Image Number 14 for United States Patent #8114702.
The invention provides a method of manufacturing a monolithic thin-film photovoltaic cell or module with enhanced output voltage as high as 100 V or higher in a single microelectronic process without connecting in series a plurality of premanufactured solar cells. The method consists of forming a plurality of adjacent individual TSCs arranged on a common transparent substrate in the longitudinal direction of the substrate. Each TSC consists of a pair of PV cells having PIN and NIP structures, respectively, with substantially coplanar position of a P-doped layer of one of the cells with respect to an N-doped layer of another cell of the pair. A tunnel junction is formed between the cells of the pair by overlapping P-doped and N-doped layers in the area near the common transparent substrate. The alternating PIN and NIP structures are achieved by forming projections in a continuous monolithic structure of one type and filling the spaces between the projections with the material of the inverse structure of the other type.