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Sulphonylated diphenylethylenediamines, method for their preparation and use in transfer hydrogenation catalysis
7601867 Sulphonylated diphenylethylenediamines, method for their preparation and use in transfer hydrogenation catalysis
Patent Drawings:

Inventor: Dominguez, et al.
Date Issued: October 13, 2009
Application: 11/719,478
Filed: November 1, 2005
Inventors: Dominguez; Beatriz (Suffolk, GB)
Zanotti-Gerosa; Antonio (Cambridge, GB)
Grasa; Gabriela Alexandra (Mantua, NJ)
Medlock; Jonathan Alan (Cambridge, GB)
Assignee: Bial-Portela & CA, S.A. (S. Mamede Do Coronado, PT)
Primary Examiner: O'Sullivan; Peter G
Assistant Examiner:
Attorney Or Agent: Conley Rose, P.C.Carroll; Rodney B.
U.S. Class: 564/92; 502/155; 568/630; 568/812; 568/814
Field Of Search: 564/92; 568/630; 568/812; 568/814; 502/155
International Class: C07C 311/21; C07C 303/38; C07C 311/03; C07C 311/16
U.S Patent Documents:
Foreign Patent Documents: 1258470; 2004031155
Other References: Pikul et al., Chem. Abst.: 122:9562 (1995). cited by examiner.
Corey, E. J., et al., "Convenient Routes to Symmetrical Benzils and Chiral 1,2-Diaryl-1,2-diaminoethanes, Useful Controllers and Probes for Enantioselective Synthesis," Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, 1995, pp. 3-6, vol. 6, No. 1, Elsevier Science Ltd,Great Britain. cited by other.
Li, Xiaoguang, et al., "Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones with a polymer-supported chiral diamine," Tetrahedron Letters, 2004, pp. 951-953, vol. 45, Elsevier Ltd. cited by other.
Li, Xiaoguang, et al., "Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation in Water with a Supported Noyori-Ikariya Catalyst," Organic Letters, 2004, pp. 3321-3324, vol. 6, No. 19, American Chemical Society. cited by other.
Ma, Yaping, et al., "Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Prochiral Ketones in Aqueous Media with New Water-Soluble Chiral Vicinal Diamine as Ligand," Organic Letters, 2003, pp. 2103-2106, vol. 5, No. 12, American Chemical Society. cited by other.
Xue, Dong, et al., "Transfer Hydrogenation of Activated C=C Bonds Catalyzed by Ruthenium Amido Complexes: Reaction Scope, Limitation, and Enantioselectivity," J. Org. Chem., 2005, pp. 3584-3591, vol. 70, No. 9, American Chemical Society. cited byother.
Foreign communication from a related counterpart application--International Search Report, PCT/GB2005/050190, Feb. 17, 2006, 4 pgs. cited by other.
Foreign communication from a related counterpart application--International Preliminary Report on Patentability, PCT/GB2005/050190, May 22, 2007, 7 pgs. cited by other.









Abstract: A diamine of formula (I) is described, in which A is hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated C1-C20 alkyl group or an aryl group; B is a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C20 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, alkaryl or aryl group or an alkylamino group and at least one of X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 or Z is a C1-C10 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group. The chiral diamine may be used to prepare catalysts suitable for use in transfer hydrogenation reactions. ##STR00001##
Claim: The invention claimed is:

1. A diamine of formula (I) ##STR00018## in which A is hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated C1-C20 alkyl group or an aryl group; B is a substituted or unsubstitutedC1-C20 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl or aryl group or an alkylamino group and wherein X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1 and Y.sup.2 are hydrogen and Z is a C1-C10 alkyl, alkaryl, cycloalkyl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group.

2. The diamine according to claim 1 wherein A is hydrogen.

3. The diamine according to claim 1 wherein B is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group.

4. The diamine according to claim 1 wherein Z is methyl.

5. The diamine according to claim 1 wherein Z is methoxy.

6. The diamine according to claim 1 wherein the diamine is homochiral.

7. The method for preparing a diamine of formula (I) as claimed in claim 1 comprising the steps of a) forming a substituted spiroimidazole from a substituted diketone of formula (II), b) reducing the substituted spiroimidazole to form asubstituted diamine, c) optionally resolving the substituted diamine to an enantiomerically enriched form, and d) sulphonylating the substituted diamine. ##STR00019##

8. A catalyst comprising the reaction product of a diamine of formula (I) as claimed in claim 1 and a compound of a metal selected from the list consisting of Ru, Rh, Ir, Co, Ni, Fe, Pd or Pt.

