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Class Information
Number: 257
Name: Active solid-state devices (e.g., transistors, solid-state diodes) >
Description: This class provides for active solid-state electronic devices, that is, electronic devices or components that are made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operate by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action, and are not classified elsewhere.










Class Number Class Name No. of Patents
257/797

Alignment marks

1016
257/E25.001

Assemblies consisting of plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid-state devices (epo)

26
257/E25.002

All devices being of same type, e.g., assemblies of rectifier diodes (epo)

13
257/E25.022

Devices having separate containers (epo)

52
257/E25.023

Device consisting of plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state devices or components formed in or on common substrate, e.g., integrated circuit device (epo)

852
257/E25.028

Incoherent light-emitting semiconductor devices having potential or surface barrier (epo)

133
257/E25.024

Semiconductors devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching, capacitors, or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier (epo)

10
257/E25.026

Devices being arranged next to each other (epo)

123
257/E25.025

Mixed assemblies (epo)

81
257/E25.027

Stacked arrangements of devices (epo)

252
257/E25.003

Devices not having separate containers (epo)

10
257/E25.01

Device consisting of plurality of semiconductor or other solid state devices or components formed in or on common substrate, e.g., integrated circuit device (epo)

101
257/E25.011

Devices being arranged next and on each other, i.e., mixed assemblies (epo)

492
257/E25.012

Devices being arranged next to each other (epo)

491
257/E25.013

Stacked arrangements of devices (epo)

1622
257/E25.004

Devices responsive or sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, e.g., infrared radiation, adapted for conversion of radiation into electrical energy or for control of electrical energy by such radiation (epo)

23
257/E25.005

Devices being arranged next to each other (epo)

95
257/E25.006

Stacked arrangements of devices (epo)

302
257/E25.007

Devices being solar cells (epo)

90
257/E25.019

Incoherent light-emitting semiconductor devices having potential or surface barrier (epo)

36
257/E25.02

Devices being arranged next to each other (epo)

381
257/E25.021

Stacked arrangements of devices (epo)

191
257/E25.008

Organic solid-state devices (epo)

67
257/E25.009

Devices responsive or sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, e.g., infrared radiation, adapted for conversion of radiation into electrical energy or for control of electrical energy by such radiation, e.g., photovoltaic modules based on organic solar cells (epo)

67
257/E25.014

Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching, capacitors, or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier (epo)

22
257/E25.017

Apertured devices mounted on one or more rods passed through apertures (epo)

23
257/E25.015

Devices being arranged next and on each other, i.e., mixed assemblies (epo)

53
257/E25.016

Devices being arranged next to each other (epo)

356
257/E25.018

Stacked arrangements of nonapertured devices (epo)

137
257/E25.029

Devices being of two or more types, e.g., forming hybrid circuits (epo)

358
257/E25.032

Comprising optoelectronic devices, e.g., led, photodiodes (epo)

486
257/E25.031

Containers (epo)

163
257/E25.03

Devices being mounted on two or more different substrates (epo)

165
257/603

Avalanche diode (e.g., so-called "zener" diode having breakdown voltage greater than 6 volts)

271
257/604

Microwave transit time device (e.g., impatt diode)

74
257/605

With means to limit area of breakdown (e.g., guard ring having higher breakdown voltage)

110
257/606

Subsurface breakdown

76
257/565

Bipolar transistor structure

617
257/589

Avalanche transistor

27
257/577

Including additional component in same, non-isolated structure (e.g., transistor with diode, transistor with resistor, etc.)

418
257/566

Plural non-isolated transistor structures in same structure

151
257/574

Complementary transistors share common active region (e.g., integrated injection logic, i 2 l)

95
257/575

Including lateral bipolar transistor structure

203
257/576

With contacts of refractory material (e.g., polysilicon, silicide of refractory or platinum group metal)

91
257/567

Darlington configuration (i.e., emitter to collector current of input transistor supplied to base region of output transistor)

57
257/569

Complementary darlington-connected transistors

21
257/568

More than two darlington-connected transistors

26
257/571

Non-planar structure (e.g., mesa emitter, or having a groove to define resistor)

71
257/570

With active components in addition to darlington transistors (e.g., antisaturation diode, bleeder diode connected antiparallel to input transistor base-emitter junction, etc.)

50
257/573

With housing or contact structure or configuration

33
257/572

With resistance means connected between transistor base regions

44
257/592

With base region having specified doping concentration profile or specified configuration (e.g., inactive base more heavily doped than active base or base region has constant doping concentration portion (e.g., epitaxial base))

533
257/591

With emitter region having specified doping concentration profile (e.g., high-low concentration step)

146
257/578

With enlarged emitter area (e.g., power device)

172
257/582

With current ballasting means (e.g., emitter ballasting resistors or base current ballasting resistors)

71
257/584

With housing or contact (i.e., electrode) means

138
257/583

With means to reduce transistor action in selected portions of transistor (e.g., heavy base region doping under central web of emitter to prevent secondary breakdown)

72
257/579

With separate emitter areas connected in parallel

134
257/580

With current ballasting means (e.g., emitter ballasting resistors or base current ballasting means)

67
257/581

Thin film ballasting means (e.g., polysilicon resistor)

39
257/593

With means to increase current gain or operating frequency

247
257/585

With means to increase inverse gain

46
257/590

With means to reduce minority carrier lifetime (e.g., region of deep level dopant or region of crystal damage)

82
257/586

With non-planar semiconductor surface (e.g., groove, mesa, bevel, etc.)

378
257/587

With specified electrode means

324
257/588

Including polycrystalline semiconductor as connection

342
257/925

Bridge rectifier module

26
257/1

Bulk effect device

167
257/2

Bulk effect switching in amorphous material

1064
257/5

In array

739
257/3

With means to localize region of conduction (e.g., "pore" structure)

812
257/4

With specified electrode composition or configuration

1215
257/6

Intervalley transfer (e.g., gunn effect)

55
257/7

In monolithic integrated circuit

36
257/8

Three or more terminal device

43
257/E47.001

Bulk negative resistance effect devices, e.g., gunn-effect devices, processes, or apparatus peculiar to manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof (epo)

153
257/E47.002

Gunn-effect devices or transferred electron devices (epo)

22
257/E47.003

Controlled by electromagnetic radiation (epo)

2
257/E47.004

Gunn diodes (epo)

26
257/E47.005

Processes or apparatus peculiar to manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof (epo)

19
257/912

Charge transfer device using both electron and hole signal carriers

25
257/734

Combined with electrical contact or lead

1326
257/780

Ball or nail head type contact, lead, or bond

1797
257/781

Layered contact, lead or bond

942
257/735

Beam leads (i.e., leads that extend beyond the ends or sides of a chip component)

514
257/736

Layered

250
257/737

Bump leads

2978
257/738

Ball shaped

2490
257/785

By pressure alone

254
257/777

Chip mounted on chip

3297
257/786

Configuration or pattern of bonds

2273
257/782

Die bond

803
257/783

With adhesive means

1265
257/778

Flip chip

3691
257/773

Of specified configuration

3117
257/776

Cross-over arrangement, component or structure

938
257/775

Varying width or thickness of conductor

1000
257/774

Via (interconnection hole) shape

3891
257/741

Of specified material other than unalloyed aluminum

437
257/771

Alloy containing aluminum

283
257/749

At least portion of which is transparent to ultraviolet, visible or infrared light

158
257/746

Composite material (e.g., fibers or strands embedded in solid matrix)

190
257/744

For compound semiconductor material

179
257/745

Contact for iii-v material

245
257/750

Layered

1317
257/766

At least one layer containing chromium or nickel

423
257/762

At least one layer containing silver or copper

1188
257/761

At least one layer containing vanadium, hafnium, niobium, zirconium, or tantalum

366
257/751

At least one layer forms a diffusion barrier

1655
257/765

At least one layer of an alloy containing aluminum

501
257/763

At least one layer of molybdenum, titanium, or tungsten

980
257/764

Alloy containing molybdenum, titanium, or tungsten

612
257/754

At least one layer of silicide or polycrystalline silicon

607
257/756

Multiple polysilicon layers

212
257/755

Polysilicon laminated with silicide

344
257/757

Silicide of refractory or platinum group metal

348
257/758

Multiple metal levels on semiconductor, separated by insulating layer (e.g., multiple level metallization for integrated circuit)

3974
257/759

Including organic insulating material between metal levels

826
257/760

Separating insulating layer is laminate or composite of plural insulating materials (e.g., silicon oxide on silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride)

1055
257/752

Planarized to top of insulating layer

559
257/753

With adhesion promoting means (e.g., layer of material) to promote adhesion of contact to an insulating layer

479
257/768

Refractory or platinum group metal or alloy or silicide thereof

411
257/770

Molybdenum, tungsten, or titanium or their silicides

364
257/769

Platinum group metal or silicide thereof

212
257/767

Resistive to electromigration or diffusion of the contact or lead material

473
257/772

Solder composition

462
257/742

With a semiconductor conductivity substitution type dopant (e.g., germanium in the case of a gallium arsenide semiconductor) in a contact metal)

78
257/743

For compound semiconductor material

83
257/747

With thermal expansion matching of contact or lead material to semiconductor active device

164
257/748

Plural layers of specified contact or lead material

222
257/779

Solder wettable contact, lead, or bond

1242
257/784

Wire contact, lead, or bond

2490
257/740

With means to prevent contact from penetrating shallow pn junction (e.g., prevention of aluminum "spiking")

76
257/739

With textured surface

199
257/212

Conductivity modulation device (e.g., unijunction transistor, double-base diode, conductivity-modulated transistor)

111
257/920

Conductor layers on different levels connected in parallel (e.g., to reduce resistance)

51
257/665

Contacts or leads including fusible link means or noise suppression means

360
257/E27.001

Device consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid state components formed in or on a common substrate, e.g., integrated circuit device (epo)

124
257/E27.122

Including active semiconductor component sensitive to infrared radiation, light, or electromagnetic radiation of a shorter wavelength (epo)

71
257/E27.127

Device controlled by radiation (epo)

52
257/E27.13

Imager including structural or functional details of the device (epo)

222
257/E27.149

Bipolar transistor imager (epo)

109
257/E27.15

Charge coupled imager (epo)

168
257/E27.162

Anti-blooming (epo)

232
257/E27.154

Area ccd imager (epo)

511
257/E27.157

Frame transfer (epo)

43
257/E27.155

Frame-interline transfer (epo)

9
257/E27.156

Interline transfer (epo)

74
257/E27.159

Ccd or cid color imager (epo)

102
257/E27.158

Charge injection device (cid) imager (epo)

37
257/E27.163

Including a photoconductive layer deposited on the ccd structure (epo)

20
257/E27.16

Infrared ccd or cid imager (epo)

98
257/E27.161

Of the hybrid type (e.g., chip-on-chip, bonded substrates) (epo)

140
257/E27.153

Linear ccd imager (epo)

101
257/E27.151

Structural or functional details (epo)

183
257/E27.152

Geometry or disposition of pixel-elements, address lines or gate-electrodes (epo)

164
257/E27.147

Contact-type imager (e.g., contacts document surface) (epo)

39
257/E27.131

Geometry or disposition of pixel-elements, address-lines, or gate-electrodes (epo)

359
257/E27.141

Imager using a photoconductor layer (e.g., single photoconductor layer for all pixels) (epo)

273
257/E27.145

Anti-blooming (epo)

22
257/E27.142

Color imager (epo)

33
257/E27.143

Infrared imager (epo)

54
257/E27.144

Of the hybrid type (e.g., chip-on-chip, bonded substrates) (epo)

71
257/E27.146

X-ray, gamma-ray, or high energy radiation imagers (epo)

98
257/E27.148

Junction field effect transistor (jfet) imager or static induction transistor (sit) imager (epo)

100
257/E27.133

Photodiode array or mos imager (epo)

1135
257/E27.139

Anti-blooming (epo)

97
257/E27.134

Color imager (epo)

184
257/E27.135

Multicolor imager having a stacked pixel-element structure, e.g. npn, npnpn or mqw elements (epo)

73
257/E27.136

Infrared imager (epo)

135
257/E27.138

Multispectral infrared imager having a stacked pixel-element structure, e.g., npn, npnpn or mqw structures (epo)

30
257/E27.137

Of the hybrid type (e.g., chip-on-chip, bonded substrates) (epo)

173
257/E27.14

X-ray, gamma-ray, or high energy radiation imager (measuring x-, gamma- or corpuscular radiation) (epo)

92
257/E27.132

Pixel-elements with integrated switching, control, storage, or amplification elements (epo)

702
257/E27.128

With at least one potential barrier or surface barrier (epo)

302
257/E27.129

In a repetitive configuration (epo)

176
257/E27.123

Energy conversion device (epo)

79
257/E27.124

In a repetitive configuration, e.g. planar multi-junction solar cells (epo)

95
257/E27.126

Including multiple vertical junction or v-groove junction solar cells formed in a semiconductor substrate (epo)

44
257/E27.125

Including only thin film solar cells deposited on a substrate (epo)

285
257/E27.002

Including bulk negative resistance effect component (epo)

24
257/E27.003

Including gunn-effect device (epo)

3
257/E27.005

Including component using galvano-magnetic effects, e.g. hall effect (epo)

419
257/E27.114

Including only passive thin-film or thick-film elements on a common insulating substrate (epo)

56
257/E27.115

Thick-film circuits (epo)

43
257/E27.116

Thin-film circuits (epo)

124
257/E27.117

Including organic material in active region

56
257/E27.118

Including semiconductor components sensitive to infrared radiation, light, or electromagnetic radiation of a shorter wavelength (epo)

8
257/E27.119

Including semiconductor components with at least one potential barrier, surface barrier, or recombination zone adapted for light emission (epo)

60
257/E27.006

Including piezo-electric, electro-resistive, or magneto-resistive component (epo)

240
257/E27.12

Including semiconductor component with at least one potential barrier or surface barrier adapted for light emission structurally associated with controlling devices having a variable impedance and not being light sensitive (epo)

268
257/E27.121

In a repetitive configuration (epo)

243
257/E27.009

Including semiconductor component with at least one potential barrier or surface barrier adapted for rectifying, oscillating, amplifying, or switching, or including integrated passive circuit elements (epo)

125
257/E27.111

Substrate comprising other than a semiconductor material, e.g. insulating substrate or layered substrate including a non-semiconductor layer (epo)

1992
257/E27.113

Combined with thin-film or thick-film passive component (epo)

87
257/E27.112

Including insulator on semiconductor, e.g. soi (silicon on insulator) (epo)

1849
257/E27.01

With semiconductor substrate only (epo)

48
257/E27.011

Including a plurality of components in a non-repetitive configuration (epo)

61
257/E27.028

Including component having an active region in common (epo)

20
257/E27.029

Including component of the field-effect type (epo)

74
257/E27.03

In combination with bipolar transistor and diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

24
257/E27.032

In combination with lateral bipolar transistor and diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

52
257/E27.031

In combination with vertical bipolar transistor and diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

131
257/E27.033

In combination with diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

128
257/E27.034

In combination with capacitor only (epo)

61
257/E27.035

In combination with resistor only (epo)

40
257/E27.036

With component other than field-effect type (epo)

14
257/E27.037

Bipolar transistor in combination with diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

28
257/E27.043

Lateral bipolar transistor in combination with diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

8
257/E27.038

Vertical bipolar transistor in combination with diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

44
257/E27.042

Vertical bipolar transistor in combination with capacitor only (epo)

14
257/E27.039

Vertical bipolar transistor in combination with diode only (epo)

48
257/E27.04

With schottky diode only (epo)

66
257/E27.041

Vertical bipolar transistor in combination with resistor only (epo)

44
257/E27.044

Including combination of diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

19
257/E27.045

Combination of capacitor and resistor (epo)

19
257/E27.026

Integrated circuit having a three-dimensional layout (epo)

736
257/E27.027

Including components formed on opposite sides of a semiconductor substrate (epo)

23
257/E27.013

Integrated circuit having a two-dimensional layout of components without a common active region (epo)

39
257/E27.014

Including a field-effect type component (epo)

101
257/E27.015

In combination with bipolar transistor (epo)

641
257/E27.017

In combination with bipolar transistor and diode, resistor, or capacitor (epo)

130
257/E27.016

In combination with diode, resistor, or capacitor (epo)

735
257/E27.018

With component other than field-effect type (epo)

24
257/E27.019

Bipolar transistor in combination with diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

53
257/E27.023

Lateral bipolar transistor in combination with diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

19
257/E27.02

Vertical bipolar transistor in combination with diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

45
257/E27.022

Vertical bipolar transistor in combination with diode only (epo)

52
257/E27.021

Vertical bipolar transistor in combination with resistor or capacitor only (epo)

