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Color toner composition for electrostatic developer
5017450 Color toner composition for electrostatic developer
Patent Drawings:

Inventor: Iwanari, et al.
Date Issued: May 21, 1991
Application: 07/360,697
Filed: June 2, 1989
Inventors: Amaya; Shinji (Saitama, JP)
Iwanari; Yoshiyuki (Tokyo, JP)
Kogawara; Toshiro (Saitama, JP)
Shimizu; Seiichi (Saitama, JP)
Assignee: Dainippon Ink & Chemicals, Inc. (Tokyo, JP)
Primary Examiner: Martin; Roland
Assistant Examiner:
Attorney Or Agent: Armstrong, Nikaido, Marmelstein, Kubovcik & Murray
U.S. Class: 430/109.3; 430/109.31; 430/109.4
Field Of Search: 430/106; 430/109; 430/110
International Class:
U.S Patent Documents: 4931370; 4931375
Foreign Patent Documents: 58-198049; 61-83547; 1-156759; 1-163756
Other References:









Abstract: A color toner composition for an electrostatic developer is disclosed, comprising a cyan pigment, a magenta pigment or a yellow pigment, a binder resin and a negative charging-controlling agent, wherein the binder resin is a vinyl-modified polyester resin as obtained by graft polymerizing.(b) a vinyl monomer component containing an aromatic vinyl monomer and an amino group-containing vinyl monomer to(a) an unsaturated polyester component containing at least aliphatic unsaturated dibasic acid and polyhydric alcohol, said component (a) constituting at least 50% by weight of the vinyl-modified polyester resin and said amino group-containing vinyl monomer constitutes 0.1 to 2% by weight of the vinyl-modified polyester resin.
Claim: We claim:

1. A color toner composition for an electrostatic developer, comprising a cyan pigment, a magenta pigment or yellow pigment, a binder resin and a negative charging-controlling agent,wherein said binder resin is a vinyl-modified polyester resin as obtained by graft polymerizing

(b) a vinyl monomer component containing an aromatic vinyl monomer and an amino group-containing vinyl monomer to

(a) an unsaturated polyester component containing at least aliphatic unsaturated dibasic acid and polyhydric alcohol, said component (a) constituting at least 50% by weight of the vinyl-modified polyester and said amino group-containing vinylmonomer constitutes 0.1 to 2.0% by weight of the vinyl-modified polyester resin, wherein the weight average molecular weight of said component (a) is from 5,000 to 15,000.

2. The color toner composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein said vinyl-modified polyester resin has a weight average molecular weight of 8,000 to 20,000, a melt viscosity at 100.degree. C. of 1.times.10.sup.4 to 5.times.10.sup.5 poises, and aglass transition temperature of 50.degree. to 80.degree. C.

3. The color toner composition as claimed in claim 1, wherein said unsaturated polyester (a) is 60 to 90% by weight of the vinyl-modified polyester resin.
Description: FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a negatively chargable color toner composition for use in development of electrostatic latent images in electrophotography, electrostatic recording, electrostatic printing and so forth.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

An electrophotographic method is usually a method in which an electrostatic latent image is formed on an electrostatic latent image-carrier comprising a photoconductive light-sensitive material by charging and imagewise exposure to light, andthen developed with a toner composition which contains a colorant dispersed in a binder resin, and the toner image thus obtained is transferred to a support such as a transfer paper and fixed.

As such toner compositions to obtain visible images, those comprising a black colorant such as carbon black dispersed in a binder are generally used. In recent years, color toners comprising a binder resin and a blue pigment, a magenta pigmentor a yellow pigment dispersed in the binder resin have been used. Among these color toners are those for obtaining polychromatic images by the electrophotographic method. Usually, blue, magenta and yellow toners are used.

In the case of such color toners, it is also required that a color image as transferred to and fixed on a sheet for an overhead projector (hereinafter referred to as "OHP") can be clearly and sharply projected on a screen.

A color toner composition generally comprises a binder resin and a colorant as main components, and various additives. Binder resins generally used are polystyrene, a styrene-(meth)acrylic acid ester copolymer, a styrene-butadine copolymer,polyester, an epoxy resin, a cumarone indene resin, and the like. In particular, a polyester resin has been began to use because it is relatively good in fixability and is good in transmittability of OHP.

