Image Number 3 for United States Patent #7030789.
Techniques are provided for applying modulation constraints to data by using periodically changing symbol mappings to replace certain prohibited error prone data patterns. Initially, user data in a first base is mapped to integers of a second base using a base conversion technique. The integers in the second base correspond to symbols. Subsequently, periodically changing symbol mappings are performed during which prohibited symbols generated during base conversion are mapped to permitted symbols. The periodically changing symbol mappings occur in multiple phases, and the prohibited symbols are different in each phase. The resulting data is processed by a precoder in some embodiments.