57
257/E27.024

Including combination of diode, capacitor, or resistor (epo)

77
257/E27.025

Including combination of capacitor or resistor only (epo)

49
257/E27.012

Made of compound semiconductor material, e.g. iii-v material (epo)

425
257/E27.07

Including a plurality of individual components in a repetitive configuration (epo)

114
257/E27.072

Including bipolar component (epo)

5
257/E27.074

Including bipolar transistor (epo)

21
257/E27.076

Array of single bipolar transistors only, e.g. read only memory structure (epo)

22
257/E27.075

Bipolar dynamic random access memory structure (epo)

40
257/E27.078

Bipolar electrically programmable memory structure (epo)

88
257/E27.077

Static bipolar memory cell structure (epo)

86
257/E27.073

Including diode only (epo)

142
257/E27.079

Thyristor (epo)

41
257/E27.08

Unijunction transistor, i.e., three terminal device with only one p-n junction having a negative resistance region in the i-v characteristic (epo)

5
257/E27.081

Including field-effect component (epo)

1350
257/E27.084

Dynamic random access memory, dram, structure (epo)

717
257/E27.085

One-transistor memory cell structure, i.e., each memory cell containing only one transistor (epo)

563
257/E27.095

Capacitor and transistor in common trench (epo)

40
257/E27.096

Vertical transistor (epo)

301
257/E27.09

Capacitor extending under the transistor (epo)

76
257/E27.092

Capacitor in trench (epo)

455
257/E27.093

Capacitor extending under or around the transistor (epo)

124
257/E27.094

Having storage electrode extension stacked over the transistor (epo)

86
257/E27.086

Storage electrode stacked over the transistor

628
257/E27.089

Storage electrode having multiple wings (epo)

700
257/E27.087

With bit line higher than capacitor (epo)

218
257/E27.088

With capacitor higher than bit line level (epo)

428
257/E27.091

Transistor in trench (epo)

276
257/E27.097

Peripheral structure (epo)

408
257/E27.082

Including bucket brigade type charge coupled device (c.c.d) (epo)

33
257/E27.083

Including charge coupled device (c.c.d) or charge injection device (c.i.d) (epo)

131
257/E27.102

Read-only memory, rom, structure (epo)

694
257/E27.103

Electrically programmable rom (epo)

3249
257/E27.104

Ferroelectric non-volatile memory structure (epo)

926
257/E27.098

Static random access memory, sram, structure (epo)

518
257/E27.099

Load element being a mosfet transistor (epo)

605
257/E27.1

Load element being a thin film transistor (epo)

392
257/E27.101

Load element being a resistor (epo)

425
257/E27.071

Including resistor or capacitor only (epo)

154
257/E27.105

Masterslice integrated circuit (epo)

255
257/E27.11

Input and output buffer/driver (epo)

167
257/E27.106

Using bipolar structure (epo)

54
257/E27.109

Using combined field-effect/bipolar structure (epo)

46
257/E27.107

Using field-effect structure (epo)

126
257/E27.108

Cmos gate array (epo)

460
257/E27.046

Including only semiconductor components of a single kind, e.g., all bipolar transistors, all diodes, or all cmos (epo)

437
257/E27.053

Bipolar component only (epo)

86
257/E27.054

Combination of lateral and vertical transistors only (epo)

107
257/E27.055

Vertical bipolar transistor only (epo)

63
257/E27.058

Combination of direct and inverse vertical transistors (e.g., collector acts as emitter) (epo)

17
257/E27.057

Vertical complementary transistor (epo)

131
257/E27.056

Vertical direct transistor of the same conductivity type having different characteristics, (e.g. darlington transistor) (epo)

100
257/E27.048

Capacitor only (epo)

520
257/E27.05

Metal-insulated-semiconductor (mis) diode (epo)

36
257/E27.049

Varactor diode (epo)

70
257/E27.051

Diode only (epo)

169
257/E27.059

Including field-effect component only (epo)

65
257/E27.06

Field-effect transistor with insulated gate (epo)

902
257/E27.061

Combination of depletion and enhancement field-effect transistors (epo)

128
257/E27.062

Complementary mis (epo)

784
257/E27.064

Combination of complementary transistors having a different structure, e.g. stacked cmos, high-voltage and low-voltage cmos (epo)

504
257/E27.066

Including a p-well only in the substrate (epo)

74
257/E27.065

Including an n-well only in the substrate (epo)

62
257/E27.067

Including both n- and p- wells in the substrate, e.g. twin-tub (epo)

437
257/E27.063

Means for preventing a parasitic bipolar action between the different transistor regions, e.g. latch-up prevention (epo)

297
257/E27.069

Pn junction gate field-effect transistor

59
257/E27.068

Schottky barrier gate field-effect transistor (epo)

109
257/E27.047

Resistor only (epo)

300
257/E27.052

Thyristor only (epo)

68
257/E27.004

Including solid state component for rectifying, amplifying, or switching without a potential barrier or surface barrier (epo)

358
257/E27.007

Including superconducting component (epo)

62
257/E27.008

Including thermo-electric or thermo-magnetic component with or without a junction of dissimilar material or thermo-magnetic component (epo)

92
257/E39.001

Devices using superconductivity, processes, or apparatus peculiar to manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof (epo)

14
257/E39.004

Characterized by current path (epo)

3
257/E39.006

Characterized by material (epo)

67
257/E39.009

Ceramic materials (epo)

24
257/E39.01

Comprising copper oxide (epo)

272
257/E39.011

Multilayered structures, e.g., super lattices (epo)

35
257/E39.007

Organic materials (epo)

73
257/E39.008

Fullerene superconductors, e.g., soccerball-shaped allotrope of carbon, e.g., c60, c94 (epo)

12
257/E39.005

Characterized by shape of element (epo)

7
257/E39.002

Containers or mountings (epo)

14
257/E39.003

For josephson devices (epo)

11
257/E39.012

Devices comprising junction of dissimilar materials, e.g., josephson-effect devices (epo)

23
257/E39.014

Josephson-effect devices (epo)

98
257/E39.015

Comprising high tc ceramic materials (epo)

142
257/E39.013

Single electron tunnelling devices (epo)

9
257/E39.016

Three or more electrode devices, e.g., transistor-like structures (epo)

69
257/E39.017

Permanent superconductor devices (epo)

123
257/E39.018

Comprising high tc ceramic materials (epo)

230
257/E39.019

Three or more electrode devices (epo)

12
257/E39.02

Field-effect devices (epo)

68
257/927

Different doping levels in different parts of pn junction to produce shaped depletion layer

29
257/910

Diode arrays (e.g., diode read-only memory array)

89
257/908

Dram configuration with transistors and capacitors of pairs of cells along a straight line between adjacent bit lines

132
257/906

Dram with capacitor electrodes used for accessing (e.g., bit line is capacitor plate)

178
257/919

Elements of similar construction connected in series or parallel to average out manufacturing variations in characteristics

28
257/926

Elongated lead extending axially through another elongated lead

91
257/787

Encapsulated

2505
257/796

With heat sink embedded in encapsulant

631
257/788

With specified encapsulant

608
257/793

Including epoxide

343
257/794

Including glass

147
257/792

Including polyimide

213
257/791

Including polysiloxane (e.g., silicone resin)

227
257/790

Plural encapsulating layers

470
257/789

With specified filler material

416
257/795

With specified filler material

332
257/903

Fet configuration adapted for use as static memory cell

711
257/904

With passive components, (e.g., polysilicon resistors)

307
257/902

Fet with metal source region

30
257/213

Field effect device

583
257/214

Charge injection device

114
257/215

Charge transfer device

237
257/240

Changing width or direction of channel (e.g., meandering channel)

157
257/243

Channel confinement

139
257/244

Comprising a groove

85
257/235

Electrical input

81
257/238

Input signal responsive to signal charge in charge transfer device (e.g., regeneration or feedback)

85
257/236

Signal applied to field effect electrode

210
257/237

Charge-presetting/linear input type (e.g., fill and spill)

78
257/216

Majority signal carrier (e.g., buried or bulk channel, or peristaltic)

117
257/224

Channel confinement

113
257/217

Having a conductive means in direct contact with channel (e.g., non-insulated gate)

94
257/218

High resistivity channel (e.g., accumulation mode) or surface channel (e.g., transfer of signal charge occurs at the surface of the semiconductor) or minority carriers at input (i.e., surface channel input)

57
257/219

Impurity concentration variation

117
257/221

Along the length of the channel (e.g., doping variations for transfer directionality)

137
257/220

Vertically within channel (e.g., profiled)

78
257/222

Responsive to non-electrical external signal (e.g., imager)

479
257/223

Having structure to improve output signal (e.g., antiblooming drain)

341
257/241

Multiple channels (e.g., converging or diverging or parallel channels)

284
257/225

Non-electrical input responsive (e.g., light responsive imager, input programmed by size of storage sites for use as a read-only memory, etc.)

381
257/231

2-dimensional area architecture

301
257/232

Having alternating strips of sensor structures and register structures (e.g., interline imager)

384
257/233

Sensors not overlaid by electrode (e.g., photodiodes)

656
257/229

Having structure to improve output signal (e.g., exposure control structure)

299
257/230

With blooming suppression structure

197
257/228

Light responsive, back illuminated

159
257/226

Sensor element and charge transfer device are of different materials or on different substrates (e.g., "hybrid")

166
257/234

Single strip of sensors (e.g., linear imager)

185
257/227

With specified dopant (e.g., photoionizable, "extrinsic" detectors for infrared)

77
257/239

Signal charge detection type (e.g., floating diffusion or floating gate non-destructive output)

462
257/245

Structure for applying electric field into device (e.g., resistive electrode, acoustic traveling wave in channel)

170
257/249

Electrode structures or materials

289
257/250

Plural gate levels

306
257/246

Phase structure (e.g., doping variations to provide asymmetry for 2-phase operation; more than four phases or "electrode per bit")

154
257/248

2-phase

152
257/247

Uniphase or virtual phase structure

87
257/251

Substantially incomplete signal charge transfer (e.g., bucket brigade)

47
257/242

Vertical charge transfer

94
257/288

Having insulated electrode (e.g., mosfet, mos diode)

1826
257/412

Gate electrode of refractory material (e.g., polysilicon or a silicide of a refractory or platinum group metal)

1059
257/413

Polysilicon laminated with silicide

519
257/410

Gate insulator includes material (including air or vacuum) other than sio 2

935
257/411

Composite or layered gate insulator (e.g., mixture such as silicon oxynitride)

979
257/408

Including lightly doped drain portion adjacent channel (e.g., lightly doped drain, ldd device)

1268
257/296

Insulated gate capacitor or insulated gate transistor combined with capacitor (e.g., dynamic memory cell)

3346
257/300

Capacitor coupled to, or forms gate of, insulated gate field effect transistor (e.g., non-destructive readout dynamic memory cell structure)

908
257/298

Capacitor for signal storage in combination with non-volatile storage means

663
257/301

Capacitor in trench

1278
257/303

Stacked capacitor

1031
257/304

Storage node isolated by dielectric from semiconductor substrate

544
257/302

Vertical transistor

843
257/305

With means to insulate adjacent storage nodes (e.g., channel stops or field oxide)

367
257/313

Inversion layer capacitor

165
257/306

Stacked capacitor

2051
257/307

Parallel interleaved capacitor electrode pairs (e.g., interdigitized)

373
257/308

With capacitor electrodes connection portion located centrally thereof (e.g., fin electrodes with central post)

474
257/309

With increased effective electrode surface area (e.g., tortuous path, corrugated, or textured electrodes)

701
257/311

Storage node isolated by dielectric from semiconductor substrate

446
257/299

Structure configured for voltage converter (e.g., charge pump, substrate bias generator)

188
257/312

Voltage variable capacitor (i. e., capacitance varies with applied voltage)

202
257/310

With high dielectric constant insulator (e.g., ta 2 o 5 )

1142
257/297

With means for preventing charge leakage due to minority carrier generation (e.g., alpha generated soft error protection or "dark current" leakage protection)

304
257/367

Insulated gate controlled breakdown of pn junction (e.g., field plate diode)

154
257/368

Insulated gate field effect transistor in integrated circuit

1337
257/378

Combined with bipolar transistor

601
257/379

Combined with passive components (e.g., resistors)

777
257/380

Polysilicon resistor

289
257/381

With multiple levels of polycrystalline silicon

117
257/369

Complementary insulated gate field effect transistors

2123
257/370

Combined with bipolar transistor

663
257/371

Complementary transistors in wells of opposite conductivity types more heavily doped than the substrate region in which they are formed, e.g., twin wells

796
257/372

With means to prevent latchup or parasitic conduction channels

426
257/373

With pn junction to collect injected minority carriers to prevent parasitic bipolar transistor action

166
257/374

Dielectric isolation means (e.g., dielectric layer in vertical grooves)

609
257/376

With barrier region of reduced minority carrier lifetime (e.g., heavily doped p+ region to reduce electron minority carrier lifetime, or containing deep level impurity or crystal damage), or with region of high threshold voltage (e.g., heavily doped channel stop region)

226
257/375

With means to reduce substrate spreading resistance (e.g., heavily doped substrate)

84
257/377

With polysilicon interconnections to source or drain regions (e.g., polysilicon laminated with silicide)

389
257/393

Insulated gate field effect transistor adapted to function as load element for switching insulated gate field effect transistor

340
257/392

Insulated gate field effect transistors of different threshold voltages in same integrated circuit (e.g., enhancement and depletion mode)

592
257/390

Matrix or array of field effect transistors (e.g., array of fets only some of which are completed, or structure for mask programmed read-only memory (rom))

1094
257/391

Selected groups of complete field effect devices having different threshold voltages (e.g., different channel dopant concentrations)

417
257/382

With contact to source or drain region of refractory material (e.g., polysilicon, tungsten, or silicide)

863
257/383

Contact of refractory or platinum group metal (e.g., molybdenum, tungsten, or titanium)

356
257/384

Including silicide

655
257/385

Multiple polysilicon layers

169
257/394

With means to prevent parasitic conduction channels

201
257/395

Thick insulator portion

149
257/399

Combined with heavily doped channel stop portion

114
257/396

Recessed into semiconductor surface

329
257/398

Combined with heavily doped channel stop portion

146
257/397

In vertical-walled groove

240
257/400

With heavily doped channel stop portion

107
257/386

With means to reduce parasitic capacitance

184
257/387

Gate electrode overlaps at least one of source or drain by no more than depth of source or drain (e.g., self-aligned gate)

200
257/388

Gate electrode consists of refractory or platinum group metal or silicide

270
257/389

With thick insulator over source or drain region

177
257/401

With specified physical layout (e.g., ring gate, source/drain regions shared between plural fets, plural sections connected in parallel to form power mosfet)

2278
257/290

Light responsive or combined with light responsive device

721
257/291

Imaging array

1347
257/292

Photodiodes accessed by fets

1776
257/293

Photoresistors accessed by fets, or photodetectors separate from fet chip

295
257/294

With shield, filter, or lens

572
257/327

Short channel insulated gate field effect transistor

694
257/335

Active channel region has a graded dopant concentration decreasing with distance from source region (e.g., double diffused device, dmos transistor)

1011
257/343

All contacts on same surface (e.g., lateral structure)

689
257/337

In integrated circuit structure

346
257/338

With complementary field effect transistor

279
257/341

Plural sections connected in parallel (e.g., power mosfet)

1475
257/342

With means to reduce on resistance

555
257/336

With lightly doped portion of drain region adjacent channel (e.g., ldd structure)

951
257/340

With means (other than self-alignment of the gate electrode) to decrease gate capacitance (e.g., shield electrode)

197
257/339

With means to increase breakdown voltage

731
257/329

Gate controls vertical charge flow portion of channel (e.g., vmos device)

1180
257/330

Gate electrode in groove

2084
257/332

Gate electrode self-aligned with groove

731
257/334

In integrated circuit structure

493
257/331

Plural gate electrodes or grid shaped gate electrode

1088
257/333

With thick insulator to reduce gate capacitance in non-channel areas (e.g., thick oxide over source or drain region)

383
257/346

Gate electrode overlaps the source or drain by no more than depth of source or drain (e.g., self-aligned gate)

362
257/328

Vertical channel or double diffused insulated gate field effect device provided with means to protect against excess voltage (e.g., gate protection diode)

1236
257/344

With lightly doped portion of drain region adjacent channel (e.g., ldd structure)

1144
257/345

With means to prevent sub-surface currents, or with non-uniform channel doping

407
257/289

Significant semiconductor chemical compound in bulk crystal (e.g., gaas)

217
257/347

Single crystal semiconductor layer on insulating substrate (soi)

3389
257/348

Depletion mode field effect transistor

382
257/350

Insulated electrode device is combined with diverse type device (e.g., complementary mosfets, fet with resistor, etc.)

