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Class Information
Number: 438
Name: Semiconductor device manufacturing: process >
Description: A. This class provides for manufacturing a semiconductor containing a solid-state device by a combination of operations wherein:










Class Number Class Name No. of Patents
438/380

Avalanche diode manufacture (e.g., impatt, trappat, etc.)

138
438/455

Bonding of plural semiconductor substrates

2006
438/456

Having enclosed cavity

494
438/458

Subsequent separation into plural bodies (e.g., delaminating, dicing, etc.)

1893
438/459

Thinning of semiconductor substrate

1508
438/457

Warping of semiconductor substrate

203
438/932

Boron nitride semiconductor

19
438/900

Bulk effect device making

116
438/901

Capacitive junction

29
438/902

Capping layer

118
438/903

Catalyst aided deposition

56
438/904

Charge carrier lifetime control

64
438/689

Chemical etching

1366
438/705

Altering etchability of substrate region by compositional or crystalline modification

452
438/694

Combined with coating step

1362
438/696

Coating of sidewall

748
438/700

Formation of groove or trench

1832
438/702

Plural coating steps

854
438/701

Tapered configuration

600
438/697

Planarization by etching and coating

513
438/699

Plural coating steps

453
438/698

Utilizing reflow

149
438/703

Plural coating steps

607
438/695

Simultaneous etching and coating

527
438/690

Combined with the removal of material by nonchemical means (e.g., ablating, abrading, etc.)

721
438/691

Combined mechanical and chemical material removal

1015
438/692

Simultaneous (e.g., chemical-mechanical polishing, etc.)

2959
438/693

Utilizing particulate abradant

1139
438/704

Having liquid and vapor etching steps

576
438/745

Liquid phase etching

1679
438/754

Electrically conductive material (e.g., metal, conductive oxide, etc.)

536
438/755

Silicide

80
438/752

Germanium

159
438/748

Projection of etchant against a moving substrate or controlling the angle or pattern of projected etchant

164
438/749

Sequential application of etchant

209
438/750

To same side of substrate

311
438/751

Each etch step exposes surface of an adjacent layer

187
438/757

Silicon nitride

278
438/756

Silicon oxide

535
438/753

Silicon

606
438/746

Utilizing electromagnetic or wave energy

112
438/747

With relative movement between substrate and confined pool of etchant

174
438/706

Vapor phase etching (i.e., dry etching)

2070
438/735

Differential etching of semiconductor substrate

363
438/737

Substrate possessing multiple layers

280
438/742

Electrically conductive material (e.g., metal, conductive oxide, etc.)

312
438/738

Selectively etching substrate possessing multiple layers of differing etch characteristics

817
438/739

Lateral etching of intermediate layer (i.e., undercutting)

368
438/740

Utilizing etch stop layer

464
438/741

Pn junction functions as etch stop

20
438/744

Silicon nitride

253
438/743

Silicon oxide or glass

473
438/736

Utilizing multilayered mask

499
438/734

Sequential etching steps on a single layer

695
438/707

Utilizing electromagnetic or wave energy

251
438/710

By creating electric field (e.g., plasma, glow discharge, etc.)

1679
438/718

Compound semiconductor

226
438/720

Electrically conductive material (e.g., metal, conductive oxide, etc.)

961
438/721

Silicide

206
438/713

Forming tapered profile (e.g., tapered etching, etc.)

380
438/726

Having microwave gas energizing

84
438/727

Producing energized gas remotely located from substrate

83
438/728

Using magnet (e.g., electron cyclotron resonance, etc.)

73
438/714

Including change in etch influencing parameter (e.g., energizing power, etchant composition, temperature, etc.)

1312
438/722

Metal oxide

188
438/725

Organic material (e.g., resist, etc.)

1235
438/712

Reactive ion beam etching (i.e., ribe)

767
438/724

Silicon nitride

719
438/723

Silicon oxide or glass

1316
438/719

Silicon

878
438/732

Using magnet (e.g., electron cyclotron resonance, etc.)

116
438/729

Using specified electrode/susceptor configuration (e.g., of multiple substrates using barrel-type susceptor, planar reactor configuration, etc.) to generate plasma

263
438/730

Producing energized gas remotely located from substrate

71
438/731

Using intervening shield structure

64
438/717

Utilizing multilayered mask

650
438/711

Utilizing multiple gas energizing means

301
438/716

With substrate handling (e.g., conveying, etc.)

192
438/715

With substrate heating or cooling

415
438/708

Photo-induced etching

289
438/709

Photo-induced plasma etching

214
438/733

Using or orientation dependent etchant (i.e., anisotropic etchant)

218
438/905

Cleaning of reaction chamber

402
438/906

Cleaning of wafer as interim step

615
438/758

Coating of substrate containing semiconductor region or of semiconductor substrate

1271
438/765

By reaction with substrate

267
438/767

Compound semiconductor substrate

177
438/766

Implantation of ion (e.g., to form ion amorphousized region prior to selective oxidation, reacting with substrate to form insulative region, etc.)

367
438/768

Reaction with conductive region

136
438/769

Reaction with silicon semiconductive region (e.g., oxynitride formation, etc.)

397
438/775

Nitridation

478
438/776

Using electromagnetic or wave energy

141
438/777

Microwave gas energizing

81
438/770

Oxidation

771
438/774

In atmosphere containing halogen

132
438/773

In atmosphere containing water vapor (i.e., wet oxidation)

224
438/771

Using electromagnetic or wave energy

192
438/772

Microwave gas energizing

65
438/759

Combined with the removal of material by nonchemical means

293
438/764

Formation of semi-insulative polycrystalline silicon

123
438/778

Insulative material deposited upon semiconductive substrate

1549
438/779

Compound semiconductor substrate

170
438/780

Depositing organic material (e.g., polymer, etc.)

1327
438/781

Subsequent heating modifying organic coating composition

734
438/783

Insulative material having impurity (e.g., for altering physical characteristics, etc.)