A polyester resin, however, is inherently of high negative chargability and, therefore, in the case of a toner containing the polyester resin, the amount of electricity charged is increased and becomes excessive during the period of use thereofafter mixing with a carrier in a developing machine. If the amount of electricity charged is increased excessively, the binding force between toner particles and carrier particles becomes strong and the toners are not used in development of anelectrostatic latent image on the light-sensitive material. In some cases, they are developed in combination with carrier particles. If they are transferred to paper, for example, problems arise in that the density of transferred image is decreased andwhite dots are formed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An object of the present invention is to provide a polyester resin-based color toner for an electrostatic developer which permits suitable negative charging and provides an image having high quality.

The object of the present invention can be attained with a color toner composition for an electrostatic developer comprising a cyan pigment, a magenta pigment or a yellow pigment, a binder resin and a negative charging-controlling agent, whereinthe binder resin is a vinyl-modified polyester resin as obtained by graft polymerizing

a vinyl monomer component containing an aromatic vinyl monomer and an amino group-containing vinyl monomer onto

an unsaturated polyester component containing at least aliphatic unsaturated dibasic acid and polyhydric alcohol, and the component (a) constitutes at least 50% by weight of the total vinyl modified polyester resin and the amino group-containingvinyl monomer constitutes 0.1 to 2% by weight of the total vinyl-modified polyester resin.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The vinyl-modified polyester resin of the present invention is used in combination with a negative charging-controlling agent. A color toner containing these components is mixed with a carrier substance, e.g., iron powder, iron oxide powder orferrite magnetic powder to impart negative chargability. The vinyl-modified polyester resin contains a polymer portion of the amino group-containing monomer when it is alone and, therefore, it is materially different from those obtained by graftpolymerization of a vinyl monomer not containing an amino group-containing monomer onto polyester. That is, positive chargability in which the amino group possesses can be added to negative chargability of the polyester.

As a result, a toner comprising the vinyl-modified polyester resin of the present invention and a colorant can be positively charged. By adding a negative charging-controlling agent, the amount of electricity charged which is suitable for anegatively chargable toner can be obtained. At the same time, an increase in the amount of electricity charged can be prevented even if it is used repeatedly in a developing machine. Positive chargability of the toner prior to addition of the negativecharging-controlling agent can be obtained, for example, by mixing an iron powder having a thin surface oxide film and a carrier. In this case, by mixing with an iron powder having the thick surface oxide film or a resin-coated iron powder carrier, thetoner can be made negatively chargable. Even in this case, since positive chargability is added by the amino group as compared with the case that the polyester is used alone, a suitable amount of electricity charged can be obtained by using a negativecharging-controlling agent in combination, and even if the toner is used repeatedly in a developing machine, an excessive increase in the amount of electricity charged can be avoided.

The unsaturated polyester to be used in the present invention is a polycondensate of aliphatic dibasic acid and polyhydric alcohol. In order to obtain the toner in a powder form and from a viewpoint of fixability of the toner to paper and soforth, it is preferred that the softening point of the unsaturated polyester is from 80 to 150.degree. C.

The polyhydric alcohol includes diol containing a propyridenediphenyl group in the molecule thereof Examples are hydrogenated bisphenol A, propylene oxide adduct of bisphenol A, and ethylene oxide adduct of bisphenol A. The average addition molenumber of propylene oxide or ethylene oxide in the above oxide adducts is suitably from 2 to 7. Those adducts obtained be used. As the polyol component, diols other than the above bisphenol type diol may be added in a proportion of not more than about10 mol % of the total polyol component. Examples of such polyols are ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, neopentyl glycol, 3,3,5-trimethyl-2,4-pentanediol and the like.

In addition, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, 1,2-propylene glycol, 1,3-propylene glycol, 1,4-butane diol, neopentyl glycol, 1,4-butene glycol, 1,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexane can be used alone or in combination with one another.