1449
257/351

Complementary field effect transistor structures only (i.e., not including bipolar transistors, resistors, or other components)

930
257/352

Substrate is single crystal insulator (e.g., sapphire or spinel)

349
257/353

Single crystal islands of semiconductor layer containing only one active device

390
257/354

Including means to eliminate island edge effects (e.g., insulating filling between islands, or ions in island edges)

327
257/349

With means (e.g., a buried channel stop layer) to prevent leakage current along the interface of the semiconductor layer and the insulating substrate

578
257/314

Variable threshold (e.g., floating gate memory device)

1979
257/324

Multiple insulator layers (e.g., mnos structure)

1532
257/325

Non-homogeneous composition insulator layer (e.g., graded composition layer or layer with inclusions)

318
257/326

With additional, non-memory control electrode or channel portion (e.g., accessing field effect transistor structure)

558
257/315

With floating gate electrode

2754
257/316

With additional contacted control electrode

2565
257/318

Additional control electrode is doped region in semiconductor substrate

399
257/319

Plural additional contacted control electrodes

493
257/320

Separate control electrodes for charging and for discharging floating electrode

436
257/322

With charging or discharging by control voltage applied to source or drain region (e.g., by avalanche breakdown of drain junction)

301
257/317

With irregularities on electrode to facilitate charging or discharging of floating electrode

687
257/321

With thin insulator region for charging or discharging floating electrode by quantum mechanical tunneling

1264
257/323

With means to facilitate light erasure

96
257/295

With ferroelectric material layer

2182
257/409

With means to increase breakdown voltage (e.g., field shield electrode, guard ring, etc.)

752
257/355

With overvoltage protective means

1753
257/356

For protecting against gate insulator breakdown

614
257/357

In complementary field effect transistor integrated circuit

570
257/358

Including resistor element

347
257/359

As thin film structure (e.g., polysilicon resistor)

249
257/363

Including resistor element

332
257/360

Protection device includes insulated gate transistor structure (e.g., combined with resistor element)

828
257/361

For operation as bipolar or punchthrough element

327
257/362

Punchthrough or bipolar element

406
257/402

With permanent threshold adjustment (e.g., depletion mode)

340
257/403

With channel conductivity dopant same type as that of source and drain

170
257/404

Non-uniform channel doping

169
257/407

With gate electrode of controlled workfunction material (e.g., low workfunction gate material)

356
257/405

With gate insulator containing specified permanent charge

96
257/406

Plural gate insulator layers

187
257/365

With plural, separately connected, gate electrodes in same device

678
257/366

Overlapping gate electrodes

207
257/364

With resistive gate electrode

104
257/256

Junction field effect transistor (unipolar transistor)

228
257/262

Combined with insulated gate field effect transistor (igfet)

174
257/259

Elongated active region acts as transmission line or distributed active element (e.g., "transmission line" field effect transistor)

85
257/268

Enhancement mode

82
257/269

With means to adjust barrier height (e.g., doping profile)

47
257/272

Junction field effect transistor in integrated circuit

207
257/274

Complementary junction field effect transistors

143
257/275

Microwave integrated circuit (e.g., microstrip type)

206
257/277

With capacitive or inductive elements

162
257/276

With contact or heat sink extending through hole in semiconductor substrate, or with electrode suspended over substrate (e.g., air bridge)

222
257/273

With bipolar device

199
257/278

With devices vertically spaced in different layers of semiconductor material (e.g., "3-dimensional" integrated circuit)

95
257/261

Junction gate region free of direct electrical connection (e.g., floating junction gate memory cell structure)

125
257/257

Light responsive or combined with light responsive device

312
257/258

In imaging array

275
257/271

Load element or constant current source (e.g., with source to gate connection)

36
257/270

Plural, separately connected, gates control same channel region

184
257/279

Pn junction gate in compound semiconductor material (e.g., gaas)

115
257/260

Same channel controlled by both junction and insulated gate electrodes, or by both schottky barrier and pn junction gates (e.g., "taper isolated" memory cell)

121
257/263

Vertical controlled current path

191
257/264

Enhancement mode or with high resistivity channel (e.g., doping of 10 15 cm -3 or less)

147
257/265

In integrated circuit

59
257/266

With multiple parallel current paths (e.g., grid gate)

176
257/267

With schottky barrier gate

67
257/287

With multiple channels or channel segments connected in parallel, or with channel much wider than length between source and drain (e.g., power jfet)

259
257/286

With non-uniform channel thickness or width

98
257/285

With profiled channel dopant concentration or profiled gate region dopant concentration (e.g., maximum dopant concentration below surface)

179
257/280

With schottky gate

465
257/282

Gate closely aligned to source region

110
257/283

With groove or overhang for alignment

120
257/284

Schottky gate in groove

214
257/281

Schottky gate to silicon semiconductor

127
257/252

Responsive to non-optical, non-electrical signal

186
257/253

Chemical (e.g., isfet, chemfet)

432
257/254

Physical deformation (e.g., strain sensor, acoustic wave detector)

276
257/255

With current flow along specified crystal axis (e.g., axis of maximum carrier mobility)

141
257/907

Folded bit line dram configuration

77
257/202

Gate arrays

601
257/204

Having specific type of active device (e.g., cmos)

545
257/206

Particular layout of complementary fets with regard to each other

593
257/205

With bipolar transistors or with fets of only one channel conductivity type (e.g., enhancement-depletion fets)

148
257/203

With particular chip input/output means

447
257/207

With particular power supply distribution means

675
257/208

With particular signal path connections

814
257/211

Multi-level metallization

818
257/209

Programmable signal paths (e.g., with fuse elements, laser programmable, etc)

622
257/210

With wiring channel area

300
257/183

Heterojunction device

418
257/199

Avalanche diode (e.g., so-called "zener" diode having breakdown voltage greater than 6 volts, including heterojunction impatt type microwave diodes)

142
257/201

Between different group iv-vi or ii-vi or iii-v compounds other than gaas/gaalas

520
257/197

Bipolar transistor

923
257/198

Wide band gap emitter

445
257/196

Both semiconductors of the heterojunction are the same conductivity type (i.e., either n or p)

104
257/183.1

Charge transfer device

71
257/192

Field effect transistor

1445
257/194

Doping on side of heterojunction with lower carrier affinity (e.g., high electron mobility transistor (hemt))

1121
257/195

Combined with diverse type device

244
257/191

Having graded composition

361
257/200

Heterojunction formed between semiconductor materials which differ in that they belong to different periodic table groups (e.g., ge (group iv) - gaas (group iii-v) or inp (group iii-v) - cdte (group ii-vi))

666
257/184

Light responsive structure

881
257/186

Avalanche photodetection structure

279
257/188

Having narrow energy band gap (

149
257/189

Layer is a group iii-v semiconductor compound

345
257/187

Having transistor structure

269
257/185

Staircase (including graded composition) device

188
257/190

With lattice constant mismatch (e.g., with buffer layer to accommodate mismatch)

754
257/678

Housing or package

2455
257/727

Device held in place by clamping

674
257/708

Entirely of metal except for feedthrough

164
257/711

With raised portion of base for mounting semiconductor chip

193
257/709

With specified insulator to isolate device from housing

134
257/710

With specified means (e.g., lip) to seal base to cap

399
257/728

For high frequency (e.g., microwave) device

812
257/723

For plural devices

2775
257/724

With discrete components

1723
257/725

With electrical isolation means

375
257/726

Devices held in place by clamping

307
257/687

Housing or package filled with solid or liquid electrically insulating material

788
257/701

Insulating material

1075
257/704

Cap or lid

1201
257/703

Composite ceramic, or single ceramic with metal

434
257/705

Of high thermal conductivity ceramic (e.g., beo)

266
257/702

Of insulating material other than ceramic

460
257/706

With heat sink

1876
257/707

Directly attached to semiconductor device

1417
257/685

Multiple housings

1063
257/686

Stacked arrangement

3730
257/730

Outside periphery of package having specified shape or configuration

844
257/729

Portion of housing of specific materials

312
257/679

Smart (e.g., credit) card package

636
257/690

With contact or lead

1837
257/691

Having power distribution means (e.g., bus structure)

1502
257/700

Multiple contact layers separated from each other by insulator means and forming part of a package or housing (e.g., plural ceramic layer package)

1740
257/692

With particular lead geometry

1848
257/693

External connection to housing

1133
257/694

Axial leads

117
257/696

Bent (e.g., j-shaped) lead

715
257/695

Fanned/radial leads

134
257/697

Pin grid type

465
257/698

With specific electrical feedthrough structure

1953
257/699

Housing entirely of metal except for feedthrough structure

145
257/682

With desiccant, getter, or gas filling

165
257/731

With housing mount

248
257/732

Flanged mount

143
257/733

Stud mount

127
257/688

With large area flexible electrodes in press contact with opposite sides of active semiconductor chip and surrounded by an insulating element, e.g., ring

390
257/689

Rigid electrode portion

192
257/683

With means to prevent explosion of package

56
257/712

With provision for cooling the housing or its contents

1910
257/713

For integrated circuit

1649
257/720

Heat dissipating element has high thermal conductivity insert (e.g., copper slug in aluminum heat sink)

746
257/718

Heat dissipating element held in place by clamping or spring means

1032
257/719

Pressed against semiconductor element

1231
257/717

Isolation of cooling means (e.g., heat sink) by an electrically insulating element (e.g., spacer)

802
257/714

Liquid coolant

1045
257/715

Boiling (evaporative) liquid

607
257/716

Cryogenic liquid coolant

93
257/721

With gas coolant

202
257/722

With fins

879
257/684

With semiconductor element forming part (e.g., base, of housing)

823
257/680

With window means

834
257/681

For erasing eprom

75
257/617

Including region containing crystal damage

225
257/613

Including semiconductor material other than silicon or gallium arsenide (gaas) (e.g., pb x sn 1-x te)

298
257/616

Containing germanium, ge

449
257/614

Group ii-vi compound (e.g., cdte, hg x cd 1-x te)

147
257/615

Group iii-v compound (e.g., inp)

502
257/79

Incoherent light emitter structure

2557
257/86

Active layer of indirect band gap semiconductor

250
257/87

With means to facilitate electron-hole recombination (e.g., isoelectronic traps such as nitrogen in gap)

132
257/100

Encapsulated

1545
257/80

In combination with or also constituting light responsive device

662
257/84

Combined in integrated structure

531
257/85

With heterojunction

309
257/83

Light coupled transistor structure

345
257/81

With specific housing or contact structure

1093
257/82

Discrete light emitting and light responsive devices

765
257/88

Plural light emitting devices (e.g., matrix, 7-segment array)

1796
257/92

Alphanumeric segmented array

85
257/89

Multi-color emission

838
257/90

With heterojunction

229
257/93

With electrical isolation means in integrated circuit structure

304
257/91

With shaped contacts or opaque masking

477
257/94

With heterojunction

1597
257/96

Plural heterojunctions in same device

911
257/97

More than two heterojunctions in same device

636
257/95

With contoured external surface (e.g., dome shape to facilitate light emission)

603
257/99

With housing or contact structure

3687
257/101

With particular dopant concentration or concentration profile (e.g., graded junction)

484
257/102

With particular dopant material (e.g., zinc as dopant in gaas)

660
257/103

With particular semiconductor material

2666
257/98

With reflector, opaque mask, or optical element (e.g., lens, optical fiber, index of refraction matching layer, luminescent material layer, filter) integral with device or device enclosure or package

4724
257/499

Integrated circuit structure with electrically isolated components

503
257/506

Including dielectric isolation means

1097
257/522

Air isolation (e.g., beam lead supported semiconductor islands)

381
257/509

Combined with pn junction isolation (e.g., isoplanar, locos)

229
257/510

Dielectric in groove

970
257/520

Conductive filling in dielectric-lined groove (e.g., polysilicon backfill)

320
257/519

Including heavily doped channel stop region adjacent groove

175
257/521

Sides of grooves along major crystal planes (e.g., (111), (100) planes, etc.)

84
257/513

Vertical walled groove

385
257/514

With active junction abutting groove (e.g., "walled emitter")

130
257/515

With active junction abutting groove (e.g., "walled emitter")

117
257/517

With bipolar transistor structure

273
257/518

With polycrystalline connecting region (e.g., polysilicon base contact)

177
257/511

With complementary (npn and pnp) bipolar transistor structures

169
257/512

Complementary devices share common active region (e.g., integrated injection logic, i 2 l)

86
257/516

With passive component (e.g., resistor, capacitor, etc.)

290
257/524

Full dielectric isolation with polycrystalline semiconductor substrate

179
257/525

With complementary (npn and pnp) bipolar transistor structures

73
257/523

Isolation by region of intrinsic (undoped) semiconductor material (e.g., including region physically damaged by proton bombardment)

94
257/526

With bipolar transistor structure

154
257/527

Sides of isolated semiconductor islands along major crystal planes (e.g., (111), (100) planes, etc.)

53
257/508

With metallic conductor within isolating dielectric or between semiconductor and isolating dielectric (e.g., metal shield layer or internal connection layer)

491
257/507

With single crystal insulating substrate (e.g., sapphire)

143
257/500

Including high voltage or high power devices isolated from low voltage or low power devices in the same integrated circuit

459
257/502

High power or high voltage device extends completely through semiconductor substrate (e.g., backside collector contact)

173
257/501

Including dielectric isolation means

378
257/504

Including means for establishing a depletion region throughout a semiconductor layer for isolating devices in different portions of the layer (e.g., "jfet" isolation)

87
257/557

Lateral bipolar transistor structure

263
257/559

With active region formed along groove or exposed edge in semiconductor

80
257/558

With base region doping concentration step or gradient or with means to increase current gain

72
257/560

With multiple collectors or emitters

100
257/562

With auxiliary collector/re-emitter between emitter and output collector (e.g., "current hogging logic" device)

26
257/561

With different emitter to collector spacings or facing areas

49
257/528

Passive components in ics

705
257/532

Including capacitor component

1901
257/535

Both terminals of capacitor isolated from substrate

289
257/533

Combined with resistor to form rc filter structure

209
257/534

With means to increase surface area (e.g., grooves, ridges, etc.)

282
257/531

Including inductive element

805
257/529

Including programmable passive component (e.g., fuse)

1165
257/530

Anti-fuse

835
257/536

Including resistive element

742
257/539

Combined with bipolar transistor

140
257/543

Lightly doped junction isolated resistor (e.g., ion implanted resistor)

48
257/541

Pinch resistor

45
257/542

Resistor has same doping as emitter or collector of bipolar transistor

38
257/540

With compensation for non-linearity (e.g., dynamic isolation pocket bias)

23
257/537

Using specific resistive material

356
257/538

Polycrystalline silicon (doped or undoped)

314
257/503

With contact or metallization configuration to reduce parasitic coupling (e.g., separate ground pads for different parts of integrated circuit)

269
257/563

With multiple separately connected emitter, collector, or base regions in same transistor structure

91
257/564

Multiple base or collector regions

70
257/544

With pn junction isolation

262
257/548

At least three regions of alternating conductivity types with dopant concentration gradients decreasing from surface of semiconductor (e.g., "triple-diffused" integrated circuit)

91
257/551

Including voltage reference element (e.g., avalanche diode, so-called "zener diode" with breakdown voltage greater than 6 volts or with positive temperature coefficient of breakdown voltage)

170
257/552

With bipolar transistor structure

218
257/555

Complementary bipolar transistor structures (e.g., integrated injection logic, i 2 l)

110
257/556

Including lateral bipolar transistor structure

129
257/553

Transistors of same conductivity type (e.g., npn) having different current gain or different operating voltage characteristics

43
257/554

With connecting region made of polycrystalline semiconductor material (e.g., polysilicon base contact)

67
257/550

With lightly doped surface layer of one conductivity type on substrate of opposite conductivity type, having plural heavily doped portions of the one conductivity type between the layer and substrate, different ones of the heavily doped portions having differing depths or physical extent

72
257/545

With means to control isolation junction capacitance (e.g., lightly doped layer at isolation junction to increase depletion layer width)

44
257/547

With structural means to control parasitic transistor action or leakage current

181
257/546

With structural means to protect against excess or reversed polarity voltage

271
257/549

With substrate and lightly doped surface layer of same conductivity type, separated by subsurface heavily doped region of opposite conductivity type (e.g., "collector diffused isolation" integrated circuit)

97
257/505

With polycrystalline semiconductor isolation region in direct contact with single crystal active semiconductor material

89
257/666

Lead frame

2872
257/677

Of specified material other than copper (e.g., kovar (t.m.))