486
438/784

Introduction simultaneous with deposition

299
438/785

Insulative material is compound of refractory group metal (i.e., titanium (ti), zirconium (zr), hafnium (hf), vanadium (v), niobium (nb), tantalum (ta), chromium (cr), molybdenum (mo), tungsten (w), or alloy thereof)

909
438/791

Silicon nitride formation

578
438/794

Organic reactant

81
438/792

Utilizing electromagnetic or wave energy (e.g., photo-induced deposition, plasma, etc.)

384
438/793

Organic reactant

79
438/787

Silicon oxide formation

1006
438/790

Organic reactant

489
438/788

Using electromagnetic or wave energy (e.g., photo-induced deposition, plasma, etc.)

733
438/789

Organic reactant

441
438/786

Tertiary silicon containing compound formation (e.g., oxynitride formation, etc.)

458
438/782

With substrate handling during coating (e.g., immersion, spinning, etc.)

610
438/761

Multiple layers

759
438/762

At least one layer formed by reaction with substrate

346
438/763

Layers formed of diverse composition or by diverse coating processes

1162
438/760

Utilizing reflow (e.g., planarization, etc.)

291
438/584

Coating with electrically or thermally conductive material

686
438/585

Insulated gate formation

1349
438/586

Combined with formation of ohmic contact to semiconductor region

1194
438/590

Compound semiconductor

169
438/587

Forming array of gate electrodes

647
438/588

Plural gate levels

321
438/591

Gate insulator structure constructed of plural layers or nonsilicon containing compound

1002
438/595

Having sidewall structure

1087
438/596

Portion of sidewall structure is conductive

338
438/592

Possessing plural conductive layers (e.g., polycide)

1470
438/593

Separated by insulator (i.e., floating gate)

766
438/594

Tunnelling dielectric layer

395
438/589

Recessed into semiconductor substrate

800
438/597

To form ohmic contact to semiconductive material

1031
438/658

Altering composition of conductor

323
438/659

Implantation of ion into conductor

350
438/688

Aluminum or aluminum alloy conductor

686
438/669

And patterning of conductive layer

891
438/672

Plug formation (i.e., in viahole)

1548
438/673

Tapered etching

232
438/670

Utilizing lift-off

221
438/671

Utilizing multilayered mask

322
438/611

Beam lead formation

227
438/610

Conductive macromolecular conductor (including metal powder filled composition)

120
438/618

Contacting multiple semiconductive regions (i.e., interconnects)

1794
438/619

Air bridge structure

512
438/621

Contacting diversely doped semiconductive regions (e.g., p-type and n-type regions, etc.)

190
438/642

Diverse conductors

261
438/643

At least one layer forms a diffusion barrier

1232
438/644

Having adhesion promoting layer

333
438/647

Having electrically conductive polysilicon component

289
438/650

Having noble group metal (i.e., silver (ag), gold (au), platinum (pt), palladium (pd), rhodium (rh), ruthenium (ru), iridium (ir), osmium (os), or alloy thereof)

249
438/651

Silicide

189
438/645

Having planarization step

322
438/646

Utilizing reflow

101
438/648

Having refractory group metal (i.e., titanium (ti), zirconium (zr), hafnium (hf), vanadium (v), niobium (nb), tantalum (ta), chromium (cr), molybdenum (mo), tungsten (w), or alloy thereof)

938
438/649

Silicide

588
438/620

Forming contacts of differing depths into semiconductor substrate

405
438/622

Multiple metal levels, separated by insulating layer (i.e., multiple level metallization)

2472
438/625

At least one metallization level formed of diverse conductive layers

510
438/627

At least one layer forms a diffusion barrier

1232
438/629

Diverse conductive layers limited to viahole/plug

994
438/630

Silicide formation

321
438/628

Having adhesion promoting layer

355
438/626

Planarization

718
438/631

Having planarization step

759
438/633

Simultaneously by chemical and mechanical means

897
438/634

Utilizing etch-stop layer

532
438/632

Utilizing reflow

197
438/623

Including organic insulating material between metal levels

951
438/636

Including use of antireflective layer

456
438/635

Insulator formed by reaction with conductor (e.g., oxidation, etc.)

222
438/641

Selective deposition

223
438/624

Separating insulating layer is laminate or composite of plural insulating materials

1572
438/637

With formation of opening (i.e., viahole) in insulative layer

3347
438/640

Having viahole of tapered shape

576
438/639

Having viahole with sidewall component

856
438/638

Having viaholes of diverse width

1183
438/687

Copper of copper alloy conductor

1801
438/684

Electrically conductive polysilicon

227
438/678

Electroless deposition of conductive layer

641
438/679

Evaporative coating of conductive layer

154
438/612

Forming solder contact or bonding pad

2021
438/613

Bump electrode

1872
438/615

Including fusion of conductor

346
438/616

By transcription from auxiliary substrate

165
438/617

By wire bonding

572
438/614

Plural conductive layers

1038
438/660

Including heat treatment of conductive layer

881
438/663

Rapid thermal anneal

312
438/664

Forming silicide

655
438/661

Subsequent fusing conductive layer

157
438/662

Utilizing laser

175
438/686

Noble group metal (i.e., silver (ag), gold (au), platinum (pt), palladium (pd), rhodium (rh), ruthenium (ru), iridium (ir), osmium (os), or alloy thereof)

472
438/608

Oxidic conductor (e.g., indium tin oxide, etc.)

186
438/609

Transparent conductor

182
438/652

Plural layered electrode or conductor

724
438/653

At least one layer forms a diffusion barrier

1368
438/654

Having adhesion promoting layer

407
438/657

Having electrically conductive polysilicon component

328
438/656

Having refractory group metal (i.e., titanium (ti), zirconium (zr), hafnium (hf), vanadium (v), niobium (nb), tantalum (ta), chromium (cr), molybdenum (mo), tungsten (w), or alloy thereof)

1022
438/655

Silicide

1066
438/685

Refractory group metal (i.e., titanium (ti), zirconium (zr), hafnium (hf), vanadium (v), niobium (nb), tantalum (ta), chromium (cr), molybdenum (mo), tungsten (w), or alloy thereof)

943
438/674

Selective deposition of conductive layer

535
438/675

Plug formation (i.e., in viahole)

1133
438/677

Pretreatment of surface to enhance or retard deposition

395
438/676

Utilizing electromagnetic or wave energy

190
438/598

Selectively interconnecting (e.g., customization, wafer scale integration, etc.)

