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Class Information
Number: 451
Name: Abrading >
Description: While theoretically all abrading (or grinding) may be said to involve a cutting action, the cutting instrument being a natural one, for example, the sharp edges of randomly oriented crystals, as opposed to the teeth of a file, milling tool, or the like, nevertheless there is a practical distinction between an abrading (or grinding) device on the one hand, and a cutting device on the other, as means of working various materials, which is sufficiently well understood throughout the industrial world to permit this distinction to be made in the classification of inventions relating to such devices. The present classification therefore excludes any and every form of cutting, milling, or filing if the abrading is done with materials of sufficiently fine grain to produce a light-reflecting surface or polish. The term "abrading" may include a polishing device that acts by removal of an integral portion of the material acted upon, but not such as depends upon the application of a coating capable of taking a polish by friction or upon a compression, consolidation, or swaging of the material, for which see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, below.










Class Number Class Name No. of Patents
451/921

"pad" for lens shaping tool

85
451/916

Abrading of brush bristle

10
451/917

Abrading of scalloped cutting edge (e.g., bread knife sharpening)

1
451/28

Abrading process

936
451/60

Abradant supplying

545
451/62

Cam

64
451/57

Combined abrading

691
451/58

Utilizing mounted rigid abrading tool only

221
451/48

Drill, thread, thread cutter, reamer, or rotary cutter abrading

201
451/46

Gauge abrading

26
451/47

Gear or worm abrading

238
451/41

Glass or stone abrading

3219
451/44

Edging

317
451/42

Lens

387
451/43

Edging

263
451/61

Hollow work

131
451/45

Razor, knife, or scissors sharpening

208
451/51

Ring, tube, bushing, sleeve, or cylinder abrading

298
451/52

Bearing raceway

56
451/49

Roll, roller, shaft, ball, or piston abrading

377
451/50

Ball abrading

50
451/63

Side face of disk

415
451/32

Tumbling

128
451/34

In at least one of plural abrading steps

26
451/33

Including temperature modification or control

21
451/35

With auxiliary work treating or in critical fluent medium

83
451/36

Utilizing fluent abradant

839
451/38

By blasting

572
451/40

With nonatmospheric fluid carrier

229
451/39

With nonsiliceous abradant

368
451/37

Combined abrading

172
451/59

Utilizing nonrigid tool

481
451/29

Utilizing shield (mask or stencil)

146
451/30

With in situ removal of nonresist portion of shield

51
451/31

With preparation of shield

43
451/54

With critical nonabrading work treating

324
451/55

Deforming

103
451/53

With critical temperature modification or control of work or abradant

353
451/56

With tool treating or forming

858
451/915

Abrading wheel speed control

3
451/442

Accessory

75
451/446

Abradant supplying

320
451/447

Grader

22
451/458

Abrading sheet applying device

16
451/448

Button cleaning shield

1
451/449

Cooling

168
451/450

Wetting grindstone

229
451/443

Dressing

562
451/445

Erasing shield

7
451/451

Guard or housing

295
451/452

Breakage guard

43
451/453

Collector

144
451/454

Drive shield

40
451/455

Spark or splash guard

74
451/456

Suction

453
451/457

Work guard

46
451/459

Strop surface renewing

5
451/444

Tool cleaner

290
451/460

Work-mounting device

118
451/918

Adjustable work support (e.g., by sine bar)

