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Process for preparing cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid
4254282 Process for preparing cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid
Patent Drawings:

Inventor: Kondo, et al.
Date Issued: March 3, 1981
Application: 06/049,826
Filed: June 18, 1979
Inventors: Kondo; Kiyoshi (Kanagawa, JP)
Takashima; Toshiyuki (Kanagawa, JP)
Tunemoto; Daiei (Kanagawa, JP)
Assignee: FMC Corporation (Philadelphia, PA)
Primary Examiner: Trousof; Natalie
Assistant Examiner: Shippen; Michael
Attorney Or Agent: Hansen; Richard L.Ertelt; Henry R.
U.S. Class: 534/564; 534/565; 549/302; 560/174; 560/201; 562/506
Field Of Search: 562/506
International Class:
U.S Patent Documents: 3836568; 4024377; 4132717; 4166063
Foreign Patent Documents:
Other References: Aratani, Tetrahedron Letters, p. 2599, (1977)..
Cahn, Agnew. Chem. Ed. Engl., 5, p. 385, (1966)..
Clark, Tetrahedron Letters, p. 529, (1975)..
Corey, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 94, p. 4014, (1972)..
Danishefsky Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 25th National Organic Chem. Sym. of Am. Chem. Soc., Jun. 19-23, 1977, pp. 57-61..
Danishefsky, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, 4783, (1977)..
Danishefsky, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 99, p. 7711, (1977)..
Elliott, J. Agric. Food Chem., 24, p. 270, (1976)..
Goering, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 96, p. 1493, (1974)..
Pirkle, J. Org. Chem., 39, p. 3904, (1974)..
Pirkle, J. Org. Chem., 42, p. 2781, (1977)..
Ziegler, Tetrahedron Letters, p. 2035, (1977)..
Singh, Org. Chem. Abst. No. 48 from 11th Mid. Atlantic Regional Meeting of Am. Chem. Soc., Apr. 20-23, 1977..
March, Advanced Organic Chemistry & Reactions, Mechanisms and Structure, p. 771, (1968)..









Abstract: Lactones of the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen or a CX.sub.3 group, and each X is a chlorine or bromine atom, are converted to the known cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids or lower alkyl esters, from which pyrethroid insecticides are obtained.
Claim: We claim:

1. A process for preparing a cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid of the formula ##STR10## wherein each X is the same or different and is a chlorine orbromine atom, and the carboxy and dihalovinyl groups are cis with respect to each other, which comprises treating a lactone of the formula ##STR11## wherein the X's are the same or different and have the values given above with a metal selected fromzinc, magnesium, and sodium in a solvent selected from acetic acid, alcohols, ethers, and mixtures thereof, thereby simultaneously opening the lactone ring and eliminating one X atom.

2. A process according to claim 1 wherein the lactone ring is opened and the X atom is eliminated with zinc in a mixture of acetic acid and an ether.

3. A process according to claim 1 wherein X is a chlorine atom.

4. The process of claim 1 wherein the lactone is a racemic mixture of the 1R,4R,5S optical isomer and its mirror image of 4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane and the product is(.+-.)-cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid.

5. The process of claim 1 wherein the lactone is enriched with the 1R,4R,5S optical isomer and the product is enriched with the 1R,3R optical isomer.

6. The process of claim 1 wherein said lactone is prepared by cyclizing a diazo ester of the formula ##STR12## wherein X is as defined therein, by intramolecular carbenoid cyclization.

7. The process according to claim 6 wherein the diazo ester is cyclized by heating in the presence of a copper-containing catalyst.

8. A process according to claim 6 wherein X is a chlorine atom.

9. The process of claim 6 wherein the diazo ester is (.+-.)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate and the product is a racemic mixture of the 1R,4R,5S optical isomer and its mirror image of(.+-.)-4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane.

10. The process of claim 6 wherein the diazo ester is prepared by treating an ester of the formula ##STR13## wherein R.sup.1 is lower alkyl, and X is as defined therein, with tosyl azide and then with base.

11. The process of claim 10 wherein X is a chlorine atom.

12. The process of claim 10 wherein R.sup.1 is methyl.

13. The process of claim 10 wherein the starting ester is (.+-.)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate and the diazo ester is (.+-.)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate.
Description: This invention relates to novel intermediates for the production of cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylates which are pyrethroid insecticides and to processes for making the intermediates.

Pyrethrins, naturally-occurring extracts of chrysanthemum flowers, have long been of interest as insecticides. Certain man-made variations of the natural pyrethrins are much more potent than the natural materials and exhibit other advantages. U.S. Pat. No. 4,024,163 discloses 3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids, corresponding lower alkyl esters, and pyrethroid insecticides prepared from them. The acids and esters contain the following carboxylate radical, wherein Xis chlorine or bromine. ##STR2## To produce pyrethroid insecticides, the acids or the lower alkyl esters may be esterified (or transesterified) with various alcohols, e.g., m-phenoxybenzyl alcohol, .alpha.-cyano-m-phenoxybenzyl alcohol, and otheralcohols well known to those skilled in the art.

These acids and esters are known to exist as both cis and trans geometrical isomers; the carboxy and dihalovinyl groups at C-1 and C-3 may be either cis or trans with respect to each other. There are substantial differences in insecticidalactivity between pyrethroid esters made from the cis and trans isomers of a given dihalovinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid. In general, as between the cis and trans isomers of a given synthetic pyrethroid ester, the cis isomer is more active than thetrans; the relative activities are reversed in the natural esters.

C-1 and C-3 are assymetric, and the pyrethroid esters may be optically active, their activity depending upon the stereoconfigurations at C-1 and C-3. In general, the (1R,3R) isomers are the most active. Optical isomers are named hereinaccording to the "sequence rule" [see Cahn, et al., Angew. Chem., Intern. Ed. Engl., 5, 385 (1966)].

Because of the greater insecticidal activity of the cis esters, processes for producing cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylates, essentially free of the trans isomers, are actively being sought.

Therefore, an object of this invention is to provide improved methods for producing both racemic and optically active cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids and lower alkyl esters essentially free of the trans isomers. Another object is the provision of novel intermediates for their production. Other objects will be apparent to those skilled in the art to which this invention pertains. The cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids and loweralkyl esters produced according to this invention may be esterified and converted into pyrethroid insecticides, with essentially no racemization or isomerization, according to methods disclosed in the prior art and well known to those skilled in the art. For example, the acid may be treated with thionyl chloride to produce the acid chloride, followed by reaction with an appropriate alcohol to produce an insecticidal ester, and the lower alkyl ester may be transesterified with an appropriate alcohol, bothas disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,024,163 or in Elliott, et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 24, 270 (1976), which disclosures are incorporated herein by reference.