249
257/668

On insulating carrier other than a printed circuit board

1170
257/672

Small lead frame (e.g., "spider" frame) for connecting a large lead frame to a semiconductor chip

463
257/673

With bumps on ends of lead fingers to connect to semiconductor

548
257/667

With dam or vent for encapsulant

462
257/675

With heat sink means

890
257/674

With means for controlling lead tension

339
257/670

With separate tie bar element or plural tie bars

539
257/671

Of insulating material

156
257/669

With stress relief

570
257/676

With structure for mounting semiconductor chip to lead frame (e.g., configuration of die bonding flag, absence of a die bonding flag, recess for led)

2440
257/918

Light emitting regenerative switching device (e.g., light emitting scr) arrays, circuitry, etc.

106
257/E33.001

Light emitting semiconductor devices having a potential or a surface barrier, processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof

612
257/E33.055

Detail of nonsemiconductor component other than light-emitting semiconductor device (epo)

137
257/E33.06

Coatings (epo)

271
257/E33.061

Comprising luminescent material (e.g., fluorescent) (epo)

643
257/E33.066

Electrical contact or lead (e.g., lead frame) (epo)

671
257/E33.062

Electrodes (epo)

314
257/E33.063

Characterized by material (epo)

371
257/E33.064

Comprising transparent conductive layers (e.g., transparent conductive oxides (tco), indium tin oxide (ito)) (epo)

331
257/E33.065

Characterized by shape (epo)

484
257/E33.067

Means for light extraction or guiding (epo)

528
257/E33.068

Integrated with device (e.g., back surface reflector, lens) (epo)

724
257/E33.069

Comprising resonant cavity structure (e.g., bragg reflector pair) (epo)

254
257/E33.07

Comprising window layer (epo)

142
257/E33.071

Not integrated with device (epo)

52
257/E33.072

Reflective means (epo)

402
257/E33.073

Refractive means (e.g., lens) (epo)

219
257/E33.074

Scattering means (e.g., surface roughening) (epo)

267
257/E33.077

Monolithic integration with photosensitive device (epo)

62
257/E33.056

Packaging (epo)

422
257/E33.057

Adapted for surface mounting (epo)

366
257/E33.059

Encapsulation (epo)

654
257/E33.058

Housing (epo)

427
257/E33.075

With means for cooling or heating (epo)

451
257/E33.076

With means for light detecting (e.g., photodetector) (epo)

210
257/E33.002

Device characterized by semiconductor body (epo)

81
257/E33.013

Material of active region (epo)

103
257/E33.037

Comprising compound other than group ii-vi, iii-v, and iv compound (epo)

38
257/E33.041

Characterized by doping material (epo)

9
257/E33.04

Comprising only group i-iii-vi compound (epo)

18
257/E33.039

Comprising only group ii-iv-vi compound (epo)

6
257/E33.038

Comprising only group iv-vi compound (epo)

4
257/E33.042

Comprising only group iv-vi or ii-iv-vi compound (epo)

0
257/E33.019

Comprising only group ii-vi compound (epo)

86
257/E33.022

Characterized by doping material (epo)

65
257/E33.02

Ternary or quaternary compound (e.g., cdhgte) (epo)

26
257/E33.021

With heterojunction (epo)

98
257/E33.023

Comprising only group iii-v compound (epo)

166
257/E33.024

Binary compound (e.g., gaas) (epo)

39
257/E33.025

Including nitride (e.g., gan) (epo)

303
257/E33.029

Characterized by doping material (epo)

135
257/E33.03

Nitride compound (epo)

173
257/E33.031

Including ternary or quaternary compound (e.g., algaas) (epo)

26
257/E33.033

Comprising nitride compound (e.g., algan) (epo)

108
257/E33.034

With heterojunction (e.g., algan/gan) (epo)

165
257/E33.032

With heterojunction (e.g., algaas/gaas) (epo)

45
257/E33.026

Ternary or quaternary compound (e.g., algaas) (epo)

72
257/E33.028

Including nitride (e.g., algan) (epo)

711
257/E33.027

With heterojunction (epo)

340
257/E33.035

Comprising only group iv compound (e.g., sic) (epo)

55
257/E33.036

Characterized by doping material (epo)

13
257/E33.015

Comprising only group iv element (epo)

56
257/E33.017

Characterized by doping material (epo)

31
257/E33.018

Including porous si (epo)

77
257/E33.016

With heterojunction (epo)

38
257/E33.014

In different regions (epo)

35
257/E33.003

Particular crystalline orientation or structure (epo)

233
257/E33.004

Comprising amorphous semiconductor (epo)

114
257/E33.043

Physical imperfections (e.g., particular concentration or distribution of impurity) (epo)

174
257/E33.005

Shape or structure (e.g., shape of epitaxial layer) (epo)

464
257/E33.011

For current confinement (epo)

110
257/E33.012

Multiple active regions between two electrodes (e.g., stacks) (epo)

169
257/E33.008

Multiple quantum well structure (epo)

512
257/E33.01

Doped superlattice (e.g., nipi superlattice) (epo)

39
257/E33.009

Including, apart from doping materials or other only impurities, group iv element (e.g., si-sige superlattice) (epo)

37
257/E33.007

Shape of potential barrier (epo)

128
257/E33.006

Shape of semiconductor body (epo)

336
257/E33.044

Device characterized by their operation (epo)

73
257/E33.053

Characterized by field-effect operation (epo)

179
257/E33.054

Device being superluminescent diode (epo)

96
257/E33.048

Having heterojunction or graded gap (epo)

54
257/E33.05

Comprising only group ii-iv compound (epo)

13
257/E33.049

Comprising only group iii-v compound (epo)

244
257/E33.052

Having mis barrier layer (epo)

26
257/E33.045

Having p-n or hi-lo junction (epo)

118
257/E33.047

Having at least two p-n junctions (epo)

57
257/E33.046

P-i-n device (epo)

51
257/E33.051

Having schottky barrier (epo)

36
257/911

Light sensitive array adapted to be scanned by electron beam (e.g.,vidicon device)

31
257/909

Macrocell arrays (e.g., gate arrays with variable size or configuration of cells)

92
257/798

Miscellaneous

236
257/901

Mosfet substrate bias

88
257/900

Mosfet type gate sidewall insulating spacer

499
257/916

Narrow band gap semiconductor material (>>1ev)

42
257/49

Non-single crystal, or recrystallized, semiconductor material forms part of active junction (including field-induced active junction)

311
257/52

Amorphous semiconductor material

374
257/63

Amorphous semiconductor is alloy or contains material to change band gap (e.g., si x ge 1-x , sin y )

169
257/57

Field effect device in amorphous semiconductor material

876
257/59

In array having structure for use as imager or display, or with transparent electrode

3952
257/60

With field electrode under or on a side edge of amorphous semiconductor material (e.g., vertical current path)

175
257/61

With heavily doped regions contacting amorphous semiconductor material (e.g., heavily doped source and drain)

185
257/58

With impurity other than hydrogen to passivate dangling bonds (e.g., halide)

81
257/53

Responsive to nonelectrical external signals (e.g., light)

588
257/55

Amorphous semiconductor is alloy or contains material to change band gap (e.g., si x ge 1-x , sin y )

261
257/56

With impurity other than hydrogen to passivate dangling bonds (e.g., halide)

138
257/54

With schottky barrier to amorphous material

92
257/62

With impurity other than hydrogen to passivate dangling bonds (e.g., halide)

79
257/66

Field effect device in non-single crystal, or recrystallized, semiconductor material

1442
257/72

In array having structure for use as imager or display, or with transparent electrode

3858
257/71

In combination with capacitor element (e.g., dram)

378
257/67

In combination with device formed in single crystal semiconductor material (e.g., stacked fets)

373
257/68

Capacitor element in single crystal semiconductor (e.g., dram)

315
257/69

Field effect transistor in single crystal material, complementary to that in non-single crystal, or recrystallized, material (e.g., cmos)

447
257/70

Recrystallized semiconductor material

213
257/50

Non-single crystal, or recrystallized, active junction adapted to be electrically shorted (e.g., "anti-fuse" element)

339
257/65

Non-single crystal, or recrystallized, material containing non-dopant additive, or alloy of semiconductor materials (e.g., ge x si 1- x, polycrystalline silicon with dangling bond modifier)

315
257/51

Non-single crystal, or recrystallized, material forms active junction with single crystal material (e.g., monocrystal to polycrystal pn junction or heterojunction)

238
257/64

Non-single crystal, or recrystallized, material with specified crystal structure (e.g., specified crystal size or orientation)

407
257/74

Plural recrystallized semiconductor layers (e.g., "3-dimensional integrated circuit")

176
257/75

Recrystallized semiconductor material

242
257/73

Schottky barrier to polycrystalline semiconductor material

87
257/40

Organic semiconductor material

4334
257/E51.001

Organic solid state devices, processes or apparatus peculiar to manufacture or treatment of such devices or of parts thereof

403
257/E51.024

Selection of material for organic solid-state device (epo)

84
257/E51.045

Biomolecule or macromolecule (e.g., proteins, atp, chlorophyl, beta-carotene, lipids, enzymes) (epo)

34
257/E51.038

Carbon-containing materials (epo)

66
257/E51.04

Carbon nanotubes (epo)

297
257/E51.039

Fullerenes (epo)

69
257/E51.041

Coordination compound (e.g., porphyrin, phthalocyanine, metal(ii) polypyridine complexes) (epo)

310
257/E51.043

Metal complexes comprising group iiib metal (al, ga, in, or ti) (e.g., tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (alq3)) (epo)

421
257/E51.042

Phthalocyanine (epo)

195
257/E51.044

Transition metal complexes (e.g., ru(ii) polypyridine complexes) (epo)

431
257/E51.025

For organic solid-state device adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching, or capacitors or resistors with potential or surface barrier (epo)

48
257/E51.026

For radiation-sensitive or light-emitting organic solid-state device with potential or surface barrier (epo)

199
257/E51.052

Langmuir blodgett film (epo)

25
257/E51.047

Macromolecular system with low molecular weight (e.g., cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene) (epo)

430
257/E51.051

Amine compound having at least two aryl on amine-nitrogen atom (e.g., triphenylamine) (epo)

636
257/E51.048

Charge transfer complexes (epo)

65
257/E51.049

Polycondensed aromatic or heteroaromatic compound (e.g., pyrene, perylene, pentacene) (epo)

475
257/E51.05

Aromatic compound containing heteroatom (e.g., perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride, perylene tetracarboxylic diimide) (epo)

299
257/E51.027

Organic polymer or oligomer (epo)

150
257/E51.033

Comprising aliphatic or olefinic chains (e.g., polyn-vinylcarbazol, pvc, ptfe) (epo)

105
257/E51.034

Polyacetylene or derivatives (epo)

36
257/E51.035

Polyn-vinylcarbazol and derivative (epo)

97
257/E51.028

Comprising aromatic, heteroaromatic, or arrylic chains (e.g., polyaniline, polyphenylene, polyphenylene vinylene) (epo)

337
257/E51.029

Heteroaromatic compound comprising sulfur or selene (e.g., polythiophene) (epo)

309
257/E51.03

Polyethylene dioxythiophene and derivative (epo)

137
257/E51.032

Polyflurorene and derivative (epo)

242
257/E51.031

Polyphenylenevinylene and derivatives (epo)

231
257/E51.036

Copolymers (epo)

210
257/E51.037

Ladder-type polymer (epo)

34
257/E51.046

Silicon-containing organic semiconductor (epo)

111
257/E51.002

Structural detail of device (epo)

27
257/E51.018

Light-emitting organic solid-state device with potential or surface barrier (epo)

576
257/E51.019

Electrode (epo)

118
257/E51.021

Arrangements for extracting light from device (e.g., bragg reflector pair) (epo)

51
257/E51.02

Encapsulation (epo)

66
257/E51.022

Multicolor organic light-emitting device (oled) (epo)

310
257/E51.023

Molecular electronic device (epo)

159
257/E51.003

Organic solid-state device adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching, or capacitors or resistors with potential or surface barrier (epo)

58
257/E51.004

Controllable by only signal applied to control electrode (e.g., base of bipolar transistor, gate of field-effect transistor) (epo)

46
257/E51.005

Field-effect device (e.g., tft, fet) (epo)

378
257/E51.006

Insulated gate field-effect transistor (epo)

320
257/E51.007

Comprising organic gate dielectric (epo)

126
257/E51.008

Controllable only by variation of electric current supplied or only electric potential applied to electrode carrying current to be rectified, amplified, oscillated, or switched (e.g., two terminal device) (epo)

37
257/E51.011

Comprising organic/inorganic heterojunction (epo)

33
257/E51.01

Comprising organic/organic junction (e.g., heterojunction) (epo)

27
257/E51.009

Comprising schottky junction (epo)

19
257/E51.012

Radiation-sensitive organic solid-state device (epo)

128
257/E51.014

Comprising bulk heterojunction (epo)

41
257/E51.017

Comprising organic semiconductor-organic semiconductor heterojunction (epo)

75
257/E51.015

Comprising organic/inorganic heterojunction (epo)

34
257/E51.016

Majority carrier device using sensitization of wide band gap semiconductor (e.g., tio 2 ) (epo)

41
257/E51.013

Metal-organic semiconductor-metal device (epo)

44
257/E23.001

Packaging, interconnects, and markings for semiconductor or other solid-state devices (epo)

305
257/E23.01

Arrangements for conducting electric current to or from solid-state body in operation, e.g., leads, terminal arrangements (epo)

605
257/E23.012

Consisting of lead-in layers inseparably applied to semiconductor body (epo)

99
257/E23.014

Beam leads (epo)

81
257/E23.013

Bridge structure with air gap (epo)

149
257/E23.019

Consisting of layered constructions comprising conductive layers and insulating layers, e.g., planar contacts (epo)

939
257/E23.02

Bonding areas, e.g., pads (epo)

1264
257/E23.021

Bump or ball contacts (epo)

2068
257/E23.022

Overhang structure (epo)

39
257/E23.016

For devices consisting of semiconductor layers on insulating or semi-insulating substrates, e.g., silicon on sapphire devices, i.e., sos (epo)

89
257/E23.017

Materials (epo)

97
257/E23.018

Conductive organic material or pastes, e.g., conductive adhesives, inks (epo)

140
257/E23.015

Pads with extended contours, e.g., grid structure, branch structure, finger structure (epo)

329
257/E23.023

Consisting of soldered or bonded constructions (epo)

391
257/E23.026

Bases or plates or solder therefor (epo)

132
257/E23.028

Characterized by material (epo)

80
257/E23.03

Carbon (epo)

33
257/E23.029

Semiconductor (epo)

11
257/E23.027

Having heterogeneous or anisotropic structure (epo)

52
257/E23.031

Lead frames or other flat leads (epo)

509
257/E23.032

Additional leads (epo)

88
257/E23.033

Additional leads being bump or wire (epo)

163
257/E23.035

Additional leads being multilayer (epo)

45
257/E23.034

Additional leads being tape carrier or flat leads (epo)

159
257/E23.036

Additional leads being wiring board (epo)

199
257/E23.052

Assembly of semiconductor devices on lead frame (epo)

663
257/E23.058

Battery in combination with lead frame (epo)

26
257/E23.057

Capacitor integral with or on lead frame (epo)

117
257/E23.037

Characterized by die pad (epo)

557
257/E23.039

Chip-on-leads or leads-on-chip techniques, i.e., inner lead fingers being used as die pad (epo)

1086
257/E23.04

Having bonding material between chip and die pad (epo)

227
257/E23.038

Insulative substrate being used as die pad, e.g., ceramic, plastic (epo)

76
257/E23.053

Characterized by materials of lead frames or layers thereon (epo)

123
257/E23.054

Metallic layers on lead frames (epo)

309
257/E23.055

Consisting of thin flexible metallic tape with or without film carrier (epo)

539
257/E23.043

Geometry of lead frame (epo)

719
257/E23.046

Cross-section geometry (epo)

410
257/E23.047

Characterized by bent parts (epo)

256
257/E23.048

Bent parts being outer leads (epo)

236
257/E23.045

Deformation absorbing parts in lead frame plane, e.g., meanderline shape (epo)

73
257/E23.044

For devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching, capacitors, or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier (epo)

451
257/E23.049

Insulating layers on lead frame, e.g., bridging members (epo)

213
257/E23.05

Side rails of lead frame, e.g., with perforations, sprocket holes (epo)

52
257/E23.056

Insulating layers on lead frames (epo)

86
257/E23.041

Multilayer (epo)

94
257/E23.059

Oscillators in combination with lead frame (epo)

25
257/E23.042

Plurality of lead frames mounted in one device (epo)

213
257/E23.051

Specifically adapted to facilitate heat dissipation (epo)