3
451/415

Attachment

49
451/440

Internal abrader

27
451/441

Orbital tool

44
451/424

Roll or wheel abrader

27
451/426

Reciprocating tool

17
451/427

Nut-and-screw-type drive

2
451/425

Rotary reciprocating tool

15
451/428

Stationary abrading tool

4
451/419

To cutting machine to sharpen blade

46
451/420

Rotary abrading tool

44
451/421

Rotary reciprocating tool

38
451/422

Work actuated

13
451/423

Stationary abrading tool

21
451/418

To electrical machine to abrade commutator

9
451/435

To lathe

15
451/436

Center abrader

2
451/437

Internal abrader

1
451/429

To rail

30
451/432

To sewing machine

1
451/433

To be driven by flywheel

0
451/416

To textile machine to abrade card

20
451/417

Flat card

3
451/439

To the work

125
451/434

To vehicle

16
451/438

To work guide

19
451/430

Valve or valve seat abrader

74
451/431

Orbital tool

16
451/902

Brake abrading

19
451/487

Carrier for a radially movable tool

17
451/463

Carrier for relatively movable simultaneously usable tools

32
451/464

For radially movable tools

42
451/465

Centrifugal force urged tools

34
451/466

Flexible flail tools

110
451/468

Including self-sustaining tools

22
451/469

With discrete nondestructible tool-securing means

45
451/467

With tool supply or storage

7
451/470

Including conoid or wedge tool moving member

39
451/478

Conoid member

28
451/471

With threaded operator

5
451/477

Including key-way or spline

8
451/472

To move conoid member

12
451/475

By conoid member with screw threads

3
451/474

For movement of conoid members relative to each other

2
451/476

Including plural conoid members

11
451/473

To actuate pivotally mounted tools

3
451/479

Including gear actuated tool mover

11
451/481

Including hydraulically actuated tool mover

14
451/480

Including lever actuated tool mover

2
451/484

Including resiliently urged tool

13
451/485

By coil spring

13
451/482

Including thread actuated tool mover

7
451/483

Interrelated to move plural tools

11
451/486

Including tools resiliently urged toward work

38
451/461

Combined tool

121
451/462

Internal

20
451/913

Contour abrading

29
451/903

Egg cleaning

1
451/908

Electrical abrading

20
451/904

Flexible abrasive storage reel

4
451/489

Flexible-member tool mounted on plural rolls

22
451/526

Flexible-member tool, per se

437
451/532

Comprising fibers

143
451/527

Interrupted or composite work face (e.g., cracked, nonplanar, etc.)

464
451/529

Sectional

131
451/528

Uniform thickness nonplanar

75
451/533

Laminate

424
451/539

Abrasive on one surface only

262
451/535

Coil wound

21
451/534

Discontinuous or differential coating impregnation or bond

101
451/536

Integrated strands

63
451/537

Non-coextensive laminae

42
451/538

Strippable layer or component

107
451/531

Splice or joint

31
451/530

Work face variegated or on projecting backing

149
451/340

Frame or mount

58
451/341

Double treadle

1
451/342

For hanging rigid, rotary abrading tool

287
451/343

With balancing provision

71
451/344

Portable abrader

391
451/345

Button cleaner

5
451/346

Calk sharpener

0
451/349

Edge-tool sharpener

86
451/355

Endless band tool

110
451/350

Floor surfacing machine

129
451/351

Reciprocating tool

44
451/352

Rotary cylinder tool

77
451/353

Rotary disk tool

262
451/357

Orbital motion tool

314
451/347

Rail abrader

101
451/356

Reciprocating tool

198
451/348

Roll or wheel abrader

17
451/358

Rotary cylinder tool

240
451/359

Rotary disk tool

529
451/354

Wall surfacing machine

165
451/360

Rotary tool supporter

105
451/361

Floor or bench stand

44
451/363

Machine head

50
451/362

Turret

27
451/900

Gear abrader

30
451/906

Machine element or unit

1
451/64

Machine

41
451/114

By use of plural work holders, without tool

29
451/115

Of valve and seat

10
451/116

Plug cock

0
451/117

Poppet valve

3
451/118

Slide valve

0
451/65

Combined

339
451/66

Scouring or polishing means

195
451/67

With nonabrading means

197
451/73

Adjunct

13
451/69

Cutter

74
451/71

Drill

15
451/70

Including abrader for cut surface

85
451/72

Having means to refurbish abrading tool

337
451/68

Work deformer

17
451/296

Endless band tool

318
451/297

Belt tracking

76
451/298

Chain

28
451/299

One-way work traverse

83
451/300

Endless work carrier

64
451/301

Roller work feed

31
451/302

Opposed endless band abrading tools

75
451/303

Presser or former

224
451/304

Reciprocating band carrier

74
451/305

Reciprocating work holder

24
451/306

Work rotating

31
451/307

Rotary work holder

222
451/308

Turret

14
451/309

Superposed endless band tools

21
451/310

Swinging band carrier

53
451/311

Tension device

125
451/74

Graining box

11
451/113

Immersion

178
451/162

Reciprocating tool

45
451/163

Oscillating

89
451/164

Rectilinear

79
451/166

Compound rectilinear motion

34
451/176

Drawing reel

3
451/167

Endless work carrier

20
451/168

Flexible strip or endless band tool

127
451/169

Stropping machine

2
451/170

Reciprocating work holder

15
451/171

Rocking

9
451/172

Roller work feed

10
451/173

Rotary work holder

82
451/174

Swinging tool carrier

19
451/175

Having actuating handle

9
451/165

Ultrasonic

118
451/119

Rotary reciprocating tool

23
451/120

Cylindrical tool

28
451/121

Oscillating

53
451/122

Harvester knife

4
451/123

Work rotating

46
451/124

Rectilinear

62
451/126

Blade reversing (e.g., razor blade)