This invention includes both process and composition embodiments. In one process embodiment, this invention relates to a process for preparing a lactone of the formula ##STR3## wherein R is hydrogen or a CX.sub.3 group, and each X is a chlorineor bromine atom, which comprises cyclizing a diazo ester of the formula ##STR4## by intramolecular carbenoid cyclization.

In other process aspects, this invention relates to processes for the production of novel intermediates, for example, malonic and alkanoylacetic esters of 3-methyl-2-buten-2-ol or a 1,1,1-trihalo-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol, as well as diazoderivatives of the esters, and 1-alkoxycarbonyl-substituted lactones, all useful as starting materials for the production of lactones represented by the aforesaid formula.

In yet another aspect, this invention relates to a process for preparing, essentially free of the trans isomer, a cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid of the formula ##STR5## wherein the X's are the same or different,each X is a chlorine or bromine atom, and the carboxy and dihalovinyl groups are cis with respect to each other, which comprises subjecting to the Boord reaction, for example, treating with zinc and acetic acid, a compound of the formula ##STR6## whereinthe X's are the same or different and have the values given above, thereby simultaneously opening the lactone ring and eliminating one X atom.

In composition aspects, this invention relates to novel intermediates useful for the production of cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids and lower alkyl esters, from which pyrethroid insecticides may be prepared asdescribed above.

The composition embodiments of the invention can be represented collectively by structural formulae I, II and III below, wherein R is a hydrogen atom or a CX.sub.3 group, the X's are the same or different, each X is a chlorine or bromine atom,R.sup.1 is lower alkyl or lower alkoxy, R.sup.2 is hydrogen, lower alkoxycarbonyl, or lower alkanoyl, and R.sup.3 is hydrogen or lower alkoxycarbonyl. The term "lower" as used herein to modify expressions such as alkyl, alkoxy, etc., means a chain of1-6, preferably 1-4 carbon atoms. ##STR7##

The composition embodiments of formula I are esters of alkanoylacetic and malonic acids, i.e., R.sup.1 is lower alkyl or lower alkoxy, respectively. These novel esters may be prepared by esterifying 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol or1,1,1-trihalo-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ols; for example, with diketene or a lower alkylmalonyl chloride [see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 2,167,168, Kaneda, et al., Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 40, 228 (1967), and Blomquist, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 70, 36 (1948)].

The composition embodiments of formula II, viz., the diazo derivatives of the aforesaid esters, and the lactones of formula III, can be produced from the esters of formula I by process embodiments of this invention, as can thecis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acids and lower alkyl esters--all as described hereinafter.

In preferred embodiments of this invention, the R.sup.2 group is cleaved from the diazo derivatives of formula II, and the R.sup.3 group is cleaved from the lactones of formula III when R.sup.2 is lower alkanoyl and R.sup.3 is loweralkoxycarbonyl, respectively, values arising when R.sup.1 is lower alkyl and lower alkoxy, respectively, in the ester precursors of formula I. It will be apparent, therefore, that the exact nature of the R.sup.1 group is not critical. Therefore,contemplated equivalents of the compounds of formula I, and corresponding compounds of formulae II and III prepared from compounds of formula I by processes of this invention, are those compounds wherein R.sup.1 is, e.g., alkyl or alkoxy of more than 6carbon atoms, e.g., octyl and octyloxy; aryl and aryloxy, e.g., phenyl and phenoxy; aralkyl and aralkoxy, e.g., benzyl and benzyloxy, each of the foregoing bearing one or more simple substituents, e.g., halo, nitro, alkyl and alkoxy.

Processes and composition embodiments of this invention are exemplified in the following diagram. The invention is not to be construed as limited to the specific embodiments which are illustrated.

In one process embodiment, an ester of formula I is subjected to a diazo transfer reaction, as described, for example, in Regitz, Synthesis, 351 (1972), by reacting it with an azide, such as an arenesulfonyl azide, e.g., tosyl azide, or"polymer-bound" sulfonyl azide [see W. R. Roush, et al., Tetrahedron Letters, 1391 (1974)], to produce the corresponding diazo compound of formula II. ##STR8##

It will be understood that processes illustrated with racemic reactants and products can be carried out with optically active reactants leading to optically active products. The ester of formula I is chiral when R is CX.sub.3, and when the esteris the (R) isomer, the diazo compound of formula II is also the (R) isomer. In the following description of the process, where reference is made to an (R) optical isomer it will be understood that an equivalent statement can be made for thecorresponding compound in the (S) series, and conversely.

When the ester of formula I is a 3-methyl-2-butenyl alkanoylacetate or a 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl alkanoylacetate (R.sup.1 is lower alkyl), a 3-methyl-2-butenyl or 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl 2-diazoalkanoylacetate (formula II,R.sup.2 is lower alkanoyl), respectively, is produced. Preferably, without isolation of this intermediate, the alkanoyl group is cleaved therefrom, e.g., with base, preferably aqueous sodium hydroxide, as described in Regitz, loc. cit., to yielddirectly a 3-methyl-2-butenyl or 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (formula II, R.sup.2 is hydrogen), respectively. 3-Methyl-2-butenyl or a 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate or especially preferred as the ester of formula I,since they may be prepared readily from diketene. Accordingly, (R)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate is produced from (R)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate.

When the ester of formula I is a 3-methyl-2-butenyl or 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl malonate (R.sup.1 is lower alkoxy), it is preferred that the ethyl ester be employed in the diazo transfer reaction, producing an ethyl 3-methyl-2-butenylor 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl diazomalonate (formula II, R.sup.2 is ethoxycarbonyl). In this manner, (R)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazomalonate is produced from (R)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl malonate.

It is preferable, however, to prepare a diazoacetate, rather than a diazomalonate, since the diazoacetate contains the hydrogen atom ultimately desired at C-1 of the cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid or ester. Thus,it is preferred to use a 3-methyl-2-butenyl or 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl alkanoylacetate (fromula I, R.sup.1 is lower alkyl, e.g. methyl) as the starting material, and an acetoacetate is especially preferred.

A second process embodiment, also within the scope of this invention, for producing the preferred 3-methyl-2-butenyl or 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate is to esterify 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol or a 1,1,1-trihalo-4-methyl-3-penten-2-olwith a hydrazone, e.g., the tosyl hydrazone, of glyoxoyl chloride.

In a third process embodiment, a diazo derivative of formula II (compounds of formula II are chiral when R is CX.sub.3), wherein R.sup.2 is hydrogen or lower alkoxycarbonyl, which may be prepared as described above, is cyclized, e.g., byintramolecular carbenoid cyclization, as disclosed, for example, in House, et al., J. Org. Chem., 33, 53 (1968), by treatment with a copper-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a bicyclic lactone, viz., a 6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane ora 4-trihalomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane of formula III, when R is H or CX.sub.3, respectively.

