Image Number 11 for United States Patent #7411828.
Methods and apparatuses for programming a single-poly pFET-based nonvolatile memory cell bias the cell so that band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) is induced and electrons generated by the BTBT are injected onto a floating gate of the cell. Following a predetermined event, the single-poly pFET is biased to induce impact-ionized hot-electron injection (IHEI). The predetermined event may be, for example, the expiration of a predetermined time period or a determination that a channel has been formed by the BTBT injection process that is sufficiently conducting to support IHEI. Employing BTBT permits a previously overerased or stuck bit to be "unstuck" or "removed" and thus be made usable (i.e., able to be programmed) again.