The aliphatic unsaturated dibasic acid includes maleic acid, maleic anhydride, fumaric acid, itaconic acid, citraconic acid and the like. Other polyhydric carboxylic acids can be used in combination. Dibasic acids or their esters with loweralcohols, such as phthalic anhydride, terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid, o-phthalic acid, hexahydrophthalic anhydride, tetrahydrophthalic anhydride, cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, methylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid, mesaconic acid, glutaconic acid,succinic acid, malonic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, azelaric acid, sebacic acid, cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, oxalic acid, and alkyl or alkenylsuccinic acid having 4 to 18 carbon atoms can be used in combination.

In addition to the above components, trifunctional compounds such as trimellitic anhydride, glycerine or trimethylolpropane can be used in combination within the range that does not cause geling of the polyester resin. As a molecularweight-controlling agent for the unsaturated polyester, monofunctional compounds such as benzoic acid or cyclohexanol can be used appropriately.

The weight average molecular weight of the unsaturated polyester is preferably in the range of from 5,000 to 15,000. If the molecular weight is less than 5,000, the unsaturated polyester becomes brittle and its durability as a toner isdecreased. On the other hand, if it is more than 15,000, geling readily occurs at the time of graft polymerization and no suitable graft polymer can be obtained.

Of the components constituting the unsaturated polyester, aliphatic unsaturated dibasic acid is an important component in that it becomes a graft active point and introduces a partially cross-linked structure into the graft polymer. Thealiphatic unsaturated dibasic acid content of the unsaturated polyester resin is preferably from 0.2 to 2.0% by weight. If the content is less than 0.2% by weight, graft polymerization becomes difficult to carry out. On the other hand, if it is morethan 2% by weight, geling sometimes readily occurs. As the aliphatic unsaturated dibasic acid, maleic anhydride is particularly suitable.

The above unsaturated polyester can be produced by polycondensing the carboxylic acid component and the diol component in an inert gas atmosphere at a temperature of 180.degree. to 250.degree. C. In this reaction, an esterification catalystcommonly used to accelerate the reaction, such as zinc oxide, stannous oxide, dibutyltin oxide, or dibutyltin dilaurate, can be used. For the same purpose, production can be carried out under reduced pressure.

To the unsaturated polyester thus produced is graft polymerized a vinyl monomer The term "vinyl monomer" as used herein includes an aromatic vinyl monomer and an amino group-containing monomer

Examples of the amino group-containing vinyl monomer are dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, diethylaminoethyl methacrylate, dimethylaminoethyl acrylate, and dimethylaminopropylmethacrylamide.

Examples of the aromatic vinyl monomer which is an essential constitutional component of the vinyl monomer are styrene, .alpha.-methylstyrene, vinyltoluene, and p-ethylstyrene.

Other vinyl monomers can be used in combination with the amino group-containing monomer and the aromatic vinyl monomer. Examples of such vinyl monomers are methacrylic acid alkyl esters such as methyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, octylmethacrylate, or stearyl methacrylate; acrylic acid alkyl esters such as ethyl acrylate, propyl acrylate, butyl acrylate or octyl acrylate; acrylonitrile, and acrylamide.

The above unsaturated polyester constitutes at least 50% by weight, preferably 60 to 90% by weight of the total vinyl-modified polyester resin.

The amino group-containing monomer constitutes 0.1 to 2% by weight of the total vinyl-modified polyester resin. If the proportion of the amino group-containing vinyl monomer is less than 0.1% by weight, negative chargability of the polyester isstrong, and it undesirably tends to become difficult to control the charged amount of the toner containing the vinyl-modified polyester resin and the colorant as main components to a suitable level with a negative charging-controlling agent. On theother hand, if it is more than 2% by weight, positive chargability of the vinyl-modified polyester resin becomes excessively strong. Also in this case, suitable negative chargability cannot be obtained for the toner.

The graft polymerization reaction is carried out by solution polymerization or suspension polymerization. In the case of the solution polymerization method, a vinyl monomer and a polymerization initiator are added to a solution of unsaturatedpolyester dissolved in a solvent, e.g., xylene or toluene, and polymerization is carried out in an inert gas atmosphere at a temperature unsaturated polyester and a polymerization initiator are dissolved in a vinyl monomer and suspended or dispersed inwater containing a suspension stabilizer, and polymerization is carried out in the same manner as above. Suitable examples of the polymerization initiator are azobisisobutyronitrile, azobisdimethylvaleronitrile and like azo-based initiators.