If the copper-containing catalyst is not optically active, a racemic lactone is obtained, unless the diazo derivative of formula II with R=CX.sub.3 is optically active. In that case, the (R) isomer of the diazo derivative yields a(1R,4R,5S)-4-trihalomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane, substantially free of other isomers thereof. A diazo derivative of (S) stereochemistry produces a (1S,4S,5R) lactone. The cyclization also affords an optically active lactone whenchiral copper-containing catalysts, described below, are used.

An unexpected result of using an achiral or racemic catalyst to cyclize an optically inactive 4-trihalomethyl-substituted lactone is that, whereas there are two possible racemic pairs of the 4-trihalomethyl-substituted lactone (4 opticalisomers), only one racemic pair is produced, the (1R,4R,5S) optical isomer and its mirror image.

Racemic mixtures or optically active enriched mixtures of the lactones described herein are resolved by methods known in the art, yielding the individual optically active isomers; for example, Nozaki, et al., Tetrahedron, 24, 3655 (1968) suggestsopening the lactone ring, resolution of the acid, followed by lactonization.

It will be evident to those skilled in the art that other compounds capable of generating the carbenoid intermediates so derived from the aforesaid diazo derivatives of formula II can also be employed to produce bicyclic lactones of formula III.

Optically inactive copper-containing catalysts which may be employed to produce racemic lactones from racemic diazo derivatives of formula II or optically active lactones from optically active diazo derivatives include achiral or racemiccoordination complexes of copper, e.g., cupric acetylacetonate, cupric salicylaldehydeiminate, cupric ethylacetoacetate, as well as cuprous oxide, cupric oxide, cuprous chloride, cupric acetate, and metallic copper. Of these, achiral or racemiccoordination complexes are preferred, and cupric acetylacetonate is especially preferred.

Alternately, to effect cyclization to an optically active lactone, chiral binuclear copper-containing catalysts selected from [N-(2-hydroxyethylate)salicylideneaminato]copper(II) binuclear complexes are employed. Examples of these catalystsinclude optically active bis[2-butoxy-.alpha.-(2-butoxy-5-methylphenyl)-.alpha.-[1-[[(2-hydroxyphen yl)methylene]amino]ethyl]-5-methylbenzenemethanolato (2-)]-copper and bis[2-butoxy-.alpha.-[2-butoxy-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-.alpha.-[1-[[2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]amino]ethyl]benzenemethanola to (2-)]-copper. Catalysts of (S) stereochemistry, e.g., bis[2-butoxy-5-methylphenyl)-.alpha.-[(S)-1-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]a mino]ethyl]-5-methylbenzenemethanolato(2-)]-copper and bis[2-butoxy-.alpha.-[2-butoxy-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethy lethyl)-.alpha.-[(S)-1-[[2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]amino]ethyl]benzenemetha nolato (2-)]-copper, are preferred because they afford optically active lactones whichcan be carried, by processes described below, to cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids or esters, which are optically active due to enrichment with the (1R,3R) isomers. Among these catalysts,bis[2-butoxy-.alpha.-[2-butoxy-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]-5-(1,1 -dimethylethyl)-.alpha.-[(S)-1-[[2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]amino]ethyl]ben zenemethanolato (2-)]-copper is especially preferred. Catalysts of (R) stereochemistry give rise ultimately toacids or esters which are rich in the (1S,3S) enantiomers. The catalysts may be prepared from optically active ethyl alanine by coupling with a Grignard reagent, producing a salicylaldimine from the resultant amino alcohol, and treating the imine withcupric acetate, all according to the method disclosed by Aratani, et. al. in Tetrahedron Letters, 1707 (1975), which disclosure is incorporated herein by reference.

Aprotic solvents may be employed in the cyclization, e.g., aromatic hydrocarbons and ethers, preferably toluene, benzene, n-octane, cyclohexane, or dioxane. In general, dioxane is preferred, but toluene is preferred for the tribromomethylcompounds. Improved yields are obtained if the reaction is conducted at high dilution.

In a fourth process embodiment, a bicyclic lactone of formula III, wherein R.sup.3 is a lower alkoxycarbonyl group, preferably methoxycarbonyl, is subjected to dealkoxycarbonylation, e.g., by treatment with lithium chloride in a polar solventselected from hexamethylphosphoric triamide, dimethylformamide and dimethylsulfoxide, or mixtures thereof with water, cleaving the lower alkoxycarbonyl group and producing the corresponding lactone of formula III wherein R.sup.3 is hydrogen. Thestereochemistry of the lactone is unaffected by dealkoxycarbonylation, and if the starting lactone with R.dbd.CX.sub.3 is the (1R,4R,5S) isomer, the product is the (1R,4R,5S) isomer. A starting lactone produced as described above using a chiral catalystof (S) stereochemistry affords a cleaved optically active lactone which can be carried, as described below, to cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids or esters, which are optically active due to enrichment with the (1R,3R)isomers.

In a fifth process embodiment, a bicyclic lactone of formula III, wherein R is hydrogen, is converted into a lower alkyl cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate. For example, Sevrin, et. al., Tetr. Letters, 3915 (1976)describe the treatment of 6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane with base to open the ring, followed by acidification and methylation with diazomethane, producing methyl cis-3-hydroxymethyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate. The alcohol is thenoxidized to methyl cis-3-formyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate. Japan. Kokai 76/122041 discloses the addition of a tri- or tetrahalomethane to the methyl 3-formyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate, followed by acylation of the resulting3-(1-hydroxy-1-trihalomethyl) derivative and reduction of the acylated compound with metallic zinc to afford a methyl 3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate. It is preferred to employ the lactone wherein R.sup.3 is hydrogen, since6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane yields directly a lower alkyl cis ester which may be converted into a pyrethroid insecticide by methods well known in the art and referred to above, i.e., U.S. Pat. No. 4,034,163. In the case that R.sup.3is lower alkoxycarbonyl, the resultant 1-alkoxycarbonylcyclopropanecarboxylate may be dealkoxycarbonylated, e.g., as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,000,180, and then converted into a pyrethroid insecticide. Further, if an optically active lactone isemployed, it is not only preferred that it be 6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane, but that the optical activity be due to enrichment with the (1R,5S) isomer, since an optically active cyclopropanecarboxylate enriched with the (1R,3R) isomer isthen obtained. Optically active 6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane which is rich in the (1R,5S) isomer is obtained, e.g., by the process embodiments described above, provided that the diazo ester is cyclized with a chiral binuclearcopper-containing catalyst having (S) stereochemistry.