9. The catalyst according to claim 8 wherein the metal compound is [MX.sub.2(arene)].sub.2 where M =Rh or Ru and X =halogen.

10. A method comprising contacting the catalyst according to claim 8 with a compound and performing a transfer hydrogenation reaction.

11. The method according to claim 10 wherein the compound is a cyclic ketone.

12. The diamine according to claim 2 wherein B is a substituted or unsubstituted aryl group.

13. The diamine according to claim 2 wherein X.sup.1, X.sup.2, y.sup.1 and Y.sup.2 are hydrogen and Z is a C1-C10 alkyl, alkaryl, cycloalkyl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group.

14. The diamine according to claim 3 wherein X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1 and Y.sup.2 are hydrogen and Z is a C1-C10 alkyl, alkaryl, cycloalkyl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group.

15. The diamine according to claim 12 wherein X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1 and Y.sup.2 are hydrogen and Z is a C1-C10 alkyl, alkaryl, cycloalkyl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group.

16. The diamine according to claim 2 wherein Z is methyl or methoxy.

17. The diamine according to claim 3 wherein Z is methyl or methoxy.

18. The diamine according to claim 12 wherein Z is methyl or methoxy.

19. The diamine according to claim 18 wherein the diamine is homochiral.

20. The diamine according to claim 1 having an enantiomeric excess of greater than 70%.
Description: This invention relates to diamines and in particular to substituted diphenylethylenediaminesand catalysts derived therefrom. Such catalysts are useful for accelerating asymmetric hydrogenation reactions whose products are useful, for example, as chemical intermediates or reagents for use in the production of fine chemicals or pharmaceuticalintermediates.

Catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation involves the activation of molecular hydrogen with chiral metal complexes. However, organic molecules can also be applied as the hydrogen donor in the presence of a suitable chiral catalyst in a process knownas transfer hydrogenation. A hydrogen donor such as isopropanol or formic acid is conventionally used with catalysts of the type [(sulphonylated diamine)RuCl(arene)] for the reduction of carbonyl groups. This technology provides a powerful complementto catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation. Transfer hydrogenation, in fact, is particularly suitable for the asymmetric reduction of ketones that are difficult substrates for hydrogenation, such as acetylenic ketones and cyclic ketones.

Heretofore the sulphonylated diamine component of the transfer hydrogenation catalysts has been limited to sulphonylated diphenylethylenediamine (Dpen) and cycloalkyl-1,2-diamines such as 1,2-cyclohexane. For example transfer hydrogenation hasbeen applied using [(tosyl-dpen)RuCl(arene)] catalysts to pharmaceutical products such as 10-hydroxy-dihydro-dibenz-[b,f]-azepines (see WO 2004/031155).

The sulphonylated diamine components used heretofore, while useful, are not equally effective across the range of desirable substrates. Thus, there is a need to expand the range of diamines suitable for use in transfer hydrogenation catalyststhat provide catalysts of increased activity, selectivity or stability. We have recognised that, by introducing one or more substituting groups into the phenyl rings of diphenylethylenediamines and by variation of the sulphonate properties, the stericand electronic properties of the diamine component may be usefully adapted.

Accordingly the present invention provides a diamine of formula (I)

##STR00002## in which A is hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated C1-C20 alkyl group or an aryl group; B is a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C20 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, alkaryl or aryl group or an alkylamino group and at least one ofX.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 or Z is a C1-C10 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group.

The invention further provides a method for preparing a diamine of formula (I) comprising the steps of forming a substituted spiroimidazole from a substituted diketone of formula (II), where X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 and Z are as above,reducing the substituted spiroimidazole to form a substituted diamine, optionally resolving the substituted diamine to an enantiomerically enriched form, and sulphonylating the substituted diamine.