320
257/E23.06

Leads, i.e., metallizations or lead frames on insulating substrates, e.g., chip carriers (epo)

256
257/E23.068

Additional leads joined to metallizations on insulating substrate, e.g., pins, bumps, wires, flat leads (epo)

863
257/E23.069

Spherical bumps on substrate for external connection, e.g., ball grid arrays (bga) (epo)

1601
257/E23.072

Characterized by materials (epo)

227
257/E23.074

Carbon, e.g., fullerenes (epo)

23
257/E23.075

Conductive materials containing organic materials or pastes, e.g., for thick films (epo)

332
257/E23.073

Conductive materials containing semiconductor material (epo)

17
257/E23.076

Conductive materials containing superconducting material (epo)

32
257/E23.077

Materials of insulating layers or coatings (epo)

429
257/E23.063

Chip support structure consisting of plurality of insulating substrates (epo)

313
257/E23.065

Flexible insulating substrates (epo)

758
257/E23.064

For flat cards, e.g., credit cards (epo)

229
257/E23.07

Geometry or layout (epo)

879
257/E23.071

For devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching, capacitors, or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier (epo)

41
257/E23.066

Lead frames fixed on or encapsulated in insulating substrates (epo)

356
257/E23.061

Leads being also applied on sidewalls or bottom of substrate, e.g., leadless packages for surface mounting (epo)

371
257/E23.062

Multilayer substrates (epo)

622
257/E23.067

Via connections through substrates, e.g., pins going through substrate, coaxial cables (epo)

1370
257/E23.024

Wire-like arrangements or pins or rods (epo)

295
257/E23.025

Characterized by materials of wires or their coatings (epo)

158
257/E23.078

Flexible arrangements, e.g., pressure contacts without soldering (epo)

478
257/E23.079

For integrated circuit devices, e.g., power bus, number of leads (epo)

952
257/E23.011

Internal lead connections, e.g., via connections, feedthrough structures (epo)

1161
257/E23.141

Arrangements for conducting electric current within device in operation from one component to another, interconnections, e.g., wires, lead frames (epo)

551
257/E23.142

Including external interconnections consisting of multilayer structure of conductive and insulating layers inseparably formed on semiconductor body (epo)

514
257/E23.144

Capacitive arrangements or effects of, or between wiring layers (epo)

860
257/E23.154

Characterized by materials (epo)

71
257/E23.155

Conductive materials (epo)

17
257/E23.157

Based on metals, e.g., alloys, metal silicides (epo)

97
257/E23.158

Principal metal being aluminum (epo)

54
257/E23.16

Additional layers associated with aluminum layers, e.g., adhesion, barrier, cladding layers (epo)

726
257/E23.159

Aluminum alloys (epo)

116
257/E23.161

Principal metal being copper (epo)

230
257/E23.162

Principal metal being noble metal, e.g., gold (epo)

150
257/E23.163

Principal metal being refractory metal (epo)

224
257/E23.165

Containing carbon, e.g., fullerenes (epo)

46
257/E23.166

Containing conductive organic materials or pastes, e.g., conductive adhesives, inks (epo)

71
257/E23.164

Containing semiconductor material, e.g., polysilicon (epo)

279
257/E23.156

Containing superconducting materials (epo)

40
257/E23.167

Insulating materials (epo)

1149
257/E23.143

Crossover interconnections (epo)

122
257/E23.151

Geometry or layout of interconnection structure (epo)

735
257/E23.153

Arrangements of power or ground buses (epo)

386
257/E23.152

Cross-sectional geometry (epo)

378
257/E23.145

Via connections in multilevel interconnection structure (epo)

1514
257/E23.146

With adaptable interconnections (epo)

230
257/E23.147

Comprising antifuses, i.e., connections having their state changed from nonconductive to conductive (epo)

579
257/E23.148

Change of state resulting from use of external beam, e.g., laser beam or ion beam (epo)

79
257/E23.149

Comprising fuses, i.e., connections having their state changed from conductive to nonconductive (epo)

562
257/E23.15

Change of state resulting from use of external beam, e.g., laser beam or ion beam (epo)

454
257/E23.168

Including internal interconnections, e.g., cross-under constructions (epo)

203
257/E23.169

Interconnection structure between plurality of semiconductor chips being formed on or in insulating substrates (epo)

429
257/E23.171

Adaptable interconnections, e.g., for engineering changes (epo)

234
257/E23.172

Assembly of plurality of insulating substrates (epo)

434
257/E23.178

Chips being integrally enclosed by interconnect and support structures (epo)

442
257/E23.174

Conductive vias through substrate with or without pins, e.g., buried coaxial conductors (epo)

460
257/E23.17

Crossover interconnections, e.g., bridge stepovers (epo)

94
257/E23.177

Flexible insulating substrates (epo)

315
257/E23.176

For flat cards, e.g., credit cards (epo)

83
257/E23.175

Geometry or layout of interconnection structure (epo)

287
257/E23.173

Multilayer substrates (epo)

454
257/E23.08

Arrangements for cooling, heating, ventilating or temperature compensation; temperature-sensing arrangements (epo)

399
257/E23.081

Arrangements for heating (epo)

81
257/E23.095

Complete device being wholly immersed in fluid other than air (epo)

32
257/E23.096

Fluid being liquefied gas, e.g., in cryogenic vessel (epo)

56
257/E23.082

Cooling arrangements using peltier effect (epo)

156
257/E23.087

Fillings or auxiliary members in containers or encapsulations selected or arranged to facilitate heating or cooling (epo)

218
257/E23.09

Auxiliary members in containers characterized by their shape, e.g., pistons (epo)

266
257/E23.092

Auxiliary members in encapsulations (epo)

850
257/E23.091

Bellows (epo)

40
257/E23.093

In combination with jet impingement (epo)

31
257/E23.094

Pistons, e.g., spring-loaded members (epo)

115
257/E23.088

Cooling by change of state, e.g., use of heat pipes (epo)

654
257/E23.089

By melting or evaporation of solids (epo)

71
257/E23.097

Involving transfer of heat by flowing fluids (epo)

43
257/E23.099

By flowing gases, e.g., air (epo)

772
257/E23.1

Jet impingement (epo)

74
257/E23.098

By flowing liquids (epo)

623
257/E23.083

Mountings or securing means for detachable cooling or heating arrangements; fixed by friction, plugs or springs (epo)

106
257/E23.086

Snap-on arrangements, e.g., clips (epo)

738
257/E23.084

With bolts or screws (epo)

494
257/E23.085

For stacked arrangements of plurality of semiconductor devices (epo)

268
257/E23.101

Selection of materials, or shaping, to facilitate cooling or heating, e.g., heat sinks (epo)

782
257/E23.11

Cooling facilitated by selection of materials for device (or materials for thermal expansion adaptation, e.g., carbon) (epo)

93
257/E23.113

Ceramic materials or glass (epo)

92
257/E23.111

Diamond (epo)

188
257/E23.112

Having heterogeneous or anisotropic structure, e.g., powder or fibers in matrix, wire mesh, porous structures (epo)

295
257/E23.102

Cooling facilitated by shape of device (epo)

362
257/E23.104

Characterized by shape of housing (epo)

305
257/E23.103

Foil-like cooling fins or heat sinks (epo)

495
257/E23.105

Wire-like or pin-like cooling fins or heat sinks (epo)

530
257/E23.106

Laminates or multilayers, e.g., direct bond copper ceramic substrates (epo)

389
257/E23.109

Metallic materials (epo)

166
257/E23.107

Organic materials with or without thermo-conductive filler (epo)

292
257/E23.108

Semiconductor materials (epo)

31
257/E23.18

Containers; seals (epo)

89
257/E23.191

Characterized by material of container or its electrical properties (epo)

68
257/E23.192

Material being electrical insulator, e.g., glass (epo)

84
257/E23.193

Characterized by material or arrangement of seals between parts, e.g., between cap and base of container or between leads and walls of container (epo)

739
257/E23.181

Characterized by shape of container or parts, e.g., caps, walls (epo)

367
257/E23.183

Container being hollow construction and having conductive base as mounting as well as lead for the semiconductor body (epo)

28
257/E23.187

Another lead being formed by cover plate parallel to base plate, e.g., sandwich type (epo)

216
257/E23.185

Other leads being parallel to base (epo)

88
257/E23.186

Other leads being perpendicular to base (epo)

65
257/E23.184

Other leads having insulating passage through base (epo)

39
257/E23.188

Container being hollow construction and having insulating or insulated base as mounting for semiconductor body (epo)

73
257/E23.189

Leads being parallel to base (epo)

457
257/E23.19

Leads having passage through base (epo)

206
257/E23.182

Container being hollow construction having no base used as mounting for semiconductor body (epo)

40
257/E23.002

Details not otherwise provided for, e.g., protection against moisture (epo)

414
257/E23.116

Encapsulations, e.g., encapsulating layers, coatings, e.g., for protection (epo)

241
257/E23.123

Characterized by arrangement or shape (epo)

94
257/E23.124

Device being completely enclosed (epo)

1221
257/E23.126

Double encapsulation or coating and encapsulation (epo)

332
257/E23.128

Encapsulation having cavity (epo)

164
257/E23.127

Sealing arrangements between parts, e.g., adhesion promoters (epo)

132
257/E23.125

Substrate forming part of encapsulation (epo)

749
257/E23.129

Partial encapsulation or coating (epo)

194
257/E23.133

Coating also covering sidewalls of semiconductor body (epo)

99
257/E23.132

Coating being directly applied to semiconductor body, e.g., passivation layer (epo)

407
257/E23.13

Coating being foil (epo)

61
257/E23.131

Coating or filling in grooves made in semiconductor body (epo)

66
257/E23.134

Multilayer coating (epo)

154
257/E23.117

Characterized by material, e.g., carbon (epo)

69
257/E23.119

Organic, e.g., plastic, epoxy (epo)

629
257/E23.121

Containing filler (epo)

199
257/E23.12

Organo-silicon compounds, e.g., silicone (epo)

131
257/E23.118

Oxides or nitrides or carbides, e.g., ceramics, glass (epo)

227
257/E23.122

Semiconductor material, e.g., amorphous silicon (epo)

42
257/E23.135

Fillings or auxiliary members in containers or encapsulations, e.g., centering rings (epo)

260
257/E23.136

Fillings characterized by material, its physical or chemical properties, or its arrangement within complete device (epo)

28
257/E23.138

Gaseous at normal operating temperature of device (epo)

18
257/E23.137

Including materials for absorbing or reacting with moisture or other undesired substances, e.g., getters (epo)

97
257/E23.139

Liquid at normal operating temperature of device (epo)

17
257/E23.14

Solid or gel at normal operating temperature of device (epo)

410
257/E23.179

Marks applied to semiconductor devices or parts, e.g., registration marks, test patterns, alignment structures, wafer maps (epo)

1492
257/E23.003

Mountings, e.g., nondetachable insulating substrates (epo)

124
257/E23.005

Characterized by material or its electrical properties (epo)

52
257/E23.009

Ceramic or glass substrates (epo)

484
257/E23.006

Metallic substrates having insulating layers (epo)

276
257/E23.007

Organic substrates, e.g., plastic (epo)

260
257/E23.008

Semiconductor insulating substrates (epo)

167
257/E23.004

Characterized by shape (epo)

1051
257/E23.194

Protection against mechanical damage (epo)

305
257/E23.114

Protection against radiation, e.g., light, electromagnetic waves (epo)

803
257/E23.115

Against alpha rays (epo)

105
257/618

Physical configuration of semiconductor (e.g., mesa, bevel, groove, etc.)

741
257/622

Groove

800
257/623

Mesa structure (e.g., including undercut or stepped mesa configuration or having constant slope taper)

542
257/626

Combined with passivating coating

206
257/625

Semiconductor body including mesa is intimately bonded to thick electrical and/or thermal conductor member of larger lateral extent than semiconductor body (e.g., "plated heat sink" microwave diode)

140
257/624

With low resistance ohmic connection means along exposed mesa edge (e.g., contact or heavily doped region along exposed mesa to reduce "skin effect" losses in microwave diode)

96
257/621

With electrical contact in hole in semiconductor (e.g., lead extends through semiconductor body)

640
257/620

With peripheral feature due to separation of smaller semiconductor chip from larger wafer (e.g., scribe region, or means to prevent edge effects such as leakage current at peripheral chip separation area)

798
257/627

With specified crystal plane or axis

513
257/628

Major crystal plane or axis other than (100), (110), or (111) (e.g., (731) axis, crystal plane several degrees from (100) toward (011), etc.)

317
257/619

With thin active central semiconductor portion surrounded by thicker inactive shoulder (e.g., for mechanical support)

200
257/658

Plate type rectifier array

46
257/917

Plural dopants of same conductivity type in same region

39
257/905

Plural dram cells share common contact or common trench

146
257/929

Pn junction isolated integrated circuit with isolation walls having minimum dopant concentration at intermediate depth in epitaxial layer (e.g., diffused from both surfaces of epitaxial layer)

23
257/41

Point contact device

75
257/914

Polysilicon containing oxygen, nitrogen, or carbon (e.g., sipos)

83
257/E21.001

Processes or apparatus adapted for manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid-state devices or of parts thereof (epo)

541
257/E21.532

Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of plurality of solid-state components formed in or on common substrate or of parts thereof; manufacture of integrated circuit devices or of parts thereof (epo)

71
257/E21.705

Assembly of devices consisting of solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate; assembly of integrated circuit devices (epo)

725
257/E21.536

Manufacture of specific parts of devices (epo)

72
257/E21.575

Interconnections, comprising conductors and dielectrics, for carrying current between separate components within device (epo)

875
257/E21.576

Characterized by formation and post treatment of dielectrics, e.g., planarizing (epo)

2085
257/E21.584

Barrier, adhesion or liner layer (epo)

2616
257/E21.589

By forming conductive members before deposition of protective insulating material, e.g., pillars, studs (epo)

612
257/E21.577

By forming via holes (epo)

2177
257/E21.579

For "dual damascene" type structures (epo)

1763
257/E21.578

Tapered via holes (epo)

493
257/E21.582

Characterized by formation and post treatment of conductors, e.g., patterning (epo)

1556
257/E21.581

Dielectric comprising air gaps (epo)

539
257/E21.585

Filling of holes, grooves, vias or trenches with conductive material (epo)

2071
257/E21.587

By deposition over sacrificial masking layer, e.g., lift-off (epo)

162
257/E21.586

By selective deposition of conductive material in vias, e.g., selective chemical vapor deposition on semiconductor material, plating (epo)

641
257/E21.588

Reflowing or applying pressure to fill contact hole, e.g., to remove voids (epo)

236
257/E21.59

Local interconnects; local pads (epo)

1062
257/E21.591

Modifying pattern or conductivity of conductive members, e.g., formation of alloys, reduction of contact resistances (epo)

337
257/E21.592

By altering solid-state characteristics of conductive members, e.g., fuses, in situ oxidation, laser melting (epo)

486
257/E21.593

By forming silicide of refractory metal (epo)

333
257/E21.594

By using super-conducting material (epo)

16
257/E21.595

Modifying pattern (epo)

106
257/E21.596

Using laser, e.g., laser cutting, laser direct writing, laser repair (epo)

271
257/E21.583

Planarization; smoothing (epo)

781
257/E21.58

Planarizing dielectric (epo)

592
257/E21.597

Formed through semiconductor substrate (epo)

628
257/E21.54

Making of isolation regions between components (epo)

286
257/E21.573

Air gaps (epo)

331
257/E21.543

Between components manufactured in active substrate comprising group ii-vi compound semiconductor (epo)

1
257/E21.542

Between components manufactured in active substrate comprising group iii-v compound semiconductor (epo)

126
257/E21.541

Between components manufactured in active substrate comprising sic compound semiconductor (epo)

31
257/E21.545

Dielectric regions, e.g., epic dielectric isolation, locos; trench refilling techniques, soi technology, use of channel stoppers (epo)

465
257/E21.56

Dielectric isolation using epic technique, i.e., epitaxial passivated integrated circuit (epo)

183
257/E21.552

Using local oxidation of silicon, e.g., locos, swami, silo (epo)

559
257/E21.553

In region recessed from surface, e.g., in recess, groove, tub or trench region (epo)

217
257/E21.555

Recessed region having shape other than rectangular, e.g., rounded or oblique shape (epo)

96
257/E21.554

Using auxiliary pillars in recessed region, e.g., to form locos over extended areas (epo)

44
257/E21.556

Introducing electrical inactive or active impurities in local oxidation region, e.g., to alter locos oxide growth characteristics or for additional isolation purpose (epo)

117
257/E21.557

Introducing electrical active impurities in local oxidation region solely for forming channel stoppers (epo)