In a sixth process embodiment, a bicyclic lactone of the formula III, wherein R is CX.sub.3, is subjected to the elimination reaction known as the Boord reaction, described, e.g., in J. March, "Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms,and Structure," McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., 1968, p. 771, by treatment with a metal selected from zinc, magnesium, sodium, or coordination complexes of Cr(II), in a solvent selected from acetic acid, alcohols such as ethanol, and ethers,such as tetrahydrofuran and diethyl ether, and mixtures thereof, thereby simultaneously opening the lactone ring, eliminating one halogen atom, and producing essentially free of the trans isomer, acis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, i.e., wherein the carboxy and dihalovinyl groups are cis with respect to each other. Preferably, the metal is zinc and the solvent is a mixture of an ether and acetic acid. It ispreferred that R.sup.3 be hydrogen, since the cyclopropanecarboxylic acid may then be converted directly into a pyrethroid insecticide as described above, e.g., see U.S. Pat. No. 4,034,163. In the case that R.sup.3 is lower alkoxycarbonyl, theresultant 1-alkoxycarbonylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid may be dealkoxycarbonylated, e.g., via the esters as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,000,180, and then converted into a pyrethroid insecticide. Further, if an optically active lactone is employed, itis not only preferred that it be a 4-trihalomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane, but that the optical activity be due to the (1R,4R,5S) isomer, since an optically active (1R,3R) cyclopropanecarboxylic acid is then obtained. An opticallyactive (1R,4R,5S)-4-trihalomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane is obtained, e.g., by the process embodiments described above, provided that either the optically active (R) isomer of the diazo derivative of formula II is cyclized, or thediazo ester is cyclized with a chiral binuclear copper-containing catalyst having (S) stereochemisry.

Since the Boord reaction involves the elimination of only one halogen atom from the trihalomethyl group at C-4 of a 4-trihalomethyl-substituted lactone of formula III, and since the trihalomethyl group is not a reactive center in the processesleading to the lactone, it will be apparent that two of the halogen atoms in the compounds of formulae I, II, or III can be replaced by other substituents in any of the processes of this invention, e.g., two of the halogen atoms an be independentlyhydrogen; halogen; cyano; lower alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, which may be substituted with one or more halogen atoms; and ##STR9## where Y is --CH.sub.2 --,--O--,--S--, or absent, and the phenyl group may be substituted with one or more halogen, loweralkyl (1 to 4 carbon atoms), lower haloalkyl, lower alkoxy, or lower alkylthio groups. In addition, it will be evident to those skilled in the art that various derivatives of a cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, rather thanthe acid itself, can be obtained from the Boord reaction by varying the manner in which the lactone of formula III is opened; e.g., when the lactone is treated with methanolic potassium carbonate followed by zinc and acetic acid, a methyldihalovinylcyclopropanecarboxylate is obtained.

In a preferred multistep process embodiment, a cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, for example a (1R,3R) acid, is produced by treating a 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate, for example an (R)acetoacetate, of formula I with tosyl azide to effect diazo transfer, followed by sodium hydroxide to cleave the acetyl group and produce a 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate, for example an (R) diazoacetate, of formula II, which in turn issubjected to intramolecular carbenoid cyclization with cupric acetylacetonate to produce a 4-trihalomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[2.1.0]hexane, for example, a (1R,4R,5S)-bicyclohexane, of formula III, which is then treated with zinc and aceticacid to produce a cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid.

Although any compound of formulae I, II, and III wherein R is a CX.sub.3 group may contain both chlorine and bromine and may be employed in the aforesaid processes, the trichloro and tribromo compounds are preferred, and the yields are generallyhigher with the chlorine-containing compounds. Thus, the processes disclosed above are especially well suited to preparing a cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid or lower alkyl ester. The dibromovinyl acids or esters may beprepared in excellent yield by exchanging the halogen in the dichlorovinyl acid or a lower alkyl ester thereof as disclosed in the application of Kondo and Matsui, entitled "Process for Converting 2,2-Dichlorovinylcyclopropanes to Dibromovinyl Analogs,"now U.S. Pat. No. 4,188,492, filed concurrently with application Ser. No. 875,649, parent to the instant application.

The invention will be understood more completely by reference to the following preparative examples.

In the Examples which follow, temperatures are in degrees Celsius and pressures are in mm Hg. Tetramethylsilane was employed as an internal standard for the nmr spectra. In reporting the nmr data the abbreviations have the followingsignificance: s, singlet; d, doublet; t, triplet; q, quartet; m, multiplet. Any of the abbreviations may be prepared by b for broad or d for double, for example, d.d., double doublet; b.t., broad triplet. The use of chiral shift reagents, such asEu(hfc).sub.3, is described in, e.g., Goering, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 96, 1493 (1974).

EXAMPLE I

Synthesis of 4-Trihalomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexanes

A. From 3-methyl-1-trihalomethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetates

1. Preparation of 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol

To a solution of isobutene (89 g, 1.6 moles) and chloral (80 g, 0.52 mole) in about 100 ml of petroleum ether (bp, 30.degree.-70.degree. ), maintained at -5.degree. to -10.degree., was added portionwise over a period of 30-60 minutes 6.08 g ofanhydrous aluminum trichloride. The solution was stirred vigorously during the addition and thereafter for five hours at -5.degree. to -10.degree., then overnight at room temperature.

After diluting the solution with ether, it was washed with 50-100 ml of water, dried over magnesium sulfate and distilled. After distillation of the petroleum ether, 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-4-penten-2-ol (74.9 g, 71% yield)) was obtained; bp,106.degree.-118.degree./25 mm.

1,1,1-Trichloro-4-methyl-4-penten-2-ol (74 g, 0.36 mole) was heated at 140.degree.-150.degree. for 18 hours. After cooling, the alcohol was diluted with ether, and the ethereal solution was treated with activated charcoal. The ether wasremoved by evaporation to afford crystalline 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol (43.4 g, 59% yield) after recrystallization from petroleum ether.

1,1,1-Tribromo-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol is similarly prepared by substituting bromal for chloral in the reaction.

1. (a) Preparation of (2R)-1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol

1,1,1-Trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-yl (S)-N-(1-(1-naphthyl)ethyl)carbamate was prepared by the method of Pirkle and Hoekstra, J. Org. Chem., 39, 3904 (1974), from racemic 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol, which can be prepared by themethod of Mori, et al., Ger. Offen. 2,542,377. The diastereomer containing the (2R)-alcohol moiety was precipitated from the crude product by adding hexane, yielding the carbamate as a white solid, m.p. 120.degree.-123.degree..

The carbamate was cleaved with trichlorosilane in a manner similar to the method of Pirkle and Hauske, J. Org. Chem., 42, 2781 (1977), to give (2R)-1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol; [.alpha.].sub.D.sup.31 =-3.2.degree. (hexane).

The absolute stereoconfigurations of the penten-2-ol and the compounds produced in Examples IA.2.(a), IA.4.(a), and IA.8.(a) below were established reasoning by analogy back through the sequence of reactions used to prepare the(1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid in Example III C., the absolute stereoconfiguration of the acid being established independently.