The weight average molecular weight of the vinyl-modified polyester resin to be used in the present invention is preferably 8,000 to 20,000. If necessary, a chain transfer agent, e.g., dodecylmercaptan or thiophenol can be used. If the weightaverage molecular weight of the polymer is less than 8,000, it sometimes becomes brittle as a binder resin and its durability as a toner is deteriorated. If it is more than 20,000, a toner composition providing good fixability and leveling (surfacesmoothness) is sometimes not obtained.

The glass transition temperature as determined by the differential thermal analysis of the vinyl-modified polyester resin is preferably 50.degree. to 80.degree. C. and more preferably 55.degree. to 75.degree. C. If the glass transitiontemperature is too low, blocking of toners readily occurs. If it is too high, fixability is reduced. In the present invention, the glass transition point is an endothermic peak temperature in differential thermal analysis.

The melt viscosity at 100.degree. C. as determined by the flow tester method of the vinyl-modified polyester resin of the present invention is 1.times.10.sup.4 to 5.times.10.sup.5 poises and preferably 1.times.10.sup.4 to 1.times.10.sup.5poises. If the melt viscosity is too low, anti-offset properties are reduced. On the other hand, if it is too high, when the toner is used in OHP, transmitted light is scattered because the levelling of the toner layer fixed on an OHP sheet is reduced,and there is obtained only a transmitted image which is blackish and is low in saturation.

The toner composition of the present invention is useful in a color toner, and as colorants, the following can be used.

Yellow Organic Pigments

Benzidine based pigments such as

C. I. 21090 (Pigment Yellow 12)

C. I. 21095 (Pigment Yellow 14)

C. I. 21100 (Pigment Yellow 13)

C. I. 21105 (Pigment Yellow 17)

These pigments can be used alone or in combination with each other.

Magenta Organic Pigments

Xanthene-based Pigment Red 81 (CI 45160)

Quinacridone-based 2,9-dimethylquinacridone,

Methine-based astracrokicine dye,

Thioindigo-based Vat Red 2 (CI 788655),

Azo Lake-based Brilliant Carmine 6B (CI 15850)

These can be used alone or in combination with each other.

Blue Pigments

Compounds classified into C. I. Pigment Blue 15, C. I. Pigment Blue 68 and C. I. Solvent Blue 70.

Phthalocyaine-based pigments such as C. I. Nos 74260, 74280, 74255, 74160 and 74180.

These can be used alone or in combination with each other.

______________________________________ Oil Dyes ______________________________________ C.I. Solvent Red 24 C.I Solvent Violet 13 C.I. Solvent Blue 7 C.I. Solvent Blue 35 C.I. Solvent Green 35 C.I. Solvent Brown 5 C.I. Solvent Yellow 2 C.I. Solvent Yellow 14 C.I. Solvent Orange 7 C.I. Solvent Red 3 ______________________________________

These can be used alone or in combination with each other.

The toner composition of the present invention contains, in addition to the vinyl-modified polyester resin and the colorant, a negative charging-controlling agent as main components. As the negative charging-controlling agent, the metal complexcompounds of salicylic acid or the ester of salicylic acid and alkyl alcohol can be used.

In accordance with the present invention, as described above, positive chargability of the amino group is provided by graft polymerizing an amino group-containing vinyl monomer to a polyester resin. Use of the resin in combination with anegative charging-controlling agent avoids an excessive increase in the charged amount during the time of use depending on the type of a colorant and the type of a carrier as encounted in the toner where a polyester resin alone is used or a graft polymerof styrene to the polyester resin is used. Furthermore, electric charges having a suitable charged amount can be provided to the toner. Thus the range chosen for the colorant or carrier can be broadened, and furthermore toners having stabilizedcharging properties can be obtained. Thus there can be provided toners which are excellent in fixability, and are excellent in negative charging properties in connection with development of electrostatic latent images, and high quality copied images canbe obtained.

The present invention is described in greater detail with reference to the following examples. All parts are by weight.