2
451/127

Compound rectilinear motion

49
451/128

Harvester knife

4
451/129

One-way work cut

9
451/130

One-way work traverse

18
451/131

Roller work feed

3
451/132

Opposed

13
451/133

Reciprocating work holder

2
451/134

Rotating work holder

10
451/125

Pattern and follower driver

14
451/135

Planetary

7
451/155

Reciprocating spindle

36
451/157

Cam and follower driver

19
451/156

Hydraulic driver

20
451/136

Reciprocating work holder

6
451/137

Rectilinear

15
451/138

Rocking

10
451/150

Rectilinearly reciprocating tool carriage

49
451/153

Flexible driver

6
451/151

Hydraulic driver

14
451/154

Rack and pinion driver

5
451/152

Screw and nut driver

16
451/139

Swinging tool carrier

25
451/140

Work rotating

31
451/142

Cylindrical surface (e.g., roll) abrader

47
451/141

Helical blade

28
451/143

Rotary work holder

45
451/146

Disk or wheel abrader

12
451/147

Gear abrader

60
451/148

Hob

9
451/145

Hydraulic driver

0
451/144

Pattern and follower driver

12
451/149

Turret

6
451/158

Disk tool

30
451/159

Oscillating

61
451/160

Rectilinear

66
451/161

Gear abrader

17
451/177

Rotary tool

107
451/294

Means to rotate tool

81
451/295

Hydraulic driver

56
451/178

Rotary cylinder

155
451/180

Internal

116
451/181

Abrading crank-pin

6
451/179

Linear indexing of the tool

24
451/182

One-way work traverse

60
451/193

Blade sharpener

30
451/183

Drawing reel

11
451/184

Endless work carrier

80
451/185

Blade sharpener

6
451/186

Nut and screw

6
451/187

Blade sharpener

3
451/190

Opposed abrading tools

82
451/192

Blade sharpener

21
451/191

Razor blade

3
451/188

Roller work feed

32
451/189

Work rotating

11
451/194

Opposed abrading tools

86
451/195

Alternating tools

28
451/196

Blade sharpener

13
451/197

Plunger infeeder

6
451/198

Blade sharpener

9
451/199

Reciprocating work holder

5
451/206

Blade sharpener

4
451/200

Rectilinear

5
451/203

Blade sharpener

11
451/201

Rocking

2
451/202

Blade sharpener

5
451/204

Rocking

1
451/205

Blade sharpener

7
451/207

Roller work feed

12
451/208

Blade sharpener

7
451/209

Work rotating

26
451/210

Rotary work holder

27
451/211

Planetary

62
451/212

Reciprocating work holder

18
451/229

Blade sharpener

17
451/230

Harvester knife

0
451/213

Rectilinear

40
451/224

Blade sharpener

31
451/215

Compound

18
451/225

Harvester knife

2
451/214

Indexing

18
451/216

Rocking

19
451/217

Hob, tap, or fluted thread

9
451/218

Work rotating

27
451/219

Gear forming

57
451/220

Long helix

12
451/221

Rotary work holder

27
451/222

Thread abrader

18
451/223

Including work support engaging work at opposite, axial ends; e.g., opposed "centers"