237
257/E21.558

Introducing both types of electrical active impurities in local oxidation region solely for forming channel stoppers, e.g., for isolation of complementary doped regions (epo)

108
257/E21.559

With plurality of successive local oxidation steps (epo)

96
257/E21.571

Using selective deposition of single crystal silicon, i.e., seg technique (epo)

96
257/E21.561

Using semiconductor or insulator technology, i.e., soi technology (epo)

454
257/E21.564

Soi together with lateral isolation, e.g., using local oxidation of silicon, or dielectric or polycrystalline material refilled trench or air gap isolation regions, e.g., completely isolated semiconductor islands (epo)

883
257/E21.567

Using bonding technique (epo)

522
257/E21.569

Using silicon etch back technique, e.g., besoi, eltran (epo)

138
257/E21.568

With separation/delamination along ion implanted layer, e.g., "smart-cut", "unibond" (epo)

543
257/E21.57

With separation/delamination along porous layer (epo)

215
257/E21.565

Using full isolation by porous oxide silicon, i.e., fipos technique (epo)

33
257/E21.566

Using lateral overgrowth technique, i.e., elo techniques (epo)

78
257/E21.562

Using selective deposition of single crystal silicon, e.g., selective epitaxial growth (seg) (epo)

102
257/E21.563

Using silicon implanted buried insulating layers, e.g., oxide layers, i.e., simox technique (epo)

209
257/E21.546

Using trench refilling with dielectric materials (epo)

1430
257/E21.548

Concurrent filling of plurality of trenches having different trench shape or dimension, e.g., rectangular and v-shaped trenches, wide and narrow trenches, shallow and deep trenches (epo)

739
257/E21.547

Dielectric material being obtained by full chemical transformation of nondielectric materials, such as polycrystalline silicon, metals (epo)

116
257/E21.551

Introducing impurities in trench side or bottom walls, e.g., for forming channel stoppers or alter isolation behavior (epo)

379
257/E21.549

Of trenches having shape other than rectangular or v shape, e.g., rounded corners, oblique or rounded trench walls (epo)

598
257/E21.55

Trench shape altered by local oxidation of silicon process step, e.g., trench corner rounding by locos (epo)

246
257/E21.574

Isolation by field effect (epo)

139
257/E21.544

Pn junction isolation (epo)

515
257/E21.572

Polycrystalline semiconductor regions (epo)

512
257/E21.537

Making of localized buried regions, e.g., buried collector layer, internal connection, substrate contacts (epo)

347
257/E21.539

For group iii-v compound semiconductor integrated circuits (epo)

12
257/E21.538

Making of internal connections, substrate contacts (epo)

440
257/E21.598

Manufacture or treatment of devices consisting of plurality of solid-state components or integrated circuits formed in, or on, common substrate (epo)

88
257/E21.599

With subsequent division of substrate into plural individual devices (epo)

892
257/E21.6

Involving separation of active layers from substrate (epo)

58
257/E21.601

Leaving reusable substrate, e.g., epitaxial lift-off process (epo)

23
257/E21.7

Substrate is nonsemiconductor body, e.g., insulating body (epo)

71
257/E21.701

Substrate is sapphire, e.g., silicon on sapphire structure (sos) (epo)

7
257/E21.703

Substrate is semiconductor body (epo)

2706
257/E21.704

Substrate is nonsemiconductor body, e.g., insulating body (epo)

183
257/E21.702

To produce devices, each consisting of single circuit element (epo)

11
257/E21.602

To produce devices each consisting of plurality of components, e.g., integrated circuits (epo)

183
257/E21.606

Substrate being semiconductor, using silicon technology (epo)

60
257/E21.608

Bipolar technology (epo)

202
257/E21.611

Complementary devices, e.g., complementary transistors (epo)

50
257/E21.612

Complementary vertical transistors (epo)

98
257/E21.609

Comprising combination of vertical and lateral transistors (epo)

43
257/E21.61

Comprising merged transistor logic or integrated injection logic (epo)

67
257/E21.613

Memory structures (epo)

139
257/E21.695

Combination of bipolar and field-effect technologies (epo)

58
257/E21.696

Bipolar and mos technologies (epo)

796
257/E21.615

Field-effect technology (epo)

44
257/E21.616

Mis technology (epo)

176
257/E21.617

Combination of charge coupled devices, i.e., ccd or bbd (epo)

112
257/E21.631

Combination of enhancement and depletion transistors (epo)

63
257/E21.632

Complementary field-effect transistors, e.g., cmos (epo)

758
257/E21.641

Interconnection or wiring or contact manufacturing related aspects (epo)

266
257/E21.642

Isolation region manufacturing related aspects, e.g., to avoid interaction of isolation region with adjacent structure (epo)

357
257/E21.633

With particular manufacturing method of channel, e.g., channel implants, halo or pocket implants, or channel materials (epo)

602
257/E21.635

With particular manufacturing method of gate conductor, e.g., particular materials, shapes (epo)

187
257/E21.637

Gate conductors with different gate conductor materials or different gate conductor implants, e.g., dual gate structures (epo)

524
257/E21.638

Gate conductors with different shapes, lengths or dimensions (epo)

124
257/E21.636

Silicided or salicided gate conductors (epo)

278
257/E21.639

With particular manufacturing method of gate insulating layer, e.g., different gate insulating layer thicknesses, particular gate insulator materials or particular gate insulator implants (epo)

372
257/E21.64

With particular manufacturing method of gate sidewall spacers, e.g., double spacers, particular spacer material or shape (epo)

368
257/E21.634

With particular manufacturing method of source or drain, e.g., specific s or d implants or silicided s or d structures or raised s or d structures (epo)

699
257/E21.643

With particular manufacturing method of vertical transistor structures, i.e., with channel vertical to substrate surface (epo)

94
257/E21.646

Dynamic random access memory structures (dram) (epo)

560
257/E21.647

Characterized by type of capacitor (epo)

357
257/E21.648

Capacitor stacked over transfer transis tor (epo)

1993
257/E21.65

Capacitor extending under transfer transistor area (epo)

63
257/E21.651

Capacitor in u- or v-shaped trench in substrate (epo)

495
257/E21.652

In combination with vertical transistor (epo)

299
257/E21.653

Making connection between transistor and capacitor, e.g., buried strap (epo)

193
257/E21.649

Making connection between transistor and capacitor, e.g., plug (epo)

563
257/E21.656

Characterized by data lines (epo)

132
257/E21.657

Making bit line (epo)

359
257/E21.658

Making bit line contact (epo)

497
257/E21.659

Making word line (epo)

189
257/E21.654

Characterized by type of transistor; manufacturing of transistor (epo)

665
257/E21.655

Transistor in u- or v-shaped trench in substrate (epo)

321
257/E21.66

Simultaneous fabrication of periphery and memory cells (epo)

825
257/E21.662

Read-only memory structures (rom), i.e., nonvolatile memory structures (epo)

170
257/E21.679

Charge trapping insulator nonvolatile memory structures (epo)

624
257/E21.68

Electrically programmable (eprom), i.e., floating gate memory structures (epo)

506
257/E21.681

With conductive layer as control gate (epo)

72
257/E21.682

With source and drain on same level and without cell select transistor (epo)

1521
257/E21.683

Simultaneous fabrication of periphery and memory cells (epo)

109
257/E21.684

Including one type of peripheral fet (epo)

62
257/E21.685

Control gate layer used for peripheral fet (epo)

100
257/E21.686

Intergate dielectric layer used for peripheral fet (epo)

40
257/E21.687

Floating gate layer used for peripheral fet (epo)

57
257/E21.688

Floating gate dielectric layer used for peripheral fet (epo)

164
257/E21.689

Including different types of peripheral fets (epo)

387
257/E21.69

With source and drain on same level and with cell select transistor (epo)

273
257/E21.691

Simultaneous fabrication of periphery and memory cells (epo)

124
257/E21.692

With source and drain on different levels, e.g., sloping channel (epo)

42
257/E21.693

For vertical channel (epo)

145
257/E21.694

With doped region as control gate (epo)

99
257/E21.663

Ferroelectric nonvolatile memory structures (epo)

141
257/E21.664

With ferroelectric capacitor (epo)

530
257/E21.665

Magnetic nonvolatile memory structures, e.g., mram (epo)

486
257/E21.666

Prom (epo)

42
257/E21.667

Rom only (epo)

25
257/E21.678

Simultaneous fabrication of periphery and memory cells (epo)

49
257/E21.677

With fets on different levels, e.g., 3d rom (epo)

22
257/E21.676

With source and drain on different levels, e.g., vertical channel (epo)

56
257/E21.668

With source and drain on same level, e.g., lateral channel (epo)

31
257/E21.671

Doping programmed, e.g., mask rom (epo)

63
257/E21.672

Entire channel doping programmed (epo)

209
257/E21.673

Source or drain doping programmed (epo)

70
257/E21.67

Gate contact programmed (epo)

22
257/E21.675

Gate dielectric programmed, e.g., different thickness (epo)

42
257/E21.674

Gate programmed, e.g., different gate material or no gate (epo)

17
257/E21.669

Source or drain contact programmed (epo)

34
257/E21.661

Static random access memory structures (sram) (epo)

876
257/E21.627

Interconnection or wiring or contact manufacturing related aspects (epo)

264
257/E21.628

Isolation region manufacturing related aspects, e.g., to avoid interaction of isolation region with adjacent structure (epo)

361
257/E21.645

Memory structures (epo)

504
257/E21.618

With particular manufacturing method of channel, e.g., channel implants, halo or pocket implants, or channel materials (epo)

259
257/E21.621

With particular manufacturing method of gate conductor, e.g., particular materials, shapes (epo)

187
257/E21.623

Gate conductors with different gate conductor materials or different gate conductor implants, e.g., dual gate structures (epo)

191
257/E21.624

Gate conductors with different shapes, lengths or dimensions (epo)

146
257/E21.622

Silicided or salicided gate conductors (epo)

144
257/E21.625

With particular manufacturing method of gate insulating layer, e.g., different gate insulating layer thicknesses, particular gate insulator materials or particular gate insulator implants (epo)

557
257/E21.626

With particular manufacturing method of gate sidewall spacers, e.g., double spacers, particular spacer material or shape (epo)

341
257/E21.619

With particular manufacturing method of source or drain, e.g., specific s or d implants or silicided s or d structures or raised s or d structures (epo)

388
257/E21.62

Manufacturing common source or drain regions between plurality of conductor-insulator-semiconductor structures (epo)

207
257/E21.629

With particular manufacturing method of vertical transistor structures, i.e., with channel vertical to substrate surface (epo)

189
257/E21.63

With particular manufacturing method of wells or tubs, e.g., twin tubs, high energy well implants, buried implanted layers for lateral isolation (billi) (epo)

120
257/E21.644

With particular manufacturing method of wells or tubs, e.g., twin tubs, high energy well implants, buried implanted layers for lateral isolation (billi) (epo)

334
257/E21.614

Three-dimensional integrated circuits stacked in different levels (epo)

438
257/E21.698

Substrate is group ii-vi semiconductor (epo)

11
257/E21.697

Substrate is group iii-v semiconductor (epo)

215
257/E21.699

Substrate is semiconductor other than diamond, sic, si, group iii-v compound, or group ii-vi compound (epo)

17
257/E21.603

Substrate is semiconductor, using combination of semiconductor substrates, e.g., diamond, sic, si, group iii-v compound, and/or group ii-vi compound semiconductor substrates (epo)

60
257/E21.604

Substrate is semiconductor, using diamond technology (epo)

1
257/E21.605

Substrate is semiconductor, using sic technology (epo)

35
257/E21.533

Of thick- or thin-film circuits or parts thereof (epo)

56
257/E21.534

Of thick-film circuits or parts thereof (epo)

48
257/E21.535

Of thin-film circuits or parts thereof (epo)

100
257/E21.002

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor device (epo)

400
257/E21.04

Device having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g., pn junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer (epo)

82
257/E21.499

Assembling semiconductor devices, e.g., packaging , including mounting, encapsulating, or treatment of packaged semiconductor (epo)

1471
257/E21.506

Attaching or detaching leads or other conductive members, to be used for carrying current to or from device in operation (epo)

325
257/E21.507

Formation of contacts to semiconductor by use of metal layers separated by insulating layers, e.g., self-aligned contacts to source/drain or emitter/base (epo)

1494
257/E21.508

Forming solder bumps (epo)

1929
257/E21.518

Involving application of mechanical vibration, e.g., ultrasonic vibration (epo)

404
257/E21.519

Involving application of pressure, e.g., thermo-compression bonding (epo)

325
257/E21.516

Involving automation techniques using film carriers (epo)

236
257/E21.509

Involving soldering or alloying process, e.g., soldering wires (epo)

353
257/E21.511

Mounting on insulating member provided with metallic leads, e.g., flip-chip mounting, conductive die mounting (epo)

1691
257/E21.512

Right-up bonding (epo)

537
257/E21.51

Mounting on metallic conductive member (epo)

260
257/E21.513

Mounting on semiconductor conductive member (epo)

57
257/E21.514

Involving use of conductive adhesive (epo)

489
257/E21.517

Involving use of electron or laser beam (epo)

95
257/E21.515

Involving use of mechanical auxiliary part without use of alloying or soldering process, e.g., pressure contacts (epo)

38
257/E21.502

Encapsulation, e.g., encapsulation layer, coating (epo)

1149
257/E21.503

Encapsulation of active face of flip chip device, e.g., under filling or under encapsulation of flip-chip, encapsulation perform on chip or mounting substrate (epo)

1653
257/E21.504

Moulds (epo)

1093
257/E21.505

Insulative mounting semiconductor device on support (epo)

815
257/E21.5

Mounting semiconductor bodies in container (epo)

119
257/E21.501

Providing fillings in container, e.g., gas fillings (epo)

41
257/E21.041

Device having semiconductor body comprising carbon, e.g., diamond, diamond-like carbon (epo)

60
257/E21.044

Changing their shape, e.g., forming recess (epo)

9
257/E21.045

Making electrode (epo)

10
257/E21.048

Conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrode, e.g., mis contacts (epo)

17
257/E21.046

Ohmic electrode (epo)

36
257/E21.047

Schottky electrode (epo)

32
257/E21.042

Making n- or p-doped regions (epo)

53
257/E21.043

Using ion im plantation (epo)

76
257/E21.049

Multistep processes for manufacture of device whose active layer, e.g., base, channel, comprises semiconducting carbon, e.g., diamond, diamond-like carbon (epo)

35
257/E21.05

Device controllable only by electric current supplied or the electric potential applied to electrode which does not carry current to be rectified, amplified, or switched, e.g., three-terminal devices such as source, drain, and gate terminals; emitter, base, collector terminals (epo)

20
257/E21.051

Field-effect transistor (epo)

225
257/E21.052

Device controllable only by variation of electric current supplied or the electric potential applied to electrodes carrying current to be rectified, amplified, oscillated, or switched, e.g., two-terminal device (epo)

7
257/E21.053

Diode (epo)

98
257/E21.078

Device having semiconductor body comprising cuprous oxide (cu 2 o) or cuprous iodide (cui) (epo)

21
257/E21.079

Preparation of substrate, preliminary treatment oxidation of substrate, reduction treatment (epo)

24
257/E21.083

Application of specified conductive layer (epo)

1
257/E21.082

Oxidation and subsequent heat treatment of substrate (epo)

31
257/E21.08

Preliminary treatment of foundation plate (epo)

5
257/E21.081

Reduction of copper oxide, treatment of oxide layer (epo)

9
257/E21.084

Treatment of complete device, e.g., electroforming, heat treating (epo)

12
257/E21.085

Device having semiconductor body comprising group iv elements or group iii-v compounds with or without impurities, e.g., doping materials (epo)

114
257/E21.154

Alloying of impurity material, e.g., doping material, electrode material, with a semiconductor body (epo)

117
257/E21.155

Alloying of doping material with group iii-v compound (epo)

16
257/E21.156

Alloying of electrode material (epo)

21
257/E21.157

With group iii-v compound (epo)

11
257/E21.09

Deposition of semiconductor material on substrate, e.g., epitaxial growth, solid phase epitaxy (epo)

677
257/E21.119

Characterized by the substrate (epo)

164
257/E21.122

Bonding of semiconductor wafer to insulating substrate or to semic onducting substrate using an intermediate insulating layer (epo)

620
257/E21.123

Substrate is crystalline semiconductor material, e.g., lattice adaptation, heteroepitaxy (epo)

158
257/E21.128

Carbon on a noncarbon semiconductor substrate (epo)

27
257/E21.125

Defect and dislocati on suppression due to lattice mismatch, e.g., lattice adaptation (epo)