446
438/600

Using structure alterable to conductive state (i.e., antifuse)

326
438/601

Using structure alterable to nonconductive state (i.e., fuse)

403
438/599

With electrical circuit layout

276
438/682

Silicide

868
438/683

Of refractory group metal (i.e., titanium (ti), zirconium (zr), hafnium (hf), vanadium (v), niobium (nb), tantalum (ta), chromium (cr), molybdenum (mo), tungsten (w), or alloy thereof)

783
438/666

Specified configuration of electrode or contact

928
438/667

Conductive feedthrough or through-hole in substrate

888
438/668

Specified aspect ratio of conductor or viahole

298
438/602

To compound semiconductor

195
438/603

Ii-vi compound semiconductor

100
438/604

Iii-v compound semiconductor

348
438/606

Ga and as containing semiconductor

200
438/605

Multilayer electrode

173
438/680

Utilizing chemical vapor deposition (i.e., cvd)

1188
438/681

Of organo-metallic precursor (i.e., mocvd)

516
438/665

Utilizing textured surface

203
438/607

With epitaxial conductor formation

195
438/907

Continuous processing

132
438/908

Utilizing cluster apparatus

107
438/909

Controlled atmosphere

213
438/910

Controlling charging state at semiconductor-insulator interface

136
438/911

Differential oxidation and etching

151
438/466

Direct application of electrical current

195
438/468

Electromigration

83
438/470

Fusion of semiconductor region

27
438/467

To alter conductivity of fuse or antifuse element

319
438/469

Utilizing pulsed current

42
438/912

Displacing pn junction

13
438/913

Diverse treatments performed in unitary chamber

108
438/914

Doping

64
438/915

Amphoteric doping

19
438/916

Autodoping control or utilization

37
438/919

Compensation doping

92
438/920

Controlling diffusion profile by oxidation

58
438/917

Deep level dopants (e.g., gold (au), chromium (cr), iron (fe), nickel (ni), etc.)

29
438/922

Diffusion along grain boundaries

18
438/923

Diffusion through a layer

82
438/925

Fluid growth doping control (e.g., delta doping, etc.)

112
438/921

Nonselective diffusion

5
438/918

Special or nonstandard dopant

79
438/924

To facilitate selective etching

103
438/926

Dummy metallization

204
438/927

Electromigration resistant metallization

99
438/20

Electron emitter manufacture

450
438/929

Eutectic semiconductor

22
438/400

Formation of electrically isolated lateral semiconductive structure

320
438/402

And gettering of substrate

97
438/454

Field plate electrode

149
438/424

Grooved and refilled with deposited dielectric material

2061
438/430

And deposition of polysilicon or noninsulative material into groove

474
438/431

Oxidation of deposited material

219
438/432

Nonoxidized portions remaining in groove after oxidation

129
438/429

And epitaxial semiconductor formation in groove

210
438/425

Combined with formation of recessed oxide by localized oxidation

370
438/426

Recessed oxide laterally extending from groove

305
438/433

Dopant addition

316
438/434

From doped insulator in groove

72
438/435

Multiple insulative layers in groove

713
438/437

Conformal insulator formation

444
438/436

Reflow of insulator

112
438/427

Refilling multiple grooves of different widths or depths

648
438/428

Reflow of insulator

68
438/438

Reflow of insulator

123
438/421

Having air-gap dielectric (e.g., groove, etc.)

393
438/422

Enclosed cavity

276
438/403

Having semi-insulating component

117
438/401

Having substrate registration feature (e.g., alignment mark)

801
438/423

Implanting to form insulator

224
438/414

Isolation by pn junction only

65
438/420

Plural doping steps

88
438/415

Thermomigration

33
438/416

With epitaxial semiconductor formation

82
438/417

And simultaneous polycrystalline growth

23
438/418

Dopant addition

50
438/419

Plural doping steps

99
438/439

Recessed oxide by localized oxidation (i.e., locos)

357
438/453

And electrical conductor formation (i.e., metallization)

199
438/449

Dopant addition

150
438/450

Implanting through recessed oxide

126
438/451

Plural doping steps

144
438/443

Etchback of recessed oxide

230
438/440

Including nondopant implantation

108
438/452

Plural oxidation steps to form recessed oxide

131
438/444

Preliminary etching of groove

169
438/445

Masking of groove sidewall

171
438/447

Dopant addition

74
438/446

Polysilicon containing sidewall

61
438/448

Utilizing oxidation mask having polysilicon component

162
438/441

With electrolytic treatment step

27
438/442

With epitaxial semiconductor layer formation

144
438/404

Total dielectric isolation

363
438/411

Air isolation (e.g., beam lead supported semiconductor islands, etc.)

188
438/412

Semiconductor islands formed upon insulating substrate or layer (e.g., mesa isolation, etc.)

199
438/405

And separate partially isolated semiconductor regions

184
438/406

Bonding of plural semiconductive substrates

511
438/410

Encroachment of separate locally oxidized regions

73
438/407

Nondopant implantation

253
438/408

With electrolytic treatment step

48
438/409

Porous semiconductor formation

179
438/413

With epitaxial semiconductor formation

206
438/478

Formation of semiconductive active region on any substrate (e.g., fluid growth, deposition)

1124
438/482

Amorphous semiconductor

505
438/486

And subsequent crystallization

803
438/487

Utilizing wave energy (e.g., laser, electron beam, etc.)

850
438/483

Compound semiconductor

374
438/485

Deposition utilizing plasma (e.g., glow discharge, etc.)

374
438/484

Running length (e.g., sheet, strip, etc.)