##STR00003##

The invention also provides a catalyst comprising the reaction product of a diamine of formula (I) and a suitable compound of a catalytically active metal.

In formula (I), A is hydrogen or a saturated or unsaturated C1-C20 alkyl group or an aryl group. The C1-C20 alkyl groups may be branched or linear, for example may be methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl,tert-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, cyclohexyl, ethyl-hexyl, iso-octyl, n-nonyl, n-decyl, iso-decyl, tridecyl, octadecyl and isooctadecyl. The aryl group may be an unsubstituted or substituted phenyl, naphthyl or anthracylphenyl. Suitable substituting groupsare hydroxy, halide (e.g. F, Cl, Br, I), C1-C20 alkoxy, amino, amido, nitrile and thiol. Preferably A is hydrogen, methyl ethyl, propyl or phenyl. Most preferably A is hydrogen.

In formula (I), B is introduced by sulphonylation of the optionally enantiomerically enriched substituted diamine. A wide range of sulphonylation compounds may be used to alter the properties of the sulphonylated diamine of formula (I). Accordingly, B may be a substituted or unsubstituted C1-C20 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, alkaryl or aryl group, for example as described above, or an alkylamino group. By `alkylamino` we mean that B may be of formula --NR'.sub.2, where R' is e.g. methyl,cyclohexyl or isopropyl or the nitrogen forms part of an alkyl ring structure. Fluoroalkyl or fluoroaryl groups may be used, for example B may be p-CF.sub.3--C.sub.6H.sub.4, C.sub.6F.sub.5 or CF.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3 or CF.sub.3. Preferably Bis an aryl group. The aryl group may be an unsubstituted or substituted phenyl, naphthyl or anthracylphenyl or heteroaryl compound such as pyridyl. Suitable substituting groups are C1-C20 alkyl as described above, trifluoromethyl, hydroxyl, halide(e.g. F, Cl, Br, I), C1-C20 alkoxy (especially methoxy), amino, amido, nitrile, nitro and thiol. Hence B may be for example o-Nitrophenyl, p-nitrophenyl, trichlorophenyl, trimethoxyphenyl, triisopropylphenyl, o-aminophenyl, benzyl(--CH.sub.2C.sub.6H.sub.5), 2-phenylethyl (C.sub.2H.sub.4C.sub.6H.sub.5), phenyl (C.sub.6H.sub.5), tolyl (p-CH.sub.3--C.sub.6H.sub.4), xylyl ((CH.sub.3).sub.2C.sub.6H.sub.3), anisyl (CH.sub.3O--C.sub.6H.sub.4), naphthyl or dansyl(5-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl). Preferably, B is tolyl and the sulphonylation is performed with tosyl chloride (p-toluenesulphonyl chloride).

The diamine of the present invention has two chiral centres, each bearing a phenyl ring having at least one substituting group X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 or Z. The substituting group X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 or Z is a C1-C10alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl or alkoxy group. It will be understood that in order to satisfy the valency of the carbon atoms in the phenyl rings to which X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 or Z is bound, where X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2or Z is not a C1-C10 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group, X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 or Z will be a hydrogen atom.

Thus at least one of X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 or Z may independently be a C1-C10 alkyl group such as methyl, trifluoromethyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, cyclopentyl, hexyl,cyclohexyl, ethyl-hexyl, iso-octyl, n-nonyl, n-decyl or iso-decyl; an alkaryl group such as benzyl or ethylphenyl; an aryl group such as phenyl, tolyl or xylyl; or a C1-C10 alkoxy group such as methoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, iso-propoxy, n-butoxy,iso-butoxy, sec-butoxy, tert-butoxy, cyclopentoxy, pentoxy, hexoxy, cyclohexoxy, ethyl-hexoxy, iso-octoxy, n-nonoxy, n-decoxy or iso-decoxy.