EXAMPLE 1

(Production of Vinyl-Modified Polyester Resin)

68 parts of polyoxyethylene(2)-2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, 16 parts of isophthalic acid, 16 parts of terephthalic acid, 0.3 part of maleic anhydride and 0.06 part of dibutyltin oxide were placed in a flask, were reacted in a nitrogenatmosphere at 230.degree. C. for 24 hours, and then taken out of the flask.

The weight average molecular weight of the unsaturated polyester resin as obtained above was 11,000.

50 parts of the unsaturated polyester resin and 50 parts of xylene were placed in a flask and dissolved. The temperature was raised until xylene began to reflux. While refluxing the xylene, a solution of 0.4 part of azobisisobutyronitriledissolved in 13 parts of styrene and 0.5 part of diethylaminoethyl methacrylate was dropped in a nitrogen atmosphere over about 30 minutes. After the completion of dropwise addition, the mixture was maintained for 3 hours. After distillation underreduced pressure of xylol, the resin was taken out. A binder resin having a weight average molecular weight of 12,500, a melt viscosity at 100.degree. C. of 7.times.10.sup.4 poises, and a glass transition temperature of 63.degree. C. was obtained.

The melt viscosity was measured by the use of a flow tester Model CFT-500 (produced by Shimazu Corp.) under conditions of nozzle diameter 1 mm, nozzle length 1 mm, load 30 kg, temperature raising speed 3.degree. C./min (Preparation of Toner)

92 parts of the vinyl-modified polyester resin obtained above, 5 parts of phthalocyanine-based pigment C. I. No. 74160 (Fastgen Blue GNPT, produced by Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc.) and 3 parts of a charging-controlling agent Bontron E-84(produced by Orient Kagaku Kogyo Co., Ltd.) were mixed in a ball mill, kneaded with a heating roll, powdered by the use of a jet mill and sieved to obtain toners having an average particle diameter (weight average) of about 12 .mu.m. This toner isreferred to as "Toner (1)".

EXAMPLE 2

Using 92 parts of the same vinyl-modified polyester resin as used in Example 1, 5 parts of benzidine-based pigment C.I. No. 21095 (Symuler Fast Yellow 5GF, produced by Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc.) and 3 parts of a charging-controllingagent Bontron E-84 (produced by Orient Kagaku Kogyo Co., Ltd.), toners were produced in the same manner as in Example 1. This toner is referred to as "Toner (2)".

EXAMPLE 3

Using 92 parts of the same vinyl-modified polyester resin as used in Example 1, 5 parts of dimethylquinachridone pigment C. I. No. 73915 (Fastgen Super Magenta R, produced by Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc.) and 3 parts of acharging-controlling agent Bontron E-84 (produced by Orient Kagaku Kogyo Co., Ltd.), toners were produced in the same manner as in Example 1. This toner is referred to as "Toner (3)".

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1

Using 95 parts of the same vinyl-modified polyester resin as used in Example 1, and 5 parts of phthalocyanine-based pigment C.I. No. 74160 (Fastgen Blue GNPT, produced by Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc.), toners were produced in the samemanner as in Example 1. This toner is referred to as "Toner (4)".

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 2

Using 92 parts of the polyester resin prior to graft polymerization as obtained in Example 1, 5 parts of phthalocyanine-based pigment C. I. No. 74160 (Fastgen. Blue GNPT, produced by Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc.) and 3 parts of acharging-controlling agent Bontron E-84 (produced by Orient Kagaku Kogyo Co., Ltd.), toners were produced in the same manner as in Example 1. This toner is referred to as "Toner (5)".

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 3

Using 95 parts of the polyester resin prior to graft polymerization as obtained in Example 1, and 5 parts of a phthalocyanine-based pigment C. I. No. 74160 (Fastgen Blue GNPT, produced by Dainippon Ink and Chemicals, Inc.), toners were producedin the same manner as in Example 1. This toner is referred to as "Toner (6)".

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 4

A binder resin was produced in the same manner as in Example 1 except that maleic anhydride was not used. This binder resin had a weight average molecular weight of 12,000, a glass transition temperature of 62.degree. C. and a melt viscosity at100.degree. C. of 5.5.times.10.sup.4 poises. This binder resin was a mixture of a vinyl polymer resulting from not graft polymerization of vinyl monomer to the saturated polyester but homopolymerization of the vinyl monomer, and the saturatedpolyester.