3
451/226

Rocking

22
451/227

Work rotating

13
451/228

Noncircular cross section

29
451/231

Stationary work holder

63
451/234

Blade sharpener

41
451/235

Harvester knife

1
451/232

Reversing, obverting, or pivoting

22
451/233

Spaced portions

8
451/236

Swinging tool carrier

63
451/237

Templet

49
451/238

Pantograph

7
451/239

Rotary templet or pattern

83
451/240

Lens abrader

102
451/241

Work guide

74
451/242

Work rotating

123
451/258

Disk or wheel abrader

31
451/246

Rotary work holder

145
451/251

Abrading eccentric shape

61
451/250

By hob

10
451/254

Disk or wheel abrader

84
451/255

Lens abrader

80
451/253

Gear abrader

65
451/257

Glassware ornamenting

4
451/256

Lens abrader

102
451/249

Spaced abrading areas

81
451/247

Turret

32
451/248

Blade sharpener

6
451/252

Valve abrader

22
451/245

Through feed

34
451/243

With "dead" center

32
451/244

Work handling

25
451/259

Rotary disk

167
451/293

Blade sharpener

76
451/260

One-way work traverse

39
451/261

Opposed abrading tools

53
451/262

Opposed abrading tools

143
451/263

Blade reversing

4
451/264

Reciprocating work holder

12
451/265

Rectilinear

9
451/266

Rocking

3
451/267

Work guide

42
451/268

Work rotating

64
451/269

Rotary work holder

131
451/270

Orbital

82
451/271

Planetary

94
451/272

Reciprocating work holder

24
451/273

Rectilinear

29
451/274

Work rotating

27
451/275

Gear generating

17
451/276

Rocking

39
451/277

Lens abrader

65
451/278

Stationary work holder

111
451/279

Reversing, obverting, or pivoting

54
451/280

Swinging tool carrier

35
451/281

Templet

28
451/282

Work guide

81
451/283

Work rotating

66
451/284

Raceway

14
451/285

Rotary work holder

957
451/286

By means loosely confining work

289
451/290

Disk or wheel abrader

195
451/289

Having vacuum or adhesive securing means

355
451/287

Planar surface abrading

1068
451/288

Having pressure plate

1025
451/291

Planetary

58
451/292

Turret

30
451/75

Sandblast

263
451/91

Abradant propulsion means

85
451/97

Centrifugal batter

80
451/93

Magnetic

19
451/94

Mechanical

19
451/95

Centrifugal batter with abradant supply

78
451/96

Powered abradant supply

21
451/92

Mobile machine

155
451/98

Vane structure

50
451/99

Abradant supply structure

282
451/100

Multiple hopper

45
451/78

Electrical device

55
451/79

File

5
451/90

Having hand-directed sandblast nozzle

172
451/80

Having moving work holder

48
451/81

Endless belt type

57
451/82

Rotary

59
451/83

Rollers

21
451/84

Table

17
451/87

Having particle recovery means

240
451/88

And separation means

222
451/89

Having sandblast chamber

187
451/85

Having tumbling barrel

26
451/86

And centrifugal particle propulsion means

37
451/76

Hollow interior work

95
451/102

Sandblast nozzle structure

365
451/77

Spark plug

7
451/101

Valve structure

93
451/103

Scouring device

31
451/104

Immersion

96
451/107

Drawing reel

4
451/105

Roller work feed

3
451/106

Rotary work holder

39
451/108

Reciprocating scouring tool

10
451/109

Rotary cylindrical scouring tool

15
451/110

Opposed pair of scouring tools

6
451/111

Rotary disk-shaped scouring tool

12
451/112

Opposed pair of scouring tools

3
451/312

Stationary tool

38
451/313

Flexible

18
451/314

Reciprocating work holder

18
451/315

Needle-eye polisher

0
451/316

Stropping machine

0
451/317

Work rotating

51
451/318

Stropping machine

4
451/319

Rigid

29
451/320

Reciprocating work holder

27
451/321

Blade sharpener

33
451/322

Blade reversing

5
451/323

Lens abrader

12
451/324

Rotary work holder

58
451/325

Lens abrader

13
451/326

Tumbling device

148
451/328

Drum

119
451/329

Planetary

35
451/327

Rotating work about vertical axis

95
451/330

Tumbling shapes

38
451/905

Metal lap

19
451/559

Miscellaneous

25
451/1

Precision device or process - or with condition responsive control

154
451/6

By optical sensor

797
451/5

Computer controlled

2207
451/2

Condition responsive control for sandblasting

128
451/3

Cyclic control

26
451/7

Controlling temperature

225
451/4

Tape controlled

38
451/11

With feeding of tool or work holder

936
451/12

And use of moving abutment

24
451/13

Moved by cam

18
451/23

Cam actuated

20
451/24

Hydraulically driven

130
451/26

Control means near and parallel to the abrader

78
451/25

Sizing gauge controlled

43
451/14

Screw actuated

88
451/15

Manually adjustable

13
451/16

Ratchet and pawl drive

6
451/18

