be exaggerated for purposes of explanation. Nevertheless, the attached drawings are included to describe andexplain illustrative examples of the present invention. The words and phrases used herein should be understood and interpreted to have a meaning consistent with the understanding of those words and phrases by those skilled in the relevant art. Nospecial definition of a term or phrase, i.e., a definition that is different from the ordinary and customary meaning as understood by those skilled in the art, is intended to be implied by consistent usage of the term or phrase herein. To the extentthat a term or phrase is intended to have a special meaning, i.e., a meaning other than that understood by skilled artisans, such a special definition will be expressly set forth in the specification in a definitional manner that directly andunequivocally provides the special definition for the term or phrase.

FIG. 1 depicts one illustrative embodiment of the transistor 10 disclosed herein. As shown therein, the transistor 10 comprises a gate insulation layer 11, a gate electrode 15, at least one sidewall spacer 19, a source region 12 and a drainregion 14. In the illustrative embodiment depicted in FIG. 1, the transistor 10 is formed in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate 16 comprised of a bulk substrate 16A, a buried insulation layer 16B (sometimes referred to as a "buried oxide layer" or"BOX" layer), and an active layer 16C. A trench isolation structure 18 may be employed to electrically isolate the transistor 10 from other semiconductor devices. Also depicted in FIG. 1 are illustrative metal silicide regions 17 and illustrativeconductive contacts 20 that are positioned in a layer of insulating material 22. The conductive contacts 20 are conductively coupled to the source region 12 and the drain region 14, as depicted in FIG. 1. A conductive contact is also formed to the gateelectrode 15, although that conductive contact is not depicted in FIG. 1.

The gate insulation layer 11, the gate electrode 15, the sidewall spacers 19, and the metal silicide regions 17 may all be formed using known techniques and materials. For example, the gate insulation layer 11 may be a thermally grown layer ofsilicon dioxide. The gate electrode 15 may be a doped layer of polysilicon that is formed by traditional deposition, doping and etching processes. Similarly, the sidewall spacer 19 may comprise a material such as, for example, silicon nitride, and itmay be formed by conformally depositing a layer of spacer material and performing an anisotropic etching process. The metal silicide regions 17 may be comprised of, for example, cobalt silicide, and they may be formed using traditional techniques.

In one illustrative embodiment, the source region 12 of the transistor 10 is comprised of an epitaxially grown layer of silicon having a concentration of germanium ranging from approximately 10-25%. The germanium may be introduced into thelayer of epitaxially grown silicon by performing an in situ doping process that is performed as the layer of epitaxial silicon is grown. After a complete reading of the present application, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the presentinvention has broad application. For example, the present invention may be employed in connection with the formation of NMOS or PMOS transistors. For convenience, the present invention will be disclosed in the context where an illustrative NMOStransistor 10 is formed. However, the present invention is not limited to the formation of such illustrative devices.

FIGS. 2-7 depict one illustrative process flow for forming the illustrative transistor 10 depicted herein. As shown in FIG. 2, the isolation region 18 may be formed in the active layer 16C by performing known etching and deposition techniques. FIG. 2 depicts the transistor 10 at the point of manufacture wherein the gate insulation layer 11 and the gate electrode 15 have been formed in accordance with known techniques. The sidewall spacer 19 may be comprised of a variety of materials and maybe formed using a variety of known techniques. For example, the spacer 19 may be formed by conformally depositing a layer of spacer material, e.g., silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and thereafter performing an anisotropic etching process. In oneillustrative process flow, the sidewall spacer 19 is employed to protect the gate electrode 11 during a subsequent etching process performed in forming the source region 12, as described more fully below. The sidewall spacer 19 may be sacrificial orpermanent as described more fully below.

