A seismic system is placed in a predetermined orientation with respect to a surface of a formation, and a low viscosity substance is introduced between the sensor system and the surface of the formation. The substance has a composition formulated for stiffening in situ by increasing
Seismic energy is generated at a multiplicity of source offsets from a borehole and offset VSP data is collected by an acoustic detector at a multiplicity of geophone depths for each source offset. The recorded data is sorted into Zero Source-Receiver (ZSR), common reflection point bins.
A method for segregating and stacking vertical seismic profile data is disclosed wherein the offset difference between the well location and the position of the source is divided into equal segments, VSP moveout corrected data are placed in common reflection point bins and stacked.
A moveout correction process and stacking velocity estimation process to permit stacking of vertical seismic profile (VSP) data is disclosed wherein the primary reflection time is determined by using the two-way travel time, the root mean square velocity of acoustic pulses in the for