88
438/503

Fluid growth from gaseous state combined with preceding diverse operation

257
438/504

Differential etching

126
438/505

Doping of semiconductor

99
438/506

Ion implantation

111
438/507

Fluid growth from gaseous state combined with subsequent diverse operation

297
438/508

Doping of semiconductor

149
438/509

Heat treatment

249
438/497

Fluid growth from liquid combined with preceding diverse operation

82
438/498

Differential etching

39
438/499

Doping of semiconductor

43
438/500

Fluid growth from liquid combined with subsequent diverse operation

92
438/501

Doping of semiconductor

49
438/502

Heat treatment

130
438/492

Fluid growth step with preceding and subsequent diverse operation

251
438/479

On insulating substrate or layer

1127
438/480

Including implantation of ion which reacts with semiconductor substrate to form insulating layer

171
438/481

Utilizing epitaxial lateral overgrowth

568
438/493

Plural fluid growth steps with intervening diverse operation

111
438/496

Coating of semiconductive substrate with nonsemiconductive material

78
438/494

Differential etching

140
438/495

Doping of semiconductor

68
438/488

Polycrystalline semiconductor

611
438/491

And subsequent doping of polycrystalline semiconductor

117
438/490

Running length (e.g., sheet, strip, etc.)

74
438/489

Simultaneous single crystal formation

184
438/309

Forming bipolar transistor by formation or alteration of semiconductive active regions

518
438/322

Complementary bipolar transistors

167
438/323

Having common active region (i.e., integrated injection logic (i2l), etc.)

47
438/325

Having lateral bipolar transistor

81
438/324

Including additional electrical device

45
438/327

Having lateral bipolar transistor

58
438/326

Including additional electrical device

42
438/351

Direct application of electrical current

12
438/346

Emitter dip prevention or utilization

11
438/350

Forming base region of specified dopant concentration profile (e.g., inactive base region more heavily doped than active base region, etc.)

188
438/334

Forming inverted transistor structure

40
438/335

Forming lateral transistor structure

99
438/337

Active region formed along groove or exposed edge in semiconductor

60
438/336

Combined with vertical bipolar transistor

65
438/338

Having multiple emitter or collector structure

44
438/339

Self-aligned

88
438/352

Fusion or solidification of semiconductor region

9
438/310

Gettering of semiconductor substrate

73
438/333

Having fuse or integral short

98
438/312

Having heterojunction

379
438/314

And additional electrical device

87
438/313

Complementary bipolar transistors

113
438/315

Forming inverted transistor structure

57
438/316

Forming lateral transistor structure

73
438/318

Including isolation structure

129
438/319

Air isolation (e.g., mesa, etc.)

95
438/320

Self-aligned

163
438/321

Utilizing dummy emitter

52
438/317

Wide bandgap emitter

94
438/342

Having multiple emitter or collector structure

85
438/328

Including diode

227
438/353

Including isolation structure

142
438/359

Dielectric isolation formed by grooving and refilling with dielectrical material

219
438/361

Including deposition of polysilicon or noninsulative material into groove

140
438/360

With epitaxial semiconductor formation in groove

78
438/354

Having semi-insulative region

26
438/356

Isolation by pn junction only

43
438/357

Including epitaxial semiconductor layer formation

137
438/358

Up diffusion of dopant from substrate into epitaxial layer

100
438/362

Recessed oxide by localized oxidation (i.e., locos)

137
438/363

With epitaxial semiconductor layer formation

149
438/355

Total dielectrical isolation

103
438/329

Including passive device (e.g., resistor, capacitor, etc.)

183
438/330

Resistor

118
438/331

Having same doping as emitter or collector

44
438/332

Lightly doped junction isolated resistor

41
438/340

Making plural bipolar transistors of differing electrical characteristics

115
438/343

Mesa or stacked emitter

125
438/311

On insulating substrate or layer (i.e., soi type)

442
438/349

Pedestal base

52
438/347

Permeable or metal base

37
438/378

Radiation or energy treatment modifying properties of semiconductor regions of substrate (e.g., thermal, corpuscular, electromagnetic, etc.)

140
438/364

Self-aligned

117
438/369

Dopant implantation or diffusion

204
438/370

Forming buried region (e.g., implanting through insulating layer, etc.)

225
438/371

Simultaneous introduction of plural dopants

54
438/372

Plural doping steps

111
438/375

Forming partially overlapping regions

79
438/373

Multiple ion implantation steps

152
438/374

Using same conductivity-type dopant

86
438/376

Single dopant forming regions of different depth or concentrations

82
438/377

Through same mask opening

72
438/365

Forming active region from adjacent doped polycrystalline or amorphous semiconductor

255
438/366

Having sidewall

201
438/367

Including conductive component

73
438/368

Simultaneously outdiffusing plural dopants from polysilicon or amorphous semiconductor

112
438/348

Sidewall base contact

95
438/341

Using epitaxial lateral overgrowth

155
438/345

Walled emitter

75
438/344

Washed emitter

13
438/570

Forming schottky junction (i.e., semiconductor-conductor rectifying junction contact)

274
438/571

Combined with formation of ohmic contact to semiconductor region

451
438/572

Compound semiconductor

158
438/576

Into grooved or recessed semiconductor region

131
438/578

Forming electrode of specified shape (e.g., slanted, etc.)

67
438/579

T-shaped electrode

112
438/577

Utilizing lift-off

70
438/573

Multilayer electrode

119
438/574

T-shaped electrode

124
438/575

Using platinum group metal (i.e., platinum (pt), palladium (pd), rodium (rh), ruthenium (ru), iridium (ir), osmium (os), or alloy thereof)

52
438/580

Using platinum group metal (i.e., platinum (pt), palladium (pd), rhodium (rh), ruthenium (ru), iridium (ir), osmium (os), or alloy thereof)

63
438/581

Silicide

165
438/582

Using refractory group metal (i.e., titanium (ti), zirconium (zr), hafnium (hf), vanadium (v), niobium (nb), tantalum (ta), chromium (cr), molybdenum (mo), tungsten (w), or alloy thereof)

131
438/583

Silicide

186
438/978

Forming tapered edges on substrate or adjacent layers

280
438/928

Front and rear surface processing

308
438/935

Gas flow control

190
438/933

Germanium or silicon or ge-si on iii-v

309
438/471

Gettering of substrate

324
438/473

By implanting or irradiating

282
438/474

Ionized radiation (e.g., corpuscular or plasma treatment, etc.)