FIG. 3 depicts the device shown in FIG. 2 after an etching process 29 is performed to form a trench 30 in the active layer 16C between the isolation structure 18 and the sidewall spacer 19. In some cases, the spacer 19 may or may not bepresent. Thus, when it is stated that the trench 30 is formed between the isolation structure 18 and the gate electrode 15, it is to be understood that the gate electrode structure may or may not have the spacer 19 formed adjacent thereto. A maskinglayer 31, e.g., photoresist, is employed during the etching process 29 to protect the remainder of the substrate 16. The sidewall spacer 19 protects the gate electrode 11 during the etching process 29. In the particular embodiment depicted herein, thetrench 30 is self-aligned with respect to the sidewall spacer 19. In one illustrative embodiment, the trench 30 does not extend all the way to the buried insulation layer 16B so that the remaining portions of the active layer 16C in the trench 30 canserve as a seed layer for the subsequent epitaxial growth of silicon in the trench 30, as described more fully below. In some cases, the trench 30 may have a depth or thickness of approximately 200-800 .ANG..

Next, as shown in FIG. 4, in one illustrative embodiment, a layer of germanium-doped epitaxial silicon 32 ("eSi--Ge") is grown in the trench 30. The epitaxial silicon 32 may be grown using known processing techniques and known epi-depositiontools. A hard mask layer 37 is formed above the substrate 16 during the epitaxial growth process. The hard mask material may be comprised of the same materials as the spacer 19. The material selected for the hard mask layer 37 must be able towithstand the processing conditions during the growth of the epitaxial layer of silicon 32 and still perform the necessary masking function.

In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, germanium is introduced into the epitaxial layer of silicon 32 by introducing germanium during the epitaxial growth process. The concentration of the germanium may vary depending upon theparticular application. For example, the concentration of germanium in the final source region 12 may comprise approximately 10-25%. The germanium in the layer 32 may act to reduce the effective bandgap of the silicon, thereby improving deviceperformance.

After the silicon-germanium epitaxial layer of silicon is formed, standard processing techniques are employed to complete the manufacture of the transistor 10, e.g., LDD and source/drain implants may be performed to complete the formation of thesource region 12 and drain region 14 of the transistor 10. As shown in FIG. 5, a new masking layer 37 may be formed above the substrate 16 and thereby exposes the area where the source region 12 and drain region 14 are to be formed. An LDD ion implantprocess 33 is performed to introduce an N-type dopant material, e.g., arsenic, into the silicon germanium layer 32 and the portion 42 of the active layer 16C wherein the drain region 14 will be formed. This LDD implant 33 results in the formation of LDDregions 45 that are self-aligned with respect to the gate electrode 15. Illustrative N-type dopant materials that are introduced in the LDD implant process 33 include, for example, arsenic, phosphorus, etc. The LDD implant process 33 may be performed ata dopant dose and an energy level appropriate for the device under construction. Next, as shown in FIG. 6, a so-called source/drain ion implant process 35 is performed to introduce a relatively high concentration of an N-type dopant material, such as,e.g., arsenic or phosphorous, at a dopant dose and energy level sufficient for the intended application. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 6, a new spacer 41 has been added prior to performing the source/drain implant process 35.

Prior to performing the LDD implant process 33, the spacer 19 may or may not be removed. If it is removed, at least one new spacer (not shown) may be formed adjacent the gate electrode 15. For example, such a spacer may be employed prior toperforming the LDD implant 33 on a PMOS transistor. It should be understood that one or more spacers may be formed prior to or during the various ion implant processes performed to form the source region 12 and the drain region 14.

Thereafter, known processing techniques may be employed to complete the formation of the transistor 10, as shown in FIG. 7. For example, one or more heat treatment processes may be performed to activate the implanted dopant material and repairany damage to the lattice structure. If desired, metal silicide regions 17 may be formed on the source region 12, the drain region 14 and the gate electrode 15 as shown in FIG. 1 using known techniques. It should be noted that the transistor depictedin FIG. 8 is depicted after various heat treatments have been performed to thereby cause the implanted dopant material to migrate somewhat under the gate electrode 15.

The particular embodiments disclosed above are illustrative only, as the invention may be modified and practiced in different but equivalent manners apparent to those skilled in the art having the benefit of the teachings herein. For example,the process steps set forth above may be performed in a different order. Furthermore, no limitations are intended to the details of construction or design herein shown, other than as described in the claims below. It is therefore evident that theparticular embodiments disclosed above may be altered or modified and all such variations are considered within the scope and spirit of the invention. Accordingly, the protection sought herein is as set forth in the claims below.

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