348
257/E21.126

Group iii-v compound on dissimilar group iii-v compound (epo)

166
257/E21.127

Group iii-v compound on si or ge (epo)

301
257/E21.124

Heteroepitaxy (epo)

30
257/E21.12

Characterized by the post-treatment used to control the interface betw een substrate and epitaxial layer, e.g., ion implantation followed by annealing (epo)

103
257/E21.129

Group iva, e.g., si, c, ge on group ivb, e.g., ti, zr (epo)

135
257/E21.121

Substrate is crystalline insulating material, e.g., sapphire (epo)

280
257/E21.13

The substrate is crystalline conducting material, e.g., metallic silicide (epo)

40
257/E21.133

Epitaxial re-growth of non-monocrystalline semiconductor material, e.g., lateral epitaxy by seeded solidific ation, solid-state crystallization, solid-state graphoepitaxy, explosive crystallization, grain growth in polycrystalline material (epo)

803
257/E21.134

Using a coherent energy beam, e.g., laser or electron beam (epo)

787
257/E21.131

Selective epilaxial growth, e.g., simultaneous deposition of mono- and non-mono semiconductor material (epo)

682
257/E21.132

Preparation of substrate for selective epitaxy (epo)

52
257/E21.114

Using liquid deposition (epo)

78
257/E21.117

Epitaxial deposition of group iii-v compound (epo)

156
257/E21.118

Deposition on a semiconductor substrate not being an group iii-v compound (epo)

12
257/E21.115

Epitaxial deposition of group iv elements, e.g., si, ge, c (epo)

71
257/E21.116

Deposition on a semiconductor substrate which is different from the semiconductor material being deposited, i.e., formation of heterojunction (epo)

17
257/E21.091

Using physical deposition, e.g., vacuum deposition, sputtering (epo)

93
257/E21.096

Deposition of diamond (epo)

9
257/E21.097

Epitaxial deposition of group iii-v compound (epo)

204
257/E21.099

Deposition on insulating or metallic substrate (epo)

19
257/E21.098

Deposition on semiconductor substrate not being an group iii-v compound (epo)

30
257/E21.1

Doping during epitaxial deposition (epo)

30
257/E21.092

Epitaxial deposition of group iv element, e.g., si, ge (epo)

116
257/E21.094

Deposition on insulating or meta llic substrate (epo)

61
257/E21.093

Deposition on semiconductor substrate being different from deposited semiconductor material; i.e., formation of heterojunctions (epo)

41
257/E21.095

Epitaxial deposition of diamond (epo)

9
257/E21.101

Using reduction or decomposition of gaseous compound yielding solid condensate, i.e., chemical deposition (epo)

536
257/E21.107

Deposition of diamond (epo)

11
257/E21.108

Epitaxial deposition of group iii-v compound (epo)

322
257/E21.112

Deposition on a semiconductor substrate not being group iii-v compound (epo)

134
257/E21.113

Deposition on an insulating or a metallic substrate (epo)

101
257/E21.11

Doping the epitaxial deposit (epo)

101
257/E21.111

Doping with transition metals to form semi-insulating layers (epo)

40
257/E21.109

Using molecular beam technique (epo)

33
257/E21.102

Epitaxial deposition of group iv elements, e.g., si, ge, c (epo)

233
257/E21.103

Deposition on a semiconductor substrate which is different from the semiconductor material being deposited, i.e., formation of heterojunctions (epo)

53
257/E21.104

Deposition on an insulating or a metallic substrate (epo)

63
257/E21.106

Doping during the epitaxial deposition (epo)

66
257/E21.105

Epitaxial deposition of diamond (epo)

17
257/E21.135

Diffusion of impurity material, e.g., doping material, electrode material, into or out of a semiconductor body, or between semiconductor regions; interactions between two or more impurities; redistribution of impurities (epo)

215
257/E21.14

Diffusion source (epo)

67
257/E21.136

From the substrate during epitaxy, e.g., autodoping; preventing or using autodoping (epo)

67
257/E21.139

Lithium-drift (epo)

3
257/E21.137

To control carrier lifetime, i.e., deep level dopant (epo)

43
257/E21.138

In group iii-v compound (epo)

11
257/E21.144

Using diffusion into or out of a s olid from or into a solid phase, e.g., a doped oxide layer (epo)

41
257/E21.152

Diffusion into or out of group iii-v compound (epo)

66
257/E21.145

Diffusion into or out of group iv semiconductor (epo)

25
257/E21.148

From or through or into an applied layer, e.g., photoresist, nitride (epo)

139
257/E21.151

Applied layer being silicon or silicide or sipos, e.g., polysilicon, porous silicon (epo)

392
257/E21.149

Applied layer is oxide, e.g., p 2 o 5 , psg, h 3 bo 3 , doped oxide (epo)

244
257/E21.15

Through the applied layer (epo)

47
257/E21.146

Using predeposition of impurities into the semiconductor surface, e.g., from gaseous phase (epo)

41
257/E21.147

By ion implantation (epo)

126
257/E21.141

Using diffusion into or out of a solid from or into a gaseous phase (epo)

153
257/E21.142

Diffusion into or out of group iii-v compound (epo)

38
257/E21.143

From or into plasma phase (epo)

144
257/E21.153

Using diffusion into or out of a solid from or into a liquid phase, e.g., alloy diffusion process (epo)

24
257/E21.086

Intermixing or interdiffusion or disordering of group iii-v heterostructures, e.g., iild (epo)

61
257/E21.087

Joining of semiconductor body for junction formation (epo)

38
257/E21.088

By direct bonding (epo)

209
257/E21.158

Manufacture of electrode on semiconductor body using process other than by epitaxial growth, diffusion of impurities, alloying of impurity materials, or radiation bombardment (epo)

416
257/E21.21

Comprising charge trapping insulator (epo)

336
257/E21.208

Comprising layer having ferroelectric properties (epo)

176
257/E21.159

Deposition of conductive or insulating material for electrode conducting electric current (epo)

162
257/E21.16

From a gas or vapor, e.g., condensation (epo)

43
257/E21.161

Of conductive layer (epo)

33
257/E21.172

On semiconductor body comprising group iii-v compound (epo)

255
257/E21.173

Deposition of schottky electrode (epo)

135
257/E21.162

On semiconductor body comprising group iv element (epo)

307
257/E21.17

By chemical means, e.g., cvd, lpcvd, pecvd, laser cvd (epo)

977
257/E21.171

Selective deposition (epo)

381
257/E21.169

By physical means, e.g., sputtering, evaporation (epo)

361
257/E21.166

Conductive layer comprising semiconducting material (epo)

664
257/E21.167

Making of side-wall contact (epo)

16
257/E21.165

Conductive layer comprising silicide (epo)

1260
257/E21.168

Conductive layer comprising transition metal, e.g., ti, w, mo (epo)

470
257/E21.163

Deposition of schottky electrode (epo)

107
257/E21.164

O layer comprising silicide (epo)

10
257/E21.174

From a liquid, e.g., electrolytic deposition (epo)

463
257/E21.175

Using an external electrical current, i.e., electro-deposition (epo)

503
257/E21.209

Making electrode structure comprising conductor-insulator-conuctor-insulator-semiconductor, e.g., gate stack for non-volatile memory (epo)

1329
257/E21.19

Making electrode structure comprising conductor-insulator-semiconductor, e.g., mis gate (epo)

232
257/E21.207

Insulator formed on nonelemental silicon semiconductor body, e.g., ge, sige, sigec (epo)

57
257/E21.191

Insulator formed on silicon semiconductor body (epo)

49
257/E21.195

Characterized by conductor (epo)

22
257/E21.205

Characterized by sectional shape, e.g., t-shape, inverted t, spacer (epo)

441
257/E21.203

Conductor layer next to insulator is metallic silicide (me si) (epo)

110
257/E21.204

Conductor layer next to insulator is non-mesi composite or compound, e.g., tin (epo)

146
257/E21.201

Conductor layer next to insulator is si or ge or c and their non-si alloys (epo)

125
257/E21.202

Conductor layer next to the insulator is single metal, e.g., ta, w, mo, al (epo)

157
257/E21.197

Final conductor layer next to insulator being silicon e.g., polysilicon, with or without impurities (epo)

267
257/E21.198

Conductor comprising at least another nonsilicon conductive layer (epo)

87
257/E21.199

Conductor comprising silicide layer formed by silicidation reaction of silicon with metal layer (epo)

507
257/E21.2

Conductor comprising metal or metallic silicide formed by deposition e.g., sputter deposition, i.e., without silicidation reaction (epo)

513
257/E21.196

Final conductor next to insulator having lateral composition or doping variation, or being formed laterally by more than one deposition step (epo)

114
257/E21.206

Lithography, isolation, or planarization-related aspects of making conductor-insulator-semiconductor structure, e.g., sub-lithography lengths; to solve problems arising at crossing with side of device isolation (epo)

490
257/E21.192

Characterized by insulator (epo)

91
257/E21.193

On single crystalline silicon (epo)

1052
257/E21.194

Characterized by treatment after formation of definitive gate conductor (epo)

258
257/E21.176

Manufacture or post-treatment of electrode having a capacitive structure, i.e., gate structure for field-effect device (epo)

48
257/E21.188

Heterojunction gate structure (epo)

3
257/E21.189

For charge-coupled device (epo)

35
257/E21.177

Mos-gate structure (epo)

80
257/E21.179

Floating or plural gate structure (epo)

302
257/E21.183

For charge-coupled device (epo)

6
257/E21.18

Gate structure with charge-trapping insulator (epo)

87
257/E21.178

Joint-gate structure (epo)

5
257/E21.182

On semiconductor body comprising group iv element excluding non-elemental si, e.g., ge, c, diamond, silicon compound or compound, such as sic or sige (epo)

73
257/E21.181

On semiconductor body not comprising group iv element, e.g., group iii-v compound (epo)

3
257/E21.184

Pn-homojunction gate structure (epo)

2
257/E21.185

For charge-coupled device (epo)

21
257/E21.186

Schottky gate structure (epo)

10
257/E21.187

For charge-coupled device (epo)

4
257/E21.35

Multi-step process for manufacture of device of bipolar type, e.g., diodes, transistors, thyristors, resistors, capacitors) (epo)

46
257/E21.351

Device comprising one or two electrodes, e.g., diode, resistor or capacitor with pn or schottky junctions (epo)

60
257/E21.365

Active layer is group iii-v compound (epo)

16
257/E21.366

Diode (epo)

36
257/E21.368

Schottky diode (epo)

49
257/E21.367

With an heterojunction, e.g., resonant tunneling diodes (rtd) (epo)

13
257/E21.364

Capacitor with pn - or schottky junction, e.g., varactor (epo)

51
257/E21.352

Diode (epo)

187
257/E21.355

Break-down diode, e.g., zener diode, avalanche diode (epo)

21
257/E21.357

Avalanche diode (epo)

23
257/E21.356

Zener diode (epo)

56
257/E21.362

Gat ed-diode structure, e.g., sith, fcth, fcd (epo)

35
257/E21.361

Multi-layer diode, e.g., pnpn or npnp diode (epo)

36
257/E21.36

Planar diode (epo)

15
257/E21.358

Rectifier diode (epo)

109
257/E21.359

Schottky diode (epo)

123
257/E21.354

Transit time diode, e.g., impatt, trapatt diode (epo)

2
257/E21.353

Tunnel diode (epo)

20
257/E21.363

Resistor with pn junction (epo)

44
257/E21.369

Device comprising three or more electrodes (epo)

4
257/E21.388

Thyristor (epo)

74
257/E21.393

Active layer is group iii-v compound (epo)

6
257/E21.392

Bi-directional thyristor (epo)

8
257/E21.389

Lateral or planar thyristor (epo)

20
257/E21.39

Structurally associated with other devices (epo)

10
257/E21.391

Other device being a controlling device of the field-effect-type (epo)

29
257/E21.37

Transistor (epo)

83
257/E21.386

Active layer, e.g., base, is group iii-v compound (epo)

9
257/E21.387

Heterojunction transistor (epo)

346
257/E21.372

Bipolar thin film transistor (epo)

152
257/E21.382

Field-effect controlled bipolar-type transi stor, e.g., insulated gate bipolar transistor (igbt) (epo)

97
257/E21.383

Vertical insulated gate bipolar transistor (epo)

178
257/E21.385

With recess formed by etching in source/emitter contact region (epo)

37
257/E21.384

With recessed gate (epo)

201
257/E21.371

Heterojunction transistor (epo)

398
257/E21.373

Lateral transistor (epo)

86
257/E21.374

Schottky transistor (epo)

8
257/E21.375

Silicon vertical transistor (epo)

638
257/E21.378

Inverse transistor (epo)

9
257/E21.377

Mesa-planar transistor (epo)

21
257/E21.376

Planar transistor (epo)

4
257/E21.38

Where main current goes through whole of silicon substrate, e.g., power bipolar transistor (epo)

41
257/E21.381

With a multi- emitter, e.g., interdigitated, multicellular, distributed (epo)

52
257/E21.379

With single crystalline emitter, collector or base including extrinsic, link or graft base formed on th e silicon substrate, e.g., by epitaxy, recrystallization, after insulating device isolation (epo)

241
257/E21.394

Multi-step process for the manufacture of unipolar device (epo)

11
257/E21.398

Active layer is group iii-v compound (epo)

14
257/E21.399

Transistor-like structure, e.g., hot electron transistor (het), metal base transistor (mbt), resonant tunneling hot electron transistor (rhet), resonant tunneling transistor (rtt), bulk barrier transistor (bbt), planar doped barrier transistor (pdbt), charge injection transistor (chint) (epo)

18
257/E21.456

Charge transfer device (epo)

29
257/E21.457

With insulated gate (epo)

140
257/E21.458

With schottky gate (epo)

17
257/E21.4

Field-effect transistor (epo)

104
257/E21.405

Active layer is group iii-v compound, e.g., iii-v velocity modulation transistor (vmt), nerfet (epo)

18
257/E21.406

Using static field induced region, e.g., sit, pbt (epo)

24
257/E21.407

With an heterojunction interface channel or gate, e.g., hfet, higfet, si sfet, hjfet, hemt (epo)

426
257/E21.408

With one or zero or quasi-one or quasi-zero dimensional channel, e.g., in plane gate transistor (ipg), single electron transistor (set), striped channel transistor, coulomb blockade device (epo)

54
257/E21.401

Using static field induced region, e.g., sit, pbt (epo)

58
257/E21.402

Permeable base transistor (pbt) (epo)

19
257/E21.409

With an insulated gate (epo)

655
257/E21.441

Active layer is group iii-v compound (epo)

72
257/E21.436

Gate comprising layer with ferroelectric properties (epo)

41
257/E21.424

Lateral single gate silicon transistor (epo)

70
257/E21.433

Where the source and drain or source and drain extensions are self-aligned to sides of gate (epo)

655
257/E21.434

With initial gate mask or masking layer complementary to prospective gate location, e.g., with dummy source and drain contacts (epo)

303
257/E21.428

With a recessed gate, e.g., lateral u-mos (epo)

151
257/E21.43

Recessing gate by adding semiconductor material at source (s) or drain (d) location, e.g., transist or with elevated single crystal s and d (epo)

362
257/E21.429

Using etching to form recess at gate location (epo)

304
257/E21.427

With asymmetry in channel direction, e.g., high-voltage lateral transistor with channel containing layer, e.g., p-base (epo)

602
257/E21.426

With single crystalline channel formed on the silicon substrate after insulating device isolation (epo)

133
257/E21.432

With source and drain contacts formation strictly before final gate formation, e.g., contact first technology (epo)

114
257/E21.431

With source and drain recessed by etching or recessed and refi lled (epo)

376
257/E21.425

With source or drain region formed by schottky barrier or conductor-insulator-semiconductor structure (epo)

58
257/E21.435

Lateral single gate single channel silicon transistor with both lightly doped source and drain extensions and source and drain self-aligned to sides of gate, e.g., ldd mosfet, ddd mosfet (epo)

233
257/E21.411

Thin film unipolar transistor (epo)

408
257/E21.412

Amorphous silicon or polysilicon transistor (epo)

289
257/E21.414

Lateral single gate single channel transistor with inverted structure, i.e., channel layer is formed after gate (epo)

1123
257/E21.413

Lateral single gate single channel transistor with noninverted structure, i.e., channel layer is formed before gate (epo)

1610
257/E21.415

Monocrystalline silicon transistor on insulating substrate, e.g., quartz substrate (epo)

902
257/E21.416

On sapphire substrate, e.g., silicon on sapphire (sos) transistor (epo)

37
257/E21.444

Using dummy gate wherein at least part of final gate is self-aligned to dummy gate (epo)