Preferably each phenyl ring has one or more substituents. The phenyl rings may be substituted in one or more positions, i.e. the rings may be mono-, di-, tri-, tetra- or penta-substituted. The substituting group on the phenyl ring may be in theortho (X.sup.1, X.sup.2), meta (Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2) or para (Z) position. However, when the substituent is at the meta-position of the phenyl ring it minimizes the electronic effects on the amino group, which may facilitate the synthesis of the resultingdiamine. Thus one embodiment the substituted diamine is a 1,2-di-(meta-substituted phenyl)ethylenediamine. Where more that one substituting group is present they are preferably the same. For example in one embodiment, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 may be hydrogenand X.sup.1, X.sup.2 and Z are preferably the same alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group. In an alternative embodiment X.sup.1, X.sup.2 and Z may be hydrogen and Y.sup.1 and Y.sup.2 are preferably the same alkyl, cycloalkyl,alkaryl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group. In a preferred embodiment X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1 and Y.sup.2 are hydrogen and Z is a C1-C10 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group. In a particularly preferred embodiment,X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1 and Y.sup.2 are hydrogen and Z is methyl. In another particularly preferred embodiment, X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1 and Y.sup.2 are hydrogen and Z is methoxy.

The substituted diamines of the present invention may be conveniently made from substituted diketones of formula (II) where X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 and Z are as above, via a spiro-imidazole, which is then reduced to a diamine andsulphonylated.

##STR00004##

Substituted diketones (benzils) of formula (II) can be obtained commercially or can be readily prepared from substituted benzaldehydes of formula (III) where X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1, Y.sup.2 and Z are as above, by benzoin condensation followedby oxidation of the resulting substituted benzoin. Substituted benzaldehydes are commercially available or may be synthesised using known substitution reactions. Benzoin condensation reactions are well known and are typically performed by reacting asubstituted benzaldehyde in a suitable solvent in the presence of sodium cyanide (see for example Ide et al, Org. React. 1948, 4, 269-304). The oxidation of the substituted benzoin to the diketone may readily be performed using copper acetate andammonium nitrate (for example see Weiss et al, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1948, 3666).

The spiroimidazole may be formed by treating the substituted diketone of formula (II) with acetic acid, ammonium acetate and cyclohexanone and heating to reflux. The reduction of the resulting substituted benzoin to the substituted diamine maybe performed by mixing a solution of the spiroimidazole with lithium wire and liquid ammonia at below -60.degree. C., treating the mixture with ethanol and ammonium chloride and allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature. The substituted diamineis sulphonylated to provide the substituted diamines of the present invention.

The substituted diamine may then be sulphonylated by treating the substituted diamine in a suitable solvent with the desired sulphonyl chloride, i.e. Cl--SO.sub.2--B, and a base such as triethylamine.

The nitrogen atoms in the substituted diamine are bonded to chiral centres and so the substituted diamine is chiral. The diamine may be homochiral, i.e. (R,R) or (S,S), or have one (R) and one (S) centre. Preferably the diamine is homochiral. Whereas the diamine may be used as a racemic mixture, the amine is preferably enantiomerically enriched. The resolution of the chiral substituted diamine may be performed using a chiral acid or by any other method known to those skilled in the art. Whereas the resolution may be performed on the sulphonylated diamine of formula (I), preferably the resolution is performed on the substituted diamine before the sulphonylation step. For example, the substituted diamine may be treated with a chiralcarboxylic acid such as ditoluoyltartaric acid or dibenzoyltartaric acid in a suitable solvent. The resolved substituted diamine preferably has an enantiomeric excess (ee %)>70%, more preferably >90%.

Hence this route provides an efficient and cost effective method to prepare enantiomerically enriched substituted 1,2-diphenylethylenediamines. The route is depicted below for a preferred example where A, X.sup.1, X.sup.2, Y.sup.1 and Y.sup.2are hydrogen, B is e.g. p-CH.sub.3--C.sub.6H.sub.5 and Z is a C1-C10 alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkaryl, aralkyl or alkoxy substituting group;

##STR00005##

Catalysts suitable for performing asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reactions may be prepared by reacting the substituted sulphonylated diamines of the present invention with a suitable compound of a catalytically active metal. The metalcompound is preferably a compound of metals selected from the list consisting of Ru, Rh, Ir, Co, Ni, Fe, Pd or Pt. Preferred compounds are compounds of Ru, Rh and Ir, particularly Ru or Rh. Suitable Ru or Rh compounds are [MX.sub.2(arene)].sub.2compounds where M=Rh or Ru and X=halogen, more preferably [RuCl.sub.2(arene)].sub.2. Arene compounds are any suitable aromatic molecule, and include benzenes and cyclopentadienes, e.g. benzene, pentamethylcyclopentadiene and para-cymene(4-isopropyltoluene). Particularly suitable metal compounds for preparing hydrogenation catalysts include [RhCp*Cl.sub.2].sub.2 (where Cp* is CpMe.sub.5), [RuCl.sub.2(benzene)].sub.2 and [RuCl.sub.2(p-cymene)].sub.2.