2. Preparation of 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate

A mixture of 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol (20.4 g, 0.1 mole) and anhydrous sodium acetate (0.04 g) were heated together at 90.degree.-95.degree. until the trichloro alcohol melted. Diketene (13.2 ml, 0.11 mole) was added dropwise inone hour to the mixture maintained at 80.degree.-83.degree.. The mixture was then maintained at 80.degree.-83.degree. for an additional two hours.

The reaction mixture was diluted with ether, and the ethereal solution was washed successively with aqueous 1 N hydrochloric acid, saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, and saturated aqueous sodium chloride. The solution was then dried overmagnesium sulfate, and the ether was evaporated, leaving a residue which was distilled under vacuum, affording 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate (25.3 g, 88% yield); bp, 95.degree.-96.degree./0.23 mm.

2. (a) Preparation of (1R)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate

A mixture of (2R)-1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol (1.50 g, 7.35 mmole) from Example IA.1.(a) and a trace of sodium acetate was treated under nitrogen at 100.degree. with freshly distilled diketene (0.70 g, 8.36 mmole) added dropwise over1 hr. After stirring and heating an additional hour at 80.degree.-83.degree., the cooled reaction mixture was diluted with 3 ml of CH.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and chromatographed on 8 (20.times.20 cm) preparative tlc plates, developed in CH.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. Isolation and extraction afforded (1R)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate (1.80 g, 85% isolated yield) as a pale yellow oil; [.alpha.].sub.D.sup.31 =+21.1.degree. (hexane).

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm (CHCl.sub.3): 6.08 (d, 1H), 5.34 (m, 1H), 3.53 (s, 2H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 1.87 (dd, 6H).

The nmr spectrum with chiral Eu(hfc).sub.3 showed only one half of the peak multiplicities that were found in nmr analysis of the racemate using the same reagent.

3. Preparation of 3-methyl-1-tribromomethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate

1,1,1-Tribromo-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol (6.72 g, 0.02 mole) and anhydrous sodium acetate (0.008 g) were melted together at 90.degree.. The temperature of the mixture was then reduced to 80.degree., and diketene (about 2.6 ml, 0.022 mole) was addeddropwise over a 10 minute period. The resulting mixture was heated at 80.degree. for three additional hours. After cooling, the mixture was diluted with ether, and the ethereal solution was washed with 1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid and then ten timeswith saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The washed mixture was treated with activated charcoal and dried over magnesium sulfate. Evaporation of the ether afforded 3-methyl-1-tribromomethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate (8.34 g, 99% yield) as an oilyresidue.

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm: 6.02(d, 1H); 5.25(m, 1H); 3.53(s, 2H); 2.32(s, 3H); 1.85(m, 6H).

4. Preparation of 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate from 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate

To a solution of 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate (5.75 g, 0.02 mole) and triethylamine (2.02 g, 0.02 mole) in 50 ml of acetonitrile was added a solution of tosyl azide (3.94 g, 0.02 mole, prepared according to the method ofOrganic Synthesis Collective Volume V, page 179 A) in acetonitrile dropwise over a period of 10 minutes. The resultant mixture, containing the thus produced 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl-2-diazoacetoacetate, was stirred at room temperature fortwo hours and then poured into 60 ml (0.06 mole) of 1 N aqueous sodium hydroxide. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and then extracted with about 100 ml of ether. After phase separation, the aqueous layer wasextracted with an additional 150 ml portion of ether, and the ether extracts were combined. The ethereal solution was then washed ten times with 50 ml portions of 3% aqueous potassium hydroxide containing sodium chloride and then three times with 50 mlportions of saturated aqueous sodium chloride. The washed ethereal solution was dried over magnesium sulfate, and the ether was removed by evaporation, affording a brown oily residue. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gelusing benzene as the eluant, to give 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (4.63 g, 85% yield).

4. (a) Preparation of (1R)-3-Methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate

To a solution of (1R)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate (1.63 g, 5.68 mmole) from Example IA.2.(a) and triethylamine (0.57 g, 5.68 mmole) in 10 ml of acetonitrile was added dropwise in small portions at 7-10 minute intervals overa total period of 30 minutes a solution of tosyl azide (1.12 g, 5.68 mmole) in 2 ml of acetonitrile. After stirring at room temperature for 21/4 hours, the mixture was poured into 17 ml of aqueous 1 NaOH. After stirring an additional 45 minutes, themixture was extracted three times with ether, and the combined ethereal extracts were dried over MgSO.sub.4. The dried solution was concentrated to give an orange oil. The oil was chromatographed on 8 (20.times.20 cm) preparative tlc plates (silicagel) with CH.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 as eluent to afford (1R)-2-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (0.96 g, 62% isolated yield) as a yellow oil; [.alpha.].sub.D.sup.31 =+59.degree. (hexane).

5. Preparation of 3-methyl-1-tribromomethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate

To a solution of 3-methyl-1-tribromomethyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate (8.32 g, 0.0198 mole) and tosyl azide (3.9 g, 0.0198 mole) in 40 ml of acetonitrile was added dropwise over a period of 35 minutes a solution of triethylamine (2.0 g, 0.020 mole)in 10 ml of acetonitrile. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 21/2 hours to give 3-methyl-1-tribromomethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetoacetate. Then 60 ml of 1 N aqueous sodium hydroxide was added thereto, and the mixture was stirred atroom temperature for 45 minutes. The reaction mixture was then diluted with ether, the organic phase was separated, the aqueous phase was extracted with ether, and the organic phases were combined. The ethereal solution was washed with three successiveportions of 3% aqueous potassium hydroxide containing sodium chloride, then three times with saturated aqueous sodium chloride. The washed ethereal solution was dried over magnesium sulfate and treated with active charcoal. Evaporation of the etherafforded an oily residue. 3-Methyl-1-tribromomethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (5.78 g, 71% yield) was isolated therefrom by column chromatography.

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm (CDCl.sub.3): 1.85(dd, 6H); 4.82(s, 1H); 5.33(dq, 1H); 6.03(d, 1H).

6. Preparation of 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate from the tosyl hydrazone of glyoxyloyl chloride

To a cold (0.degree.) solution of the tosyl hydrazone of glyoxyloyl chloride (2.61 g, 0.01 mole, prepared according to the method of Organic Synthesis Collective Volume V, page 259), and 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol (2.035 g, 0.01 mole)in 25 ml of methylene chloride was added dropwise over a period of 20 minutes a solution of triethylamine (2.02 g, 0.02 mole) in 8 ml of methylene chloride. After stirring for one hour at 0.degree., the methylene chloride was evaporated at 25.degree. under vacuum, leaving a residue. The residue was dissolved in 50 ml of benzene, and the dark brown solution was treated with activated charcoal and evaporated to give a yellow-brown oil. The oil was dissolved in methylene chlorie, and the solution waswashed successively twice with cold water, twice with cold aqueous sodium bicarbonate, and twice with cold water. The solution in methylene chloride was dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated at 25.degree. under vacuum to givemethyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (2.67 g, 99% yield of crude product) as a viscous oil.

