Image Number 10 for United States Patent #7135917.
A left-handed nonlinear transmission line system has multiple nonlinear capacitors connected in series between input and output terminals and multiple inductances connected in parallel between the nonlinear capacitors and a return conductor extending between the input and output terminals. The nonlinear capacitors have a capacitance characteristic that changes with the voltage applied across the capacitors, such as a capacitance that decreases with increasing voltage. A radio frequency signal source is coupled to the input terminals and provides power at a selected drive frequency. Depending on the frequency of the drive signal with respect to the Bragg cutoff frequency of the nonlinear transmission line, the output signal may include a strong signal component at the third harmonic of the input drive signal frequency, components at higher harmonics, or components at fractional frequencies of the input drive signal frequency. Parametric generation of other signal waves that are phase matched with the signal wave produced by the input drive signal is also possible under appropriate conditions. The left-handed nonlinear transmission line system generates such output signal frequencies with high efficiency.