The catalysts may be prepared by simply combining the diamine and the metal compound in a suitable solvent under mild conditions (e.g. 0 to 80.degree. C. at about atmospheric pressure). Suitable solvents include hydrocarbons, aromatichydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, ethers, DMF and the like. If desired, the reaction may be performed ex-situ and the resulting catalyst isolated, e.g. by removal of the solvent under vacuum. Alternatively, the catalyst may beformed in-situ, i.e. in the presence of the substrate to be hydrogenated and the hydrogen source, again by combining the metal compound and diamine in the reactants, which may be diluted with a suitable solvent.

The chiral catalysts of the present invention may be applied to transfer hydrogenation reactions. Typically, a carbonyl compound or imine, hydrogen source, base and solvent are mixed in the presence of the catalyst, which may be formed in-situ. Preferred hydrogen sources are isopropanol or formic acid (or formates). The catalysts may be used to reduce a wide variety of carbonyl compounds to the corresponding chiral alcohols and imines to the corresponding chiral amines. The reactions may becarried out under typical transfer hydrogenation conditions and in a variety of suitable solvents known to those skilled in the art. For example, the reaction may be performed in an ether, ester or dimethylformamide (DMF) at 0-75.degree. C. Water maybe present. With formic acid, a base such as triethylamine, DBU or other tertiary amine is preferably used. With isopropanol, the base is preferably t-BuOK, KOH or iPrOK.

The invention is illustrated by the following examples.

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of Diamine Ligands

(I) Spiro-imidazole formation (1 to 2)

##STR00006## a) Z=Methyl (CH.sub.3): Acetic acid (70 ml) was added to a flask containing the commercially available diketone 1a (dimethylbenzil 11.9 g, 50 mmol) and ammonium acetate (27 g, 350 mmol). Cyclohexanone (5.3 ml, 51.5 mmol) was addedand the reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 1-4 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was poured onto water and left overnight to crystallize. The crystals were collected by filtration and dried under reduced pressure. Recrystallization was from ethyl acetate/hexane and gave 8.22 and 3.32 g of 2a in 2 crops. Total yield 11.54 g, 73%. b) Z=Methoxy (CH.sub.3O): Acetic acid (100 ml) was added to a flask containing the commercially available diketone 1b (dimethoxybenzil,18.9 g, 70 mmol) and ammonium acetate (37.7 g, 490 mmol). Cyclohexanone (7.45 ml, 72.1 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 1-4 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was poured onto water and left overnightto crystallize. The crystals were collected by filtration and dried under reduced pressure. Yield of imidazole 2b, 19.22 g, 79%. Further purification can be achieved by crystallisation from ethyl acetate/hexane (II) Reduction (2 to 3)