Analysis: ir (cm.sup.-1): 2970, 2950, 2900, 2130, 1770, 1740, 1700, 1440, 1340, 1310, 1270, 1200, 1170, 1095, 1070, 970, 840, 830, 800, 770, 750, 630, 560, 540, 450.

3-Methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate, prepared similarly, except that the triethylamine was added in two portions an hour apart, the resulting mixture was then stirred for 2.5 hours at 0.degree., and the product was purified bycolumn chromatography, displayed the following nmr spectrum.

nmr .delta. ppm (CCl.sub.4): 5.93(d, 1H); 5.23(dg, 1H); 4.72(s, 1H); 1.87(t, 6H).

7. Preparation of (.+-.)-4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane

To a refluxing solution of cupric acetylacetonate (0.07 g, 0.27 mole) in 70 ml of dioxane was added drop-dropwise over a 31/2 hour period, under an argon atmosphere, a solution of (.+-.)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (1.09 g,0.004 moles) and cupric acetylacetonate (0.007 g, 0.027 mmole) in 10 ml of dioxane. The reaction mixture was then heated under reflux for one hour and evaporated to dryness, yielding a residue which was dissolved in ether. The ethereal solution waswashed successively with two portions of aqueous 1 N hydrochloric acid, two portions of aqueous sodium bicarbonate, and twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride. After drying the solution over magnesium sulfate, the ether was evaporated to afford apale yellow oil, which was purified by column chromatography on a silica gel column using a 9/1 mixture of n-hexane/ethyl acetate as the eluant, to give (.+-.)-4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (0.55 g, 53% yield).

8. Preparation of optically active 4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo [3.1.0]hexane

A solution of (.+-.)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (0.544 g, 2 mmole) in dioxane (5 ml) was added dropwise over a period of about 4.5 hours to a suspension ofbis-[2-butoxy-.alpha.-[2-butoxy-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimeth ylethyl)-.alpha.-[(S)-1-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]amino]ethyl]benzenemet hanolato-(2-)]copper (0.762 g, 0.05 mmole) in dioxane (35 ml) at 100.degree.-105.degree.. When theevolution of nitroge began, the temperature was slowly lowered to 50.degree. and maintained at 50.degree. throughout the addition. After the addition of the 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate was completed, the reaction mixture wasstirred at 50.degree. for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was then evaporated to dryness under vacuum and the residue dissolved in diethyl ether. The ethereal solution was washed with a 1 N aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid until the washings didnot turn blue when tested with aqueous ammonia, when washed once with a saturated aqueous solution of sodium chloride and dried over magnesium sulfate. The ether was evaporated under vacuum, and the crude4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane enriched with the (1R,4R,5S) isomer (0.47 g) was converted by zinc reduction to 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid. The acid, after purification by columnchromatography, had an optical rotation of [.alpha.].sub.D.sup.18.5 =+4.7.degree. (CHCl.sub.3). The optical yield of (1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid from the (+)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetatewas calculated to be about 14%.

Optically active 4-tribromomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane enriched with the (1R,4R,5S) isomer is similarly prepared from (.+-.)-3-methyl-1-tribromomethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate.

Optically active lactones enriched with the (1S,4S,5R) isomers are prepared by substituting the (R) catalyst for the (S) catalyst specified above.

8. (a) Preparation of (1R,4R,5S)-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-4-trichloromethyl-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane.

A solution of (1R)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (0.90 g, 3.33 mmole) from Example IA.4.(a) in 15 ml of dry dioxane was added dropwise over a period of 2.6 hours to a catalytic amount (approximately 2 mole %) of cupricacetylacetonate in 65 ml of refluxing dry dioxane under a nitrogen atmosphere. After refluxing for an additional hour, the mixture was evaporated, and an etheral solution of the residue was washed with 1 N HCl, saturated NaHCO.sub.3, and saturated NaCl,then dried over MgSO.sub.4 and evaporated to give (1R,4R,5S)-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-4-trichloromethyl-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (0.73 g, 90% crude yield) as a green-yellow oil.

Analysis of the nmr spectrum of the product with Eu(hfc).sub.3 gave two singlets for the methyl region. Analysis of the racemate by nmr with Eu(hfc).sub.3 showed two well-defined doublets in the methyl region, with other multiplicities alsovisible.

9. Preparation of (.+-.)-4-tribromomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane

To a refluxing solution of cupric acetylacetonate (0.005 g, 0.019 mmole) in 40 ml of toluene was added dropwise over a period of 2.5 hours under an atmosphere of argon gas a solution of (.+-.)-3-methyl-1-tribromomethyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate(0.203 g, 0.005 ml) in 10 ml of toluene. The mixture was then heated under reflux for one hour. After cooling, the reaction mixture was washed successively with two portions of 1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid, once with saturated aqueous sodiumbicarbonate, and twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride. After drying over magnesium sulfate, the solution was evaporated to give a yellow oil as the residue. The residue was purified by column chromatography on a silica gel column using 9/1n-hexane/ethyl acetate as the eluent, yielding (.+-.)-4-tribromomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (0.053 g, yield 28%); mp 101.degree.-103.degree. after recrystallization from n-hexane.

Analysis: Calculated for C.sub.8 H.sub.9 Br.sub.3 O.sub.2 : C,25.50; H,2.41; Found: C,25.52; H,2.36. nmr .delta. ppm (CDCl.sub.3): 1.28(2s, 6H); 2.18 (d, 1H) 2.37(d, 1H); 4.58 (s, 1H).

The nmr spectrum indicates that the lactone is the (1S,4S,5R)/(1R,4R,5S) racemic mixture.

10. Preparation of 1-trichloromethyl-3-methyl-2-butenyl-2-diazoacetoacetate

To a solution of 1-trichloromethyl-3-methyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate (0.575 g, 2 mmole) and triethylamine (0.404 g, 4 mmole) in 10 ml of acetonitrile was added 1 g of polymer-bound sulfonyl azide (prepared by the method of Roush, et al., loc. cit.). The mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature and filtered. The filter cake was washed with ether, and the slurry was filtered. Solvent was removed by evaporation from the combined filtrates to give 1-trichloromethyl-3-methyl-2-butenyl2-diazoacetoacetate (0.60 g, 96% yield).

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm: 6.03 (d, 1H); 5.28 (bd, 1H); 2.45 (s, 3H); 1.90 (d, 6H).

