Image Number 4 for United States Patent #7134631.
Wing tip vortices are evident from airliner vapor trails, and helicopter blade slap. Elliptically loaded high aspect ratio tapered wings have minimum induced drag but cannot eliminate it. Different methods are disclosed herein, for upper and lower surface boundary layers to cancel their opposing vorticity upon shedding from the trailing edge, thereby eliminating wake vorticty, induced drag and associated noise. This requires wing-rotor-propeller or fan blades with a platform designed for uniform bound circulation and with boundary layer control near the tip. In addition this requires special techniques to counter span-wise pressure gradients, such as tip circulation control blowing or an upwind small propeller or wind turbine on each tip. These techniques can eliminate wake vorticity with its induced drag, noise, flying on the backside of the power curve and the option for asymmetric loading by pneumatic means to eliminate need for cyclic pitch control or conventional ailerons.