164
438/475

Hydrogen plasma (i.e., hydrogenization)

174
438/476

By layers which are coated, contacted, or diffused

313
438/477

By vapor phase surface reaction

117
438/472

By vibrating or impacting

45
438/936

Graded energy gap

89
438/1

Having biomaterial component or integrated with living organism

126
438/105

Having diamond semiconductor component

275
438/19

Having integral power source (e.g., battery, etc.)

91
438/3

Having magnetic or ferroelectric component

2350
438/104

Having metal oxide or copper sulfide compound semiconductor component

636
438/99

Having organic semiconductive component

1578
438/102

Having selenium or tellurium elemental semiconductor component

569
438/103

Direct application of electrical current

212
438/2

Having superconductive component

126
438/937

Hillock prevention

43
438/5

Including control responsive to sensed condition

620
438/10

Electrical characteristic sensed

394
438/13

Altering electrical property by material removal

97
438/12

And removal of defect

145
438/11

Utilizing integral test element

235
438/6

Interconnecting plural devices on semiconductor substrate

202
438/7

Optical characteristic sensed

535
438/8

Chemical etching

313
438/9

Plasma etching

404
438/510

Introduction of conductivity modifying dopant into semiconductive material

402
438/535

By application of corpuscular or electromagnetic radiation (e.g., electron, laser, etc.)

227
438/536

Recoil implantation

14
438/542

Diffusing a dopant

259
438/556

Edge diffusion by using edge portion of structure other than masking layer to mask

42
438/545

Forming partially overlapping regions

106
438/557

From melt

35
438/558

From solid dopant source in contact with semiconductor region

284
438/561

Dopant source within trench or groove

123
438/563

Glassy source or doped oxide

196
438/562

Organic source

25
438/560

Plural diffusion stages

66
438/564

Polycrystalline semiconductor source

226
438/559

Using capping layer over dopant source to prevent out-diffusion of dopant

91
438/565

From vapor phase

103
438/569

Into compound semiconductor region

60
438/566

Plural diffusion stages

39
438/567

Solid source in operative relation with semiconductor region

62
438/568

In capsule-type enclosure

31
438/555

Laterally under mask opening

84
438/550

Nonuniform heating

31
438/554

Outwardly

57
438/546

Plural dopants in same region (e.g., through same mask opening, etc.)

167
438/547

Simultaneously

65
438/548

Plural dopants simultaneously in plural regions

96
438/549

Single dopant forming plural diverse regions (e.g., forming regions of different concentrations or of different depths, etc.)

189
438/543

To control carrier lifetime (i.e., deep level dopant)

60
438/544

To solid-state solubility concentration

17
438/553

Using metal mask

25
438/551

Using multiple layered mask

107
438/552

Having plural predetermined openings in master mask

71
438/537

Fusing dopant with substrate (i.e., alloy junction)

45
438/539

Application of pressure to material during fusion

7
438/540

Including plural controlled heating or cooling steps or nonuniform heating

115
438/541

Including diffusion after fusing step

26
438/538

Using additional material to improve wettability or flow characteristics (e.g., flux, etc.)

21
438/512

Involving nuclear transmutation doping

39
438/514

Ion implantation of dopant into semiconductor region

821
438/533

And contact formation (i.e., metallization)

258
438/534

Rectifying contact (i.e., schottky contact)

65
438/526

Forming buried region

415
438/516

Including charge neutralization

76
438/530

Including heat treatment

538
438/527

Including multiple implantation steps

568
438/528

Providing nondopant ion (e.g., proton, etc.)

496
438/529

Using same conductivity-type dopant

250
438/524

Into grooved semiconductor substrate region

285
438/532

Into polycrystalline region

246
438/515

Ionized molecules

135
438/518

Of compound semiconductor

123
438/523

And contact formation (i.e., metallization)

93
438/522

Including heat treatment

285
438/519

Including multiple implantation steps

161
438/520

Providing nondopant ion (e.g., proton, etc.)

156
438/521

Using same conductivity-type dopant

45
438/517

Of semiconductor layer on insulating substrate or layer

324
438/525

Using oblique beam

380
438/531

Using shadow mask

115
438/511

Ordering or disordering

39
438/513

Plasma (e.g., glow discharge, etc.)

346
438/961

Ion beam source and generation

45
438/939

Langmuir-blodgett film utilization

16
438/940

Laser ablative material removal

217
438/938

Lattice strain control or utilization

219
438/941

Loading effect mitigation

19
438/141

Making conductivity modulation device (e.g., unijunction transistor, double base diode, conductivity-modulated transistor, etc.)

117
438/128

Making device array and selectively interconnecting

757
438/130

Rendering selected devices operable or inoperable

202
438/131

Using structure alterable to conductive state (i.e., antifuse)

337
438/132

Using structure alterable to nonconductive state (i.e., fuse)

490
438/129

With electrical circuit layout

493
438/22

Making device or circuit emissive of nonelectrical signal

1990
438/46

Compound semiconductor

1344
438/47

Heterojunction

997
438/45

Dopant introduction into semiconductor region

364
438/37

Graded composition

197
438/42

Groove formation

402
438/43

Tapered etching

247
438/44

With epitaxial deposition of semiconductor in groove

314
438/23

Having diverse electrical device

201
438/24

Including device responsive to nonelectrical signal

429
438/25

Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor

506
438/29

Including integrally formed optical element (e.g., reflective layer, luminescent material, contoured surface, etc.)

1953
438/30

Liquid crystal component

1394
438/32

Optical grating structure

368
438/31

Optical waveguide structure

741
438/34

Making emissive array

747
438/35

Multiple wavelength emissive

243
438/39

Mesa formation

466
438/40

Tapered etching

293
438/41

With epitaxial deposition of semiconductor adjacent mesa

319
438/36

Ordered or disordered

125
438/26

Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor

1071
438/27

Having additional optical element (e.g., optical fiber, etc.)