Cam actuated

3
451/19

Hydraulically driven

9
451/17

Sizing gauge controlled

10
451/20

Table dog actuated

3
451/27

Tool interior of workpiece

97
451/21

Tool wear compensation

299
451/22

Sizing gauge controlled

55
451/8

With indicating

982
451/10

And feeding of tool or work holder

507
451/9

Of tool or work holder position

435
451/540

Rigid tool

242
451/557

Having actuating handle

102
451/558

Work guide

85
451/541

Rotary cylinder

292
451/542

Circular segments

93
451/543

Detachable

30
451/544

Laminated

86
451/546

Reinforced

72
451/547

Ribbed periphery

126
451/545

Work guide

34
451/548

Rotary disk

369
451/550

Disk laps

141
451/551

Scroll

13
451/549

Work guide

30
451/552

Stationary

95
451/554

Having oiler or moistener

3
451/553

Metal

14
451/556

Razor hone

29
451/555

Work guide

114
451/912

Shoe abrading

2
451/907

Strip feeding

7
451/901

Super finish

16
451/914

Supporting, positioning, or feeding work

10
451/920

Tire "rounding"

40
451/911

Tool mounting point

3
451/490

Tool support for flexible-member tool

183
451/495

Contour-adjustable support

90
451/494

Having magnetic or suction tool holding means

46
451/513

Including endless band tool holding member

32
451/504

Including expansible external surface

52
451/507

Actuated by compression of support

18
451/506

Centrifugally actuated

9
451/505

Hydraulically actuated

22
451/508

Including headed, axially disposed, tool holding member on rotary support

81
451/509

Tool holding member disconnected from support by partial rotation

24
451/510

With threaded means to retain tool holding member

54
451/511

Including conical tool holding member

6
451/502

Including longitudinal tool holding slot

31
451/503

Separable along slot

8
451/514

Including resiliently urged tool holding member

63
451/517

Biased for tool disengagement

18
451/518

Cantilever-spring actuated

19
451/519

Coil-spring actuated

21
451/516

Rotatable

12
451/515

Separable

16
451/512

Including taper or wedge tool holding member

36
451/521

Including threaded means to retain tool holder

29
451/522

Including bar or plate tool holding member

13
451/520

Including tool holder having tool surface depressor

29
451/496

Including tool holding slot in rotary tool support

41
451/497

Separable along slot

2
451/498

Diametrically separable

7
451/499

With tool tensioning means

23
451/500

By rotary gripping element

13
451/501

Including threaded element

2
451/523

Manually manipulated

199
451/524

By handle

204
451/525

Detachable from tool support

74
451/491

With tool supply or storage

14
451/492

Coiled tool

11
451/493

On spool or axle

16
451/910

Ultrasonic

49
451/488

Ventilation or cooling of tool or tool support

102
451/919

Wankel

8
451/909

Wire polishing

15
451/331

Work feeder

46
451/339

Ejector or unloader

118
451/336

Endless

47
451/337

With hopper or magazine

10
451/334

Reciprocating

37
451/335

With hopper or magazine

27
451/332

Rotary

53
451/333

With hopper or magazine

25
451/338

Skewed feed rollers

7
451/364

Work holder

168
451/405

Angularly adjustable

52
451/365

Clamp

147
451/387

Angularly adjustable

59
451/367

Edge tool

63
451/380

Angularly adjustable

37
451/369

Gauging device

26
451/370

Portable

15
451/371

Blade sharpener

55
451/372

Harvester knife

3
451/373

Suspension

0
451/378

Portable

20
451/374

Rotary cutter

38
451/375

Drill

75
451/376

Pattern control

17
451/368

Seat controlled

2
451/377

Work reciprocating

12
451/379

Work rotating

17
451/381

Hollow work

46
451/382

Hypodermic needle

15
451/384

Lens holder

124
451/386

Portable

38
451/383

Skate

26
451/366

Work oscillating

20
451/385

Work rotating

65
451/389

Drop or dop stick

62
451/403

Indexing

64
451/404

Hand operated

20
451/390

Lens or prism

215
451/391

Portable

39
451/402

Rotary

56
451/388

Vacuum

349
451/392

Work reciprocating

18
451/393

Rectilinearly

27
451/394

And work rotating

23
451/395

Hydraulically actuated

7
451/396

Rocking

19
451/397

Work rotating

163
451/398

Rotary work holder

514
451/399

Crank shaft

29
451/400

Orbital movement

24
451/401

Turret

45
451/406

Work rest

38
451/407

For centerless abrader

41
451/410

Gauging device

14
451/408

Steady rest

45
451/409

Tool tooth rest

9
451/411

Work table

40
451/414

Angularly adjustable

32
451/412

Glass work

17
451/413

Work rotating

24
 
 
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