##STR00007## a) Z=Methyl (CH.sub.3): Ammonia gas was slowly condensed into a solution of the spiro-imidazole 2a (6.95 g, 22 mmol) in anhydrous THF (50 ml) at -78.degree. C. under argon. Once the volume of the reaction mixture has approximatelydoubled, the gas flow was stopped. Lithium wire (0.62 g, 88 mmol) was added slowly ensuring that the temperature did not exceed -60.degree. C. After stirring for 30-60 minutes ethanol (2.6 ml) was added, and 30-60 minutes later ammonium chloride (6.2g) was added. The mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and water (about 100 ml) and MTBE (about 100 ml) were added. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted twice with about 100 ml MTBE. The combined organic layers werewashed with brine and evaporated under vacuum. The resulting oil was dissolved in MTBE and 10% HCl was added (2-3 eq.). The biphasic mixture was stirred for 30-90 minutes and was diluted with water. The layers were separated and the organic layer wasextracted with water. The combined aqueous layers were washed with dichloromethane and then neutralised with aqueous KOH until the pH>10. The crude diamine was extracted into dichloromethane (3 times). The combined organic extracts dried(Na.sub.2SO.sub.4) and evaporated to give an oil or solid. Yield of racemic diamine 3a as a 19:1 mixture of diastereoisomers, 4.96 g, 94%. Further purification can be achieved by crystallisation from ethyl acetate/hexane. b) Z=Methoxy (CH.sub.3O):Ammonia gas was slowly condensed into a solution of the spiro-imidazole 2b (6.96 g, 20 mmol) in anhydrous THF (40 ml) at -78.degree. C. under argon. Once the volume of the reaction mixture has approximately doubled, the gas flow was stopped. Lithiumwire (0.56 g, 80 mmol) was added slowly ensuring that the temperature did not exceed -60.degree. C. After stirring for 30-60 minutes ethanol (2.4 ml) was added, and 30-60 minutes later ammonium chloride (2.8 g) was added. The mixture was allowed towarm to room temperature and water (about 100 ml) and MTBE (about 100 ml) were added. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted twice with about 100 ml MTBE. The combined organic layers were washed with brine and evaporated undervacuum. The resulting oil was dissolved in MTBE and 10% HCl was added (2-3 eq.). The biphasic mixture was stirred for 30-90 minutes and was diluted with water. The layers were separated and the organic layer was extracted with water. The combinedaqueous layers were washed with dichloromethane and then neutralised with aqueous KOH until the pH>10. The crude diamine was extracted into dichloromethane (3 times). The combined organic extracts dried (Na.sub.2SO.sub.4) and evaporated to give anoil or solid. Yield of racemic diamine 3b as a 19:1 mixture of diastereoisomers, 4.69 g, 86%. Further purification can be achieved by crystallisation from ethyl acetate/hexane. (III) Chiral Resolution of Diamines

##STR00008## a) Resolution of diamine 3a. Formation of a salt with ditoluoyltartaric acid in methanol and crystallisation from methanol initially gave (R,R) 4a in 94% ee. This can be increased to >99% with one further crystallisation. b)Resolution of diamine 3b. Formation of a salt with ditoluoyltartaric acid in methanol and crystallisation from methanol initially gave (S,S) 4b in 74% ee. It should be possible to increase the ee by further crystallisation. Formation of a salt withdibenzoyltartaric acid in methanol and crystallisation from methanol initially gave 4b in 98% ee. (IV) Synthesis of Mono-Sulfonylated Diamines

##STR00009##

a) Tosyl-5a (Z=CH.sub.3, B=4-CH.sub.3--C.sub.6H.sub.4). Triethylamine (210 .mu.l, 1.5 mmol) was added to a solution of the diamine 4a (180 mg, 0.75 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (8 ml) and the solution was cooled to 0.degree. C. A solutionof the tosyl chloride (p-toluenesulphonyl chloride, 148 mg, 0.77 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (4 ml) was added slowly. The mixture was stirred at 0.degree. C. for 30-120 minutes and allowed to warm to room temperature over 1-24 hours. Water wasadded and the layers separated. The aqueous layer was extracted twice with dichloromethane and the combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried (Na.sub.2SO.sub.4) and evaporated. The crude mono-sulfonated diamine could be purified by columnchromatography. Purification by column chromatography gave 270 mg (91%) of Ts-5a as a white solid.

b) Tosyl-5b (Z=OCH.sub.3, B=4-CH.sub.3--C.sub.6H.sub.4). Triethylamine (190 .mu.l, 1.3 mmol) was added to a solution of the diamine 4b (175 mg, 0.65 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (8 ml) and the solution was cooled to 0.degree. C. Asolution of the tosyl chloride (p-toluenesulphonyl chloride, 1428 mg, 0.67 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (5 ml) was added slowly. The mixture was stirred at 0.degree. C. for 30-120 minutes and allowed to warm to room temperature over 1-24 hours. Water was added and the layers separated. The aqueous layer was extracted twice with dichloromethane and the combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried (Na.sub.2SO.sub.4) and evaporated. The crude mono-sulfonylated diamine could be purifiedby column chromatography. Purification by column chromatography gave 270 mg (91%) of Ts-5b as a white solid.