636
438/28

Plural emissive devices

546
438/38

Passivating of surface

219
438/33

Substrate dicing

584
438/48

Making device or circuit responsive to nonelectrical signal

1655
438/49

Chemically responsive

297
438/50

Physical stress responsive

828
438/52

Having cantilever element

871
438/53

Having diaphragm element

772
438/51

Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor

656
438/56

Responsive to corpuscular radiation (e.g., nuclear particle detector, etc.)

82
438/57

Responsive to electromagnetic radiation

1293
438/96

Amorphous semiconductor

627
438/91

Avalanche diode

107
438/93

Compound semiconductor

329
438/95

Chalcogen (i.e., oxygen (o), sulfur (s), selenium (se), tellurium (te)) containing

838
438/94

Heterojunction

407
438/98

Contact formation (i.e., metallization)

889
438/61

Continuous processing

98
438/62

Using running length substrate

162
438/88

Direct application of electric current

69
438/83

Forming point contact

52
438/89

Fusion or solidification of semiconductor region

102
438/58

Gettering of substrate

127
438/87

Graded composition

147
438/59

Having diverse electrical device

398
438/60

Charge transfer device (e.g., ccd, etc.)

394
438/85

Having metal oxide or copper sulfide compound semiconductive component

234
438/86

And cadmium sulfide compound semiconductive component

81
438/82

Having organic semiconductor component

506
438/84

Having selenium or tellurium elemental semiconductor component

109
438/69

Including integrally formed optical element (e.g., reflective layer, luminescent layer, etc.)

725
438/70

Color filter

483
438/72

Having reflective or antireflective component

543
438/71

Specific surface topography (e.g., textured surface, etc.)

291
438/90

Including storage of electrical charge in substrate

38
438/73

Making electromagnetic responsive array

667
438/75

Charge transfer device (e.g., ccd, etc.)

369
438/77

Compound semiconductor

62
438/78

Having structure to improve output signal (e.g., exposure control structure, etc.)

94
438/79

Having blooming suppression structure (e.g., antiblooming drain, etc.)

80
438/76

Majority signal carrier (e.g., buried or bulk channel, peristaltic, etc.)

58
438/80

Lateral series connected array

287
438/81

Specified shape junction barrier (e.g., v-grooved junction, etc.)

66
438/74

Vertically arranged (e.g., tandem, stacked, etc.)

215
438/64

Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor

704
438/65

Having additional optical element (e.g., optical fiber, etc.)

414
438/66

Plural responsive devices (e.g., array, etc.)

413
438/67

Assembly of plural semiconductor substrates

331
438/63

Particulate semiconductor component

189
438/97

Polycrystalline semiconductor

423
438/92

Schottky barrier junction

162
438/68

Substrate dicing

348
438/54

Thermally responsive

303
438/55

Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor

292
438/142

Making field effect device having pair of active regions separated by gate structure by formation or alteration of semiconductive active regions

461
438/144

Charge transfer device (e.g., ccd, etc.)

205
438/147

Changing width or direction of channel (e.g., meandering channel, etc.)

44
438/145

Having additional electrical device

63
438/146

Majority signal carrier (e.g., buried or bulk channel, peristaltic, etc.)

66
438/148

Substantially incomplete signal charge transfer (e.g., bucket brigade, etc.)

50
438/143

Gettering of semiconductor substrate

159
438/197

Having insulated gate (e.g., igfet, misfet, mosfet, etc.)

2301
438/286

Asymmetric

835
438/282

Buried channel

232
438/284

Closed or loop gate

194
438/199

Complementary insulated gate field effect transistors (i.e., cmos)

1896
438/200

And additional electrical device

510
438/209

Including additional vertical channel insulated gate field effect transistor

113
438/202

Including bipolar transistor (i.e., bicmos)

414
438/203

Complementary bipolar transistors

151
438/207

Including isolation structure

333
438/208

Isolation by pn junction only

76
438/204

Lateral bipolar transistor

110
438/205

Plural bipolar transistors of differing electrical characteristics

71
438/206

Vertical channel insulated gate field effect transistor

183
438/201

Including insulated gate field effect transistor having gate surrounded by dielectric (i.e., floating gate)

687
438/210

Including passive device (e.g., resistor, capacitor, etc.)

483
438/233

And contact formation

446
438/213

Common active region

85
438/217

Doping of semiconductor channel region beneath gate insulator (e.g., threshold voltage adjustment, etc.)

560
438/216

Gate insulator structure constructed of diverse dielectrics (e.g., mnos, etc.) or of nonsilicon compound

658
438/215

Having fuse or integral short

155
438/211

Having gate surrounded by dielectric (i.e., floating gate)

568
438/214

Having underpass or crossunder

38
438/218

Including isolation structure

339
438/221

Dielectric isolation formed by grooving and refilling with dielectric material

505
438/223

Having well structure of opposite conductivity type

187
438/224

Plural wells

258
438/222

With epitaxial semiconductor layer formation

218
438/220

Isolation by pn junction only

114
438/225

Recessed oxide formed by localized oxidation (i.e., locos)

199
438/227

Having well structure of opposite conductivity type

267
438/228

Plural wells

345
438/226

With epitaxial semiconductor layer formation

123
438/219

Total dielectric isolation

125
438/229

Self-aligned

273
438/232

Plural doping steps

394
438/230

Utilizing gate sidewall structure

415
438/231

Plural doping steps

692
438/212

Vertical channel

414
438/292

Direct application of electrical current

54
438/289

Doping of semiconductive channel region beneath gate insulator (e.g., adjusting threshold voltage, etc.)

754
438/290

After formation of source or drain regions and gate electrode

224
438/291

Using channel conductivity dopant of opposite type as that of source and drain

408
438/293

Fusion or solidification of semiconductor region

35
438/287

Gate insulator structure constructed of diverse dielectrics (e.g., mnos, etc.) or of nonsilicon compound

1239
438/257

Having additional gate electrode surrounded by dielectric (i.e., floating gate)

2990
438/266

Having additional, nonmemory control electrode or channel portion (e.g., for accessing field effect transistor structure, etc.)