B. From lower alkyl 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazomalonates

1. Preparation of ethyl 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl malonate

To a solution of 1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol (7.98 g, 0.0392 mole) and pyridine (3.10 g, 0.0392 mole) in 8 ml of ether was added dropwise a solution of ethyl malonyl chloride (5.87 g, 0.039 mole) in 4 ml of ether. The reaction mixturewas then stirred overnight at room temperature.

The reaction mixture was diluted with ether and then washed with aqueous 1 N hydrochloric acid, then aqueous sodium bicarbonate, followed by aqueous sodium chloride. The washed mixture was dried over magnesium sulfate, the ether was removed byevaporation, and the residue was distilled to afford ethyl 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl malonate (5.68 g, 46% yield); bp, 104.degree.-105.degree./0.3 mm.

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm: 6.00(d, 1H); 5.32(dq, 1H); 4.18(dd, 2H); 3.35(s, 2H); 1.88(m, 6H); 1.30(t, 3H).

2. Preparation of ethyl 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazomalonate

To a solution of ethyl 3-methyl-1-trichloro-methyl-2-butenyl malonate (5.63 g, 0.0177 mole) and triethylamine (1.79 g, 0.0177 mole) in 40 ml of acetonitrile was added dropwise a solution of tosyl azide (3.487 g, 0.0177 mole) in 10 ml ofacetonitrile. After the addition, the mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature.

The acetonitrile was then evaporated from the solution at room temperature under vacuum, yielding a residue, which was dissolved in ether. The ethereal solution was washed successively with three portions of 3% aqueous potassium hydroxide andonce with aqueous sodium chloride. After drying the solution over magnesium sulfate, the ether was evaporated to yield ethyl 3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazomalonate (5.91 g, 85% yield) as the residue.

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm (CCl.sub.4): 6.03(d, 1H); 5.30(dq, 1H); 4.27(dd, 2H); 1.88(m, 6H); 1.33(t, 3H).

3. Preparation of ethyl (.+-.)-4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-ca rboxylate

To a refluxing suspension of copper powder (5.0 g, 0.079 mole) in 240 ml of n-octane was added dropwise in one hour a solution of ethyl (.+-.)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazomalonate (5.0 g, 0.0146 mole) in 60 ml of n-octane. Thereaction mixture was then heated under reflux for 21/2 hours and filtered. The n-octane was removed from the filtrate by evaporation under vacuum, yielding a residue which was distilled under vacuum to give ethyl(.+-.)-4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo-[3.1.0]hexane-1-c arboxylate as a highly viscous oil (2.47 g, 54% yield); bp, 123.degree.-125.degree./0.3 mm.

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm (CCl.sub.4): 4.47(s, 1H); 4.23(dd, 2H); 2.67(s, 1H); 1.32(m, 9H).

4. Preparation of methyl (.+-.)-4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]-hexane-1-c arboxylate

To a refluxing suspension of copper powder (6.6 g, 0.104 mole) in 320 ml of n-octane was added dropwise in one hour a solution of methyl (.+-.)-3-methyl-1-trichloromethyl-2-butenyl diazomalonate (6.6 g, 0.02 mole, prepared as described above forthe ethyl ester) in 80 ml of n-octane. The reaction mixture was heated for 21/2 hours under reflux and then filtered while hot. The n-octane was evaporated from the filtrate under vacuum to produce a residue which was dissolved in ethyl acetate. Thesolution was washed successively with aqueous 1 N hydrochloric acid, aqueous sodium bicarbonate, and aqueous sodium chloride. After drying the solution over magnesium sulfate, the ethyl acetate was removed by evaporation, yielding methyl(.+-.)-4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]-hexane-1-c arboxylate (5.77 g, 96% yield) as an oil. Trituration of the oil with ether afforded the crystalline lactone; mp, 118.degree.-120.degree..

Analysis: Calculated for C.sub.10 H.sub.11 O.sub.4 Cl.sub.3 : C, 39.83; H, 3.68; Found: C, 39.57; H, 3.56. nmr .delta. ppm (CDCl.sub.3): 4.39(s,1H); 3.76 (s,3H); 2.61(s,1H); 1.30(s,6H). mass spec. m/e: 300, 109, 100, 33, 18. molecular weight(CHCl.sub.3): 295

The nmr spectrum indicates that the lactone is the (1S,4S,5R)/(1R,4R,5S) racemic mixture.

5. Preparation of 4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane

To a solution of methyl 4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-carboxyla te (1.52 g, 0.005 mole) in 10 ml of hexamethylphosphoric triamide was added lithium chloride (0.42 g, 0.010 mole). After heating at 75.degree. for two hours, the cooled reaction mixture was diluted with ether. The ethereal solution was washed with water, dried over magnesium sulfate, and the ether was removed by evaporation, yielding a residue which was purified by column chromatography onsilica gel using 9/1 n-hexane/ethylacetate as the eluent to give 4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (0.34 g, 28% yield) as an oil.

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm (CDCl.sub.3): 4.60(s, 1H); 2.37(d, 1H); 2.15 (d, 1H); 1.28(s, 6H). mass spec. m/e: 243, 125, 100, 97, 30.

Following the above procedure, the same compound is prepared from ethyl 4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-carboxyla te.

EXAMPLE II

Synthesis of 6,6-Dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane

1. Preparation of 3-methyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate

A mixture of 3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol (21.2 g, 0.25 mole) and anhydrous sodium acetate (0.1 g) was cooled to 0.degree.. Diketene (36 ml, 0.3 mole) was added dropwise over a period of 1.5 to 2 hours. The reaction mixture was then heated to75.degree.-80.degree., and this temperature was maintained for one hour. The mixture was diluted with ether. The ethereal solution was washed successively with aqueous 1 N hydrochloric acid, saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, saturated aqueoussodium chloride, and then dried over magnesium sulfate. The ether was evaporated, leaving a residue which was distilled under vacuum, affording 3-methyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate (32.1 g, 76% yield); bp 114.degree.-117.degree./18-19 mm.

2. Preparation of 3-methyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate

A solution of 3-methyl-2-butenyl acetoacetate (7.4 g, 0.0435 mole) and p-toluenesulfonyl azide was prepared in acetonitrile. Triethylamine (4.40 g) in acetonitrile was added dropwise to this solution over a period of 10 minutes, and stirredreaction mixture was maintained at room temperature for 2 hours. An aqueous 1 N solution of sodium hydroxide (130 ml, 0.13 mole) was added and stirring continued for 45 minutes. Ether and aqueous sodium chloride were added to the mixture. After phaseseparation, the aqueous layer was washed consecutively with aqueous 1 N sodium hydroxide (3 times) and a saturated aqueous solution of sodium chloride (twice). The washed ethereal solution was dried over magnesium sulfate and treated with activecharcoal. The residue, after evaporation, was identified as 3-methyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (5.72 g, 85% yield).