Using the above binder resin, toners were produced in the same manner as in Example 1. This toner is referred to as "Toner (7)"

The above toners (1) to (7) were subjected to the following tests.

96 parts of 100 to 200 mesh iron oxide powder (DSP-128B produced by Dowa Teppun Kogyo Co., Ltd.) and 4 parts of each toner were mixed to prepare a developer. Using the developer produced above, a copying test was carried out on a partiallyreformed copying machine Leodry 3801 (produced by Toshiba Corp.). That is, a latent image was formed and developed, and the toner thus obtained was transferred to a transferring paper and fixed with a heating roll fixing machine to form a copied image.

In addition, 96 parts of ferrite carriers covered with an acrylic resin and having an average particle diameter of 150 to 250 mesh and 5 parts of each other were mixed to prepare a developer.

Using each developer, a copying test was carried out on a partially reformed Leodry 3301 (produced by Toshiba Corp.). That is, a latent image was formed and developed, and the toner image thus obtained was transferred to a copying paper andfixed with a heating roller fixing machine to form a copied image. The fixing machine used silicone rubber and needed coating with silicone oil.

The evaluation methods were as follows:

(1) Image Density

A Macbeth reflective densitometer RD-918 (produced by Sakata Shokai Co., Ltd.) was used, and a developed image density at an original image density of 1.3 was indicated.

(2) Fog

A Macbeth reflective densitometer RD-918 (produced by Sakata Shokai Co., Ltd.) was used. A difference between a developed image density in the white part of the original and a reflective density of the transferring paper used was evaluated bythe following rating.

______________________________________ Less than 0.03 Good 0.03 or more Bad ______________________________________

(3) Sharpness

With a line image chart of the original as an original, reproducability was visually judged.

(4) Amount of Electricity Charged

A 30 second blow value as measured by the use of a blow off charged amount measuring device (produced by Toshiba Chemical Co., Ltd.) was indicated.

__________________________________________________________________________ Iron Oxide Powder Ferrite Powder covered (100-200 mesh) with Acrylic Resin After 1,000 After 1,000 Initial Stage Copies Initial Stage Copies __________________________________________________________________________ Toner 1 Image Density 1.40 1.42 1.38 1.37 Fog good good good good Sharpness good good good good Charged Amount -18 -17 -21 -22 (.mu.c/g) Toner 2 Image Density 1.45 1.431.39 1.37 Fog good good good good Sharpness good good good good Charged Amount -17 -18 -20 -21 (.mu.c/g) Toner 3 Image Density 1.44 1.42 1.41 1.39 Fog good good good good Sharpness good good good good Charged Amount -19 -20 -22 -23 (.mu./g) Toner 4 Image Density Impossible to evaluate because 0.94 Impossible to of vigorous scattering evaluate because of vigorous scattering Fog Impossible to evaluate because bad Impossible to of vigorous scattering evaluate because ofvigorous scattering Sharpness Impossible to evaluate because bad Impossible to of vigorous scattering evaluate because of vigorous scattering Charged Amount -2 Impossible to evaluate because -8 Impossible to (.mu.c/g) of vigorous scattering evaluate because of vigorous scattering Toner 5 Image Density 0.71 0.55 0.61 0.48 Fog bad bad bad bad Sharpness bad bad bad bad Charged Amount -35 -37 -40 -43 (.mu.c/g) Toner 6 Image Density 0.92 0.61 0.73 0.59 Fog bad bad bad bad Sharpness bad bad bad bad Charged Amount -30 -35 -35 -38 (.mu.c/g) Toner 7 Image Density 1.41 0.83 1.83 0.76 Fog good bad* good bad* Sharpness good bad* good bad* Charged Amount -20 -34 -24 -24 (.mu.c/g) __________________________________________________________________________ *Vigorous attachment of toner to a nonimage area of lightsensitive material.

While the invention has been described in detail and with reference to specific embodiments thereof, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that various changes and modifications can be made therein without departing from the spirit andscope thereof.

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