742
438/267

Including forming gate electrode as conductive sidewall spacer to another electrode

413
438/258

Including additional field effect transistor (e.g., sense or access transistor, etc.)

1146
438/262

Including elongated source or drain region disposed under thick oxide regions (e.g., buried or diffused bitline, etc.)

351
438/263

Tunneling insulator

322
438/259

Including forming gate electrode in trench or recess in substrate

1074
438/261

Multiple interelectrode dielectrics or nonsilicon compound gate insulator

847
438/265

Oxidizing sidewall of gate electrode

314
438/260

Textured surface of gate insulator or gate electrode

234
438/264

Tunneling insulator

1028
438/281

Having fuse or integral short

259
438/288

Having step of storing electrical charge in gate dielectric

264
438/280

Having underpass or crossunder

69
438/234

Including bipolar transistor (i.e., bimos)

401
438/235

Heterojunction bipolar transistor

167
438/236

Lateral bipolar transistor

83
438/237

Including diode

401
438/294

Including isolation structure

507
438/296

Dielectric isolation formed by grooving and refilling with dielectric material

1012
438/297

Recessed oxide formed by localized oxidation (i.e., locos)

519
438/298

Doping region beneath recessed oxide (e.g., to form chanstop, etc.)

318
438/295

Total dielectric isolation

157
438/238

Including passive device (e.g., resistor, capacitor, etc.)

1580
438/239

Capacitor

1342
438/241

And additional field effect transistor (e.g., sense or access transistor, etc.)

701
438/242

Including transistor formed on trench sidewalls

303
438/240

Having high dielectric constant insulator (e.g., ta2o5, etc.)

1490
438/250

Planar capacitor

530
438/251

Including doping of semiconductive region

154
438/252

Multiple doping steps

103
438/253

Stacked capacitor

2616
438/256

Contacts formed by selective growth or deposition

320
438/254

Including selectively removing material to undercut and expose storage node layer

708
438/255

Including texturizing storage node layer

717
438/243

Trench capacitor

1052
438/246

Including doping of trench surfaces

241
438/249

Doping by outdiffusion from a dopant source layer (e.g., doped oxide, etc.)

158
438/248

Including isolation means formed in trench

278
438/247

Multiple doping steps

89
438/244

Utilizing stacked capacitor structure (e.g., stacked trench, buried stacked capacitor, etc.)

567
438/245

With epitaxial layer formed over the trench

138
438/279

Making plural insulated gate field effect transistors having common active region

530
438/275

Making plural insulated gate field effect transistors of differing electrical characteristics

1382
438/276

Introducing a dopant into the channel region of selected transistors

388
438/278

After formation of source or drain regions and gate electrode (e.g., late programming, encoding, etc.)

297
438/277

Including forming overlapping gate electrodes

58
438/283

Plural gate electrodes (e.g., dual gate, etc.)

733
438/308

Radiation or energy treatment modifying properties of semiconductor regions of substrate (e.g., thermal, corpuscular, electromagnetic, etc.)

490
438/299

Self-aligned

747
438/300

Having elevated source or drain (e.g., epitaxially formed source or drain, etc.)

1071
438/301

Source or drain doping

1335
438/302

Oblique implantation

566
438/306

Plural doping steps

638
438/307

Using same conductivity-type dopant

442
438/303

Utilizing gate sidewall structure

1534
438/304

Conductive sidewall component

286
438/305

Plural doping steps

1770
438/198

Specified crystallographic orientation

232
438/285

Utilizing compound semiconductor

505
438/268

Vertical channel

1156
438/270

Gate electrode in trench or recess in semiconductor substrate

1847
438/272

Totally embedded in semiconductive layers

243
438/271

V-gate

202
438/273

Having integral short of source and base regions

164
438/274

Short formed in recess in substrate

75
438/269

Utilizing epitaxial semiconductor layer grown through an opening in an insulating layer

225
438/186

Having junction gate (e.g., jfet, sit, etc.)

165
438/189

And bipolar transistor

83
438/190

And passive device (e.g., resistor, capacitor, etc.)

91
438/188

Complementary junction gate field effect transistors

83
438/194

Doping of semiconductive channel region beneath gate (e.g., threshold voltage adjustment, etc.)

117
438/191

Having heterojunction

93
438/196

Including isolation structure

125
438/195

Plural gate electrodes

170
438/187

Specified crystallographic orientation

55
438/192

Vertical channel

141
438/193

Multiple parallel current paths (e.g., grid gate, etc.)

97
438/167

Having schottky gate (e.g., mesfet, hemt, etc.)

375
438/170

And bipolar device

60
438/171

And passive electrical device (e.g., resistor, capacitor, etc.)

117
438/179

Asymmetric

92
438/175

Buried channel

52
438/177

Closed or loop gate

15
438/169

Complementary schottky gate field effect transistors

58
438/174

Doping of semiconductive channel region beneath gate (e.g., threshold voltage adjustment, etc.)

156
438/178

Elemental semiconductor

25
438/172

Having heterojunction (e.g., hemt, modfet, etc.)

484
438/176

Plural gate electrodes (e.g., dual gate, etc.)

168
438/180

Self-aligned

96
438/181

Doping of semiconductive region

136
438/183

Dummy gate

286
438/182

T-gate

157
438/184

Utilizing gate sidewall structure

155
438/185

Multiple doping steps

58
438/168

Specified crystallographic orientation

44
438/173

Vertical channel

105
438/149

On insulating substrate or layer (e.g., tft, etc.)

2812
438/151

Having insulated gate

2068
438/163

Adjusting channel dimension (e.g., providing lightly doped source or drain region, etc.)

471
438/155

And additional electrical device on insulating substrate or layer

561
438/152

Combined with electrical device not on insulating substrate or layer

381
438/153

Complementary field effect transistors

391
438/154

Complementary field effect transistors

601
438/166

Including recrystallization step

1357
438/161

Including source or drain electrode formation prior to semiconductor layer formation (i.e., staggered electrodes)

258
438/162

Introduction of nondopant into semiconductor layer

364
438/158

Inverted transistor structure

1015
438/159

Source-to-gate or drain-to-gate overlap

226
438/160

Utilizing backside irradiation

195
438/157

Plural gate electrodes (e.g., dual gate, etc.)