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm: 1.8 (m, 6H); 4.6 (s, 1H); 4.8 (m, 2H); 5.4 (m, 1H).

3. Preparation of (.+-.)-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane

A solution of 3-methyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (41.3 mmole, 6.36 g) in dioxane (20 ml) was added dropwise to a refluxing solution of cupric acetylacetonate (1.03 mmole, 0.27 g) in dioxane (400 ml) over a period of 7 hours under an argonatmosphere. After completion of the addition, the reaction mixture was heated under reflux for 1 hour. The crude reaction mixture was distilled to afford (.+-.)-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (3.85 g, 75% yield); bp 110.degree., 16 mm Hg.

4. Preparation of optically active 6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane

A solution of 3-methyl-2-butenyl diazoacetate (980 mg, 6.4 mmoles) in dioxane (15 ml) was added dropwise to a solution of bis[2-butoxy-.alpha.-[2-butoxy-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-.alpha.-[(S)-1-[[2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]amino]ethyl]benzenemetha nolate (2-)]copper (83 mg, 0.064 mmole) in dioxane (55 ml) at 110.degree.. When the evolution of nitrogen started, the temperature was slowly lowered to 52.degree.-3.degree.. The addition took 5.5 hours, and the evolution of almost theoretical amounts of nitrogen was observed. After the addition was completed, the reaction mixture was stirred at 52.degree.-3.degree. for 2 hours, evaporated to dryness, and distilled undervacuum to afford 6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane enriched with the (1R,5S) isomer (500 mg). The optical rotation of the product was [.alpha.].sub.D.sup.29 =-53.5.degree. (CHCl.sub.3).

The product was then treated with base, acidified, then methylated as described by Sevrin, et al., Tetrahedron Letters, 3915 (1976), before oxidation to methyl cis-3-formyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate. The latter was then converted to alower alkoxy 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate by the procedure disclosed in Japan. Kokai 76/122041. The ester was hydrolyzed, and the optical activity of the resultingcis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid was [.alpha.].sub.D =+16.7 (CHCl.sub.3), corresponding to an optical yield of about 58% (1R,3R) isomer.

EXAMPLE III

Synthesis of cis-3-(2,2-Dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic Acids

A. Preparation of cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid

To a suspension of zinc powder (0.52 g, 0.008 mole) in 0.6 ml of acetic acid and 3 ml of ether was added dropwise over a period of 15 minutes a solution of 4-trichloromethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (0.487 g, 0.002 mole) in 3ml of ether. The mixture was stirred for two hours at room temperature, 30 ml of ether and 5 ml of water were added, and the mixture was then filtered through Celite filter aid. The organic layer was separated, washed twice with saturated aqueoussodium chloride, dried over magnesium sulfate, and the ether was evaporated to give crystalline cis-3-82,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (0.450 g, 97% yield).

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm (CDCl.sub.3): 1.18(s, 6H); 1.92(m, 2H); 6.15(d, 1H); 13.27(bs, 1H).

The presence in the nmr spectrum of the single doublet at 6.15 ppm indicates that only the cis isomer is present.

B. Preparation of cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid

To a chilled suspension of zinc powder (0.494 g, 0.0076 mole) in 0.57 ml of acetic acid and 3 ml of ether was added dropwise over a period of 20 minutes a solution of 4-tribromomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (0.72 g, 0.0019mole) in 5 ml of ether. The mixture was stirred at 0.degree. for one hour. After adding 30 ml of ether and 5 ml of water, the mixture was filtered through Celite filter aid. The organic layer was separated, washed three times with saturated aqueoussodium chloride, dried over magnesium sulfate, and the ether was removed by evaporation to give crystalline cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (0.489 g, 86% yield); mp, 112.degree.-114.degree. after recrystallization fromn-hexane.

Analysis: nmr .delta. ppm (CDCl.sub.3): 1.27(s, 6H); 1.97(m, 2H); 6.67(d, 1H); 11.3(bs, 1H).

The presence in the nmr spectrum of the single doublet at 6.67 ppm shows that only the cis isomer is present.

If an optically active 4-trihalomethyl-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane is employed, e.g., enriched with the (1R,4R,5S) optical isomer, an optically active cis-3-(2,2-dihalovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, e.g.,enriched with the (1R,3R) isomer, is obtained.

C. Preparation of (1R,3R)-3-(2,2-Dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic Acid

To a suspension of finely divided zinc dust (0.81 g, 1.23 mmole) in acetic acid (0.99 g, 1.64 mmole) and 4 ml of ether was added, under nitrogen, a solution of (1R,4R,5S)-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-4-trichloromethyl-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (0.50 g,1.84 mmole) from Example IA.8.(a) in 4 ml of ether. The reaction was monitored by glpc. When the glpc results indicated almost complete conversion, the reaction mixture was diluted with additional ether and water, filtered through Celite filter aid,and the organic layer was separated, dried, and evaporated to a yellow oil which was chromatographed on two 20.times.20 cm preparative tlc plates with CH.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 as eluent. The slow running acid band was removed, extracted with CH.sub.2 Cl.sub.2,and the extract was filtered and evaporated to afford (1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (68 mg, 18% isolated yield). The optical rotation of the acid prepared in a second identical run was measured;[.alpha.].sub.D.sup.31 =+6.2 (hexane).

To the aforesaid cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (65 mg, 0.325 mmole) sealed in a glpc autosampler vial (capacity 2 ml) was added by syringe all at once thionyl chloride (194 mg, 1.63 mmole). The vial was suspended in a 45.degree. oil bath for 21/4hr, after which 0.2 ml of Et.sub.2 O was added, and the solvent and excess thionyl chloride were removed by syringe under high vacuum. To the residue was added 0.5 ml of toluene, after which several drops of the resultant solution was added to a secondsealed glpc autosample vial containing 1 drop of (-)-2-octanol, 1 drop of pyridine, and 0.1 ml of toluene. The vial was suspended in a 45.degree. oil bath for 1 hr, during which a white precipitate formed. After 1 hour, the supernatant liquid wasanalyzed by glpc on a 12'.times.1/8" stainless steel column packed with 15% QF-1 on Chrom W. The chromatogram indicated that the ester produced in the reaction was at least 93% (-)-2-octanol ester of(1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, based on a comparison of the retention times of the product and an authentic sample of the (-)-2-octanol ester of (1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylicacid.

In the manner of Examples IA.1.(a), IA.2.(a), IA.4.(a), IA.8.(a), and IIIC., (1S,3S)-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid is prepared from (2S)-1,1,1-trichloro-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol via(1S,4S,5R)-6,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-4-trichloromethyl-3-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane.

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