EXAMPLE 2

Preparation of Transfer Hydrogenation Catalyst

A mixture of [Ru(p-cymene)Cl.sub.2].sub.2 (0.5 eq.), triethylamine (2 eq.), mono-sulfonated diamine (1 eq.) 5b in anhydrous isopropanol was heated at 70-90.degree. C. for 1-4 hours under an inert atmosphere. After cooling to room temperaturethe solution was concentrated under reduced pressure and the orange solid collected by filtration. The solid was washed with degassed water and a small amount of methanol then further dried under reduced pressure. Further purification can be performedby precipitation/crystallisation from hot methanol.

EXAMPLE 3

Use of Mono-Sulfonated Diamines 5 for Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation Test of Transfer Hydrogenation Catalysts on a Mixture of Ketones

Transfer hydrogenation catalysts bearing diamines 5 were prepared in situ and tested on pre-formed mixture of ketones in DMF. [Ru(p-cymene)Cl.sub.2].sub.2 (0.0025 mmol) or [RhCp*Cl.sub.2].sub.2 (0.0025 mmol) mono-sulfonated diamine (0.0055 mmol)5 in anhydrous DMF (2 mL) were heated at 40.degree. C. for 10 minutes under inert atmosphere (argon). A solution of five ketones (0.5 mL, 1 mmol in total, 0.2 mmol each) in DMF was added (S/C 40 with respect to each substrate), followed by 0.6 mL offormic acid/trietylamine 1/1 mixture and 1 mL of DMF. The reaction was heated overnight (20 hrs) at 60.degree. C. and analysed by CG (ChiraDex CB column, 10 psi He, 100.degree. C. for 12 min, then to 180.degree. C. at 1.5.degree. C./min, then to200.degree. C. at 5.degree. C./min).

For reference, the diamines tested were as follows;

TABLE-US-00001 ##STR00010## ##STR00011## ##STR00012## Ketone ##STR00013## ##STR00014## ##STR00015## ##STR00016## ##STR00017## (S,S)-Ts-DAEN - Ru >95% conv 33% conv >95% conv >95% conv >95% conv S/C 100/1 55% ee 40% ee 96% ee 29% ee92% ee (S,S)-Ts-DAEN - Ru >95% conv 10% conv >95% conv >95% conv >95% conv S/C 200/1 57% ee 42% ee 98% ee 27% ee 94% ee (R,R)-Ts-DTEN - Ru >95% conv 11% conv >95% conv >95% conv >95% conv S/C 200/1 53% ee 35% ee 96% ee 28% ee 91%ee (S,S)-Ts-DAEN - Rh >95% conv 46% conv 51% conv >95% conv 47% conv S/C 100/1 72% ee 13% ee 98% ee 13% ee 90% ee conv = conversion ee enantiomeric excess

The results show particularly high conversions and ee's are obtained for the cyclic ketone, i.e. where the ketone is part of a ring structure, such as .alpha.-tetralone.

EXAMPLE 4

Activity of TsDAEN vs. TsDPEN

The activity of (S,S)-TsDAEN vs the conventional (S,S)-TsDPEN in asymmetric transfer hydrogenation was tested using .alpha.-tetralone as a substrate. The reaction was performed on a 15 mmol scale, at S/C 500/1, using [RuCl.sub.2(p-cymene)].sub.2as metal precursor and DMF as solvent at 60.degree. C. One equivalent of triethylammonium formate was added at the beginning of the reaction and more HCOOH was added during the course of the reaction to maintain the pH at 8.2. The results shown belowindicate that (S,S)-TsDAEN is more active than (S,S)-TsDPEN.

TABLE-US-00002 Diamine Ligand Time (h) Conversion (%) e.e. (%) Example 4 (S,S)-TsDAEN 1.5 36 98 5 71 22 90 Comparative (S,S)-TsDPEN 1 11 98 Example 2 25 3 31 4 36 6 45 22 70

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