673
438/164

Semiconductor islands formed upon insulating substrate or layer (e.g., mesa formation, etc.)

811
438/165

Including differential oxidation

120
438/156

Vertical channel

337
438/150

Specified crystallographic orientation

335
438/957

Making metal-insulator-metal device

123
438/956

Making multiple wavelength emissive device

34
438/954

Making oxide-nitride-oxide device

182
438/381

Making passive device (e.g., resistor, capacitor, etc.)

1105
438/393

Planar capacitor

682
438/394

Including doping of semiconductive region

118
438/395

Multiple doping steps

91
438/382

Resistor

577
438/384

Deposited thin film resistor

413
438/385

Altering resistivity of conductor

332
438/383

Lightly doped junction isolated resistor

96
438/396

Stacked capacitor

2725
438/399

Having contacts formed by selective growth or deposition

358
438/397

Including selectively removing material to undercut and expose storage node layer

636
438/398

Including texturizing storage node layer

783
438/386

Trench capacitor

979
438/387

Having stacked capacitor structure (e.g., stacked trench, buried stacked capacitor, etc.)

452
438/389

Including doping of trench surfaces

165
438/392

Doping by outdiffusion from a dopant source layer (e.g., doped oxide)

116
438/391

Including isolation means formed in trench

177
438/390

Multiple doping steps

69
438/388

With epitaxial layer formed over the trench

89
438/100

Making point contact device

46
438/101

Direct application of electrical current

17
438/953

Making radiation resistant device

75
438/133

Making regenerative-type switching device (e.g., scr, igbt, thyristor, etc.)

295
438/139

Altering electrical characteristic

99
438/134

Bidirectional rectifier with control electrode (e.g., triac, diac, etc.)

72
438/135

Having field effect structure

210
438/136

Junction gate

39
438/137

Vertical channel

128
438/138

Vertical channel

303
438/140

Having structure increasing breakdown voltage (e.g., guard ring, field plate, etc.)

214
438/21

Manufacture of electrical device controlled printhead

378
438/942

Masking

306
438/943

Movable

32
438/948

Radiation resist

173
438/949

Energy beam treating radiation resist on semiconductor

183
438/951

Lift-off

195
438/950

Multilayer mask including nonradiation sensitive layer

169
438/952

Utilizing antireflective layer

224
438/944

Shadow

106
438/945

Special (e.g., metal, etc.)

244
438/946

Step and repeat

46
438/947

Subphotolithographic processing

367
438/959

Mechanical polishing of wafer

183
438/955

Melt-back

27
 

Methods (156/1)

 
438/800

Miscellaneous

373
438/106

Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor

3204
438/107

Assembly of plural semiconductive substrates each possessing electrical device

1865
438/108

Flip-chip-type assembly

2412
438/109

Stacked array (e.g., rectifier, etc.)

1722
438/127

Encapsulating

2076
438/116

Having light transmissive window

327
438/118

Including adhesive bonding step

2110
438/119

Electrically conductive adhesive

535
438/115

Including contaminant removal or mitigation

212
438/117

Incorporating resilient component (e.g., spring, etc.)

302
438/125

Insulative housing or support

1293
438/126

And encapsulating

1196
438/110

Making plural separate devices

896
438/113

Substrate dicing

1642
438/114

Utilizing a coating to perfect the dicing

503
438/111

Using strip lead frame

589
438/112

And encapsulating

957
438/121

Metallic housing or support

832
438/124

And encapsulating

1341
438/123

Lead frame

1962
438/122

Possessing thermal dissipation structure (i.e., heat sink)

1193
438/120

With vibration step

93
438/958

Passivation layer

252
438/960

Porous semiconductor

171
438/962

Quantum dots and lines

260
438/795

Radiation or energy treatment modifying properties of semiconductor region of substrate (e.g., thermal, corpuscular, electromagnetic, etc.)

1281
438/799

By differential heating

314
438/796

Compound semiconductor

261
438/797

Ordering or disordering

65
438/798

Ionized irradiation (e.g., corpuscular or plasma treatment, etc.)

484
438/963

Removing process residues from vertical substrate surfaces

126
438/4

Repair or restoration

417
438/964

Roughened surface

292
438/966

Selective oxidation of ion-amorphousized layer

36
438/967

Semiconductor on specified insulator

101
438/460

Semiconductor substrate dicing

1273
438/461

Beam lead formation

154
438/463

By electromagnetic irradiation (e.g., electron, laser, etc.)

466
438/465

Having a perfecting coating

332
438/462

Having specified scribe region structure (e.g., alignment mark, plural grooves, etc.)

1339
438/464

With attachment to temporary support or carrier

947
438/968

Semiconductor-metal-semiconductor

7
438/965

Shaped junction formation

108
438/934

Sheet resistance (i.e., dopant parameters)

59
438/931

Silicon carbide semiconductor

395
438/969

Simultaneous formation of monocrystalline and polycrystalline regions

78
438/970

Specified etch stop material

202
438/971

Stoichiometric control of host substrate composition

46
438/972

Stored charge erasure

24
438/975

Substrate or mask aligning feature

436
438/973

Substrate orientation

105
438/974

Substrate surface preparation

316
438/976

Temporary protective layer

167
438/930

Ternary or quaternary semiconductor comprised of elements from three different groups (e.g., i-iii-v, etc.)

75
438/977

Thinning or removal of substrate

625
438/979

Tunnel diodes

64
438/980

Utilizing process equivalents or options

73
438/981

Utilizing varying dielectric thickness

422
438/982

Varying orientation of devices in array

31
438/379

Voltage variable capacitance device manufacture (e.g., varactor, etc.)

131
438/14

With measuring or testing

2542
438/17

Electrical characteristic sensed

1370
438/18

Utilizing integral test element

865
438/16

Optical characteristic sensed

1266
438/15

Packaging (e.g., with mounting, encapsulating, etc.) or treatment of packaged semiconductor

1101
438/983

Zener diodes

78
 
 
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