753
257/E21.443

Using self-aligned punch through stopper or threshold implant under gate region (epo)

250
257/E21.44

Using self-aligned selective metal deposition simultaneously on gate and on source or drain (epo)

53
257/E21.438

Using self-aligned silicidation, i.e., salicide (epo)

1149
257/E21.439

Providing different silicide thicknesses on gate and on source or drain (epo)

115
257/E21.41

Vertical transistor (epo)

513
257/E21.417

With channel containing layer, e.g., p-base, fo rmed in or on drain region, e.g., dmos transistor (epo)

235
257/E21.418

Vertical power dmos transistor (epo)

409
257/E21.42

With recess formed by etching in source/base contact region (epo)

117
257/E21.419

With recessed gate (epo)

553
257/E21.423

With charge trapping gate insulator, e.g., mnos transistor (epo)

376
257/E21.422

With floating gate (epo)

1188
257/E21.442

With gate at side of channel (epo)

308
257/E21.437

With lightly doped drain selectively formed at side of gate (epo)

223
257/E21.421

With multiple gate, one gate having mos structure and others having same or a different structure, i.e., non mos, e.g., jfet gate (epo)

227
257/E21.403

With heterojunction interface channel or gate, e.g., hfet, higfet, sisfet, hjfet, hemt (epo)

221
257/E21.404

With one or zero or quasi-one or quasi-zero dimensional charge carrier gas channel, e.g., quantum wire fet; single electron trans istor (set); striped channel transistor; coulomb blockade device (epo)

120
257/E21.445

With pn junction or heterojunction gate (epo)

37
257/E21.449

Active layer is group iii-v compound (epo)

75
257/E21.448

With heterojunction gate (epo)

47
257/E21.446

With pn homojunction gate (epo)

46
257/E21.447

Vertical transistor, e.g., tecnetrons (epo)

41
257/E21.45

With schottky gate, e.g., mesfet (epo)

69
257/E21.451

Active layer being group iii-v compound (epo)

40
257/E21.452

Lateral single-gate transistors (epo)

240
257/E21.455

Lateral transistor with two or more independen t gates (epo)

24
257/E21.453

Process wherein final gate is made after formation of source and drain regions in active layer, e.g., dummy-gate process (epo)

148
257/E21.454

Process wherein final gate is made before formation, e.g., activation anneal, of source and drain regions in active layer (epo)

131
257/E21.396

Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor, e.g., trench capacitor (epo)

471
257/E21.397

Comprising pn junction, e.g., hybrid capacitor (epo)

7
257/E21.395

Transistor-like structure, e.g., hot electron transistor (het); metal base transistor (mbt); resonant tunneling het (rhet); resonant tunneling transistor (rtt ); bulk barrier transistor (bbt); planar doped barrier transistor (pdbt); charge injection transistor (chint); ballistic transistor (epo)

33
257/E21.089

Multistep processes for manufacture of device using quantum interference effect, e.g., electrostatic aharonov-bohm effect (epo)

23
257/E21.328

Radiation treatment (epo)

105
257/E21.33

To produce chemical element by transmutation (epo)

32
257/E21.329

Using natural radiation, e.g., alpha , beta or gamma radiation (epo)

42
257/E21.331

With high-energy radiation (epo)

90
257/E21.332

For etching, e.g., sputter etching (epo)

66
257/E21.333

For heating, e.g., electron beam heating (epo)

89
257/E21.334

Producing ions for implantation (epo)

186
257/E21.345

Characterized by the angle between the ion beam and the crystal planes or the main crystal surface (epo)

676
257/E21.344

In diamond (epo)

2
257/E21.34

In group iii-v compound (epo)

75
257/E21.343

Characterized by the implantation of both electrically active and inactive species in the same semiconductor region to be doped (epo)

33
257/E21.341

Of electrically active species (epo)

66
257/E21.342

Through-implantation (epo)

20
257/E21.335

In group iv semiconductor (epo)

639
257/E21.336

Of electrically active species (epo)

490
257/E21.337

Through-implantation (epo)

439
257/E21.339

Of electrically inactive species in silicon to make buried insulating layer (epo)

126
257/E21.338

Recoil-implantation (epo)

23
257/E21.346

Using mask (epo)

474
257/E21.347

Using electromagnetic radiation, e.g., laser radiation (epo)

675
257/E21.349

Using incoherent radiation (epo)

85
257/E21.348

Using x-ray laser (epo)

7
257/E21.211

Treatment of semiconductor body using process other than deposition of semiconductor material on a substrate, diffusion or alloying of impurity material, or radiation treatment (epo)

310
257/E21.327

Application of electric current or field, e.g., for electroforming (epo)

69
257/E21.212

Hydrogenation or deuterization, e.g., using atomic hydrogen or deuterium from a plasma (epo)

203
257/E21.213

Of group iii-v compound (epo)

12
257/E21.323

Of diamond body (epo)

7
257/E21.325

For the formation of pn junction without ad dition of impurities (epo)

12
257/E21.326

Of group iii-v compound (epo)

124
257/E21.324

Thermal treatment for modifying the properties of semiconductor body, e.g., annealing, sintering (epo)

533
257/E21.214

To change their surface-physical characteristics or shape, e.g., etching, polishing, cutting (epo)

461
257/E21.215

Chemical or electrical treatment, e.g., electrolytic etching (epo)

226
257/E21.224

Chemical cleaning (epo)

115
257/E21.225

Cleaning diamond or graphite (epo)

4
257/E21.229

Combining dry and wet cleaning steps (epo)

308
257/E21.226

Dry cleaning (epo)

377
257/E21.227

With gaseous hydrogen fluoride (hf) (epo)

125
257/E21.228

Wet cleaning only (epo)

878
257/E21.219

Chemical etching (epo)

424
257/E21.223

Anisotropic liquid etching (epo)

248
257/E21.22

Etching of group iii-v compound (epo)

152
257/E21.221

Anisotropic liquid etching (epo)

73
257/E21.222

Vapor phase etching (epo)

158
257/E21.216

Electrolytic etching (epo)

124
257/E21.217

Of group iii-v compound (epo)

58
257/E21.218

Plasma etching; reactive-ion etching (epo)

852
257/E21.231

Using mask (epo)

246
257/E21.232

Characterized by their composition, e.g., multilayer masks, materials (epo)

322
257/E21.233

Characterized by their size, orientation, disposition, behavior, shape, in horizontal or vertical plane (epo)

120
257/E21.235

Characterized by process involved to create mask, e.g., lift-off mask, sidewall, or to modify the mask, e.g., pre-treatment, post-treatment (epo)

264
257/E21.234

Characterized by their behavior during process, e.g., soluble mask, redeposited mask (epo)

88
257/E21.236

Process specially adapted to improve resolution of mask (epo)

57
257/E21.23

With simultaneous mechanical treatment, e.g., chemical-mechanical polishing (epo)

523
257/E21.294

Deposition/post-treatment of noninsulating, e.g., conductive - or resistive - layers on insulating layers (epo)

109
257/E21.299

Deposition of conductive or semi-conductive organic layer (epo)

49
257/E21.295

Deposition of layer comprising metal, e.g., metal, alloys, metal compounds (epo)

461
257/E21.296

Of metal-silicide layer (epo)

166
257/E21.297

Deposition of semiconductive layer, e.g., poly - or amorphous silicon layer (epo)

123
257/E21.298

Deposition of superconductive layer (epo)

8
257/E21.3

Post treatment (epo)

299
257/E21.315

Doping layer (epo)

40
257/E21.316

Doping polycrystalline or amorphous silicon layer (epo)

226
257/E21.302

Nitriding of silicon-containing layer (epo)

114
257/E21.301

Oxidation of silicon-containing layer (epo)

217
257/E21.305

Physical or chemical etching of layer, e.g., to produce a patterned layer from pre-deposited extensive layer (epo)

81
257/E21.308

By chemical means only (epo)

13
257/E21.309

By liquid etching only (epo)

524
257/E21.31

By vapor etching only (epo)

126
257/E21.311

Using plasma (epo)

890
257/E21.312

Of silicon-containing layer (epo)

643
257/E21.313

Pre- or post-treatment, e.g., anti-corrosion process (epo)

428
257/E21.306

By physical means only (epo)

57
257/E21.307

Of silicon-containing layer (epo)

20
257/E21.314

Using mask (epo)

778
257/E21.303

Planarization (epo)

130
257/E21.304

By chemical mechanical polishing (cmp) (epo)

1250
257/E21.237

Mechanical treatment, e.g., grinding, polishing, cutting (epo)

469
257/E21.238

Making grooves, e.g., cutting (epo)

264
257/E21.239

Using abrasion, e.g., sand-blasting (epo)

33
257/E21.24

To form insulating layer thereon, e.g., for masking or by using photolithographic technique (epo)

170
257/E21.266

Inorganic layer (epo)

318
257/E21.27

Carbon layer, e.g., diamond-like layer (epo)

138
257/E21.267

Composed of alternated layers or of mixtures of nitrides and oxides or of oxynitrides, e.g., formation of oxynitride by oxidation of nitride layer (epo)

407
257/E21.271

Composed of oxide or glassy oxide or oxide based glass (epo)

408
257/E21.274

Deposition from gas or vapor (epo)

636
257/E21.28

Deposition of aluminum oxide (epo)

101
257/E21.281

On a silicon body (epo)

97
257/E21.275

Deposition of boron or phosphorus doped silicon oxide, e.g., bsg, psg, bpsg (epo)

339
257/E21.277

Deposition of carbon doped silicon oxide, e.g., sioc (epo)

273
257/E21.276

Deposition of halogen doped silicon oxide, e.g., fluorine doped silicon oxide (epo)

243
257/E21.278

Deposition of silicon oxide (epo)

301
257/E21.279

On silicon body (epo)

949
257/E21.273

Deposition of porous oxide or porous glassy oxide or oxide based porous glass (epo)

360
257/E21.282

Formed by oxidation (epo)

50
257/E21.29

Of metallic layer, e.g., al deposited on body, e.g., formation of multi-layer insulating structures (epo)

225
257/E21.291

By anodic oxidation (epo)

79
257/E21.283

Of semiconductor material, e.g., by oxidation of semiconductor body itself (epo)

94
257/E21.284

By thermal oxidation (epo)

70
257/E21.285

Of silicon (epo)

488
257/E21.286

Of group iii-v compound (epo)

39
257/E21.287

By anodic oxidation (epo)

12
257/E21.288

Of silicon (epo)

49
257/E21.289

Of group iii-v compound (epo)

25
257/E21.272

With perovskite structure (epo)

614
257/E21.292

Inorganic layer composed of nitride (epo)

156
257/E21.293

Of silicon nitride (epo)

854
257/E21.268

Of silicon (epo)

536
257/E21.269

Formed by deposition from a gas or vapor (epo)

350
257/E21.259

Organic layers, e.g., photoresist (epo)

646
257/E21.265

By langmuir-blodgett technique (epo)

26
257/E21.26

Layer comprising organo-silicon compound (epo)

227
257/E21.261

Layer comprising polysiloxane compound (epo)

310
257/E21.262

Layer comprising hydrogen silsesquioxane (epo)

133
257/E21.263

Layer comprising silazane compounds (epo)

58
257/E21.264

Layers comprising fluoro hydrocarbon compounds, e.g., polytetrafluoroethylene (epo)

151
257/E21.241

Post-treatment (epo)

504
257/E21.247

Doping insulating layer (epo)

71
257/E21.248

By ion implantation (epo)

189
257/E21.249

Etching insulating layer by chemical or physical means (epo)

125
257/E21.25

Etching inorganic layer (epo)

86
257/E21.251

By chemical means (epo)

554
257/E21.252

By dry-etching (epo)

1857
257/E21.253

Of layers not containing si, e.g., pzt, al 2 o 3 (epo)

135
257/E21.254

Etching organic layer (epo)

35
257/E21.255

By chemical means (epo)

253
257/E21.256

By dry-etching (epo)

671
257/E21.257

Using mask (epo)

858
257/E21.242

Of organic layer (epo)

201
257/E21.243

Planarization of insulating layer (epo)

259
257/E21.244

Involving dielectric removal step (epo)

942
257/E21.245

Removal by chemical etching, e.g., dry etching (epo)

304
257/E21.246

Removal by selective chemical etching, e.g., selective dry etching through mask (epo)

112
257/E21.258

Using masks (epo)

455
257/E21.317

To modify their internal properties, e.g., to produce internal imperfections (epo)

47
257/E21.322

Of group iii-v compound, e.g., to make them semi-insulating (epo)

17
257/E21.318

Of silicon body, e.g., for gettering (epo)

337
257/E21.32

Of silicon on insulator (soi) (epo)

407
257/E21.321

Thermally inducing defects using oxygen present in silicon body for intrinsic gettering (epo)

212
257/E21.319

Using cavities formed by inert gas ion implantation, e.g., hydrogen, noble gas (epo)

72
257/E21.068

Device having semiconductor body comprising selenium (se) or tellurium (te) (epo)

113
257/E21.075

Application of electrode to exposed surface of se or te after se or te has been applied to foundation plate (epo)

12
257/E21.07

Preliminary treatment of se or te, its application to substrate, or the subsequent treatment of combination (epo)

11
257/E21.071

Application of se or te to substrate or foundation plate (epo)

7
257/E21.072

Conversion of se or te to conductive state (epo)

3
257/E21.074

Provision of discrete insulating layer, i.e., specified barrier layer material (epo)

1
257/E21.073

Treatment of surface of se or te layer after having been made conductive (epo)

3
257/E21.069

Preparation of substrate or foundation plate for se or te semiconductor (epo)

10
257/E21.076

Treatment of complete device, e.g., by electroforming to form barrier (epo)

4
257/E21.077

Heat treating (epo)

114
257/E21.054

Device having semiconductor body comprising silicon carbide (sic) (epo)

200
257/E21.06

Changing shape of semiconductor body, e.g., forming recesses (epo)

42
257/E21.061

Making electrode (epo)

18
257/E21.063

Conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrode, e.g., mis contact (epo)

49
257/E21.062

Ohmic electrode (epo)

69
257/E21.064

Schottky electrode (epo)

39
257/E21.056

Making n- or p- doped regions or layers, e.g., using diffusion (epo)

45
257/E21.057

Using ion implantation (epo)

75
257/E21.059

Angled implantation (epo)

22
257/E21.058

Using masks (epo)

117
257/E21.065

Multistep processes for manufacture of device whose active layer, e.g., base, channel, comprises silicon carbide (epo)

45
257/E21.066

Device controllable only by electric current supplied or the electric potential applied to electrode which does not carry current to be rectified, amplified, or switched, e.g., three-terminal device (epo)

222
257/E21.067

Device controllable only by variation of electric current supplied or electric potential applied to one or more of the electrodes carrying current to be rectified, amplified, oscillated, or switched, e.g., two-terminal device (epo)

68
257/E21.055

Passivating silicon carbide surface (epo)

38
257/E21.459

Device having semiconductor body other than carbon, si, ge, sic, se, te, cu 2 o, cui, and group iii-v compounds with or without impurities, e.g., doping materials (epo)

55
257/E21.47

Alloying of impurity material, e.g., dopant, electrode material, with semiconductor body (epo)

21
257/E21.461

Deposition of semiconductor material on substrate, e.g., epitaxial growth (epo)

185
257/E21.464

Using liquid deposition (epo)

78
257/E21.465

From molten solution of compound or alloy, e.g., liquid phase epitaxy (epo)

35
257/E21.462

Using physical deposition, e.g., vacuum deposition, sputtering (epo)

117
257/E21.463

Using reduction or decomposition of gaseous compound yielding solid condensate, i.e., chemical deposition (epo)

104
257/E21.466

Diffusion of impurity material, e.g., dopant, electrode material, into or out of semiconductor body, or between semiconductor regions (epo)

42
257/E21.467

Using diffusion into or out of solid from or into gaseous phase (epo)

23
257/E21.469

Using diffusion into or out of solid from or into liquid phase, e.g., alloy diffusion process (epo)

13
257/E21.468

Using diffusion into or out of solid from or into solid phase, e.g., doped oxide layer (epo)

26
257/E21.476

Manufacture of electrodes on semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus other than epitaxial growth, e.g., coating, diffusion, or alloying, or radiation treatment (epo)

208
257/E21.477

Deposition of conductive or insulating materials for electrode (epo)

71
257/E21.478

From gas or vapor, e.g., condensation (epo)

56
257/E21.479

From liquid, e.g., electrolytic deposition (epo)

47
257/E21.481

Including application of mechanical vibration, e.g., ultrasonic vibration (epo)

6
257/E21.48

Involving application of pressure, e.g., thermo compression bonding (epo)

32
257/E21.46

Multistep process (epo)

54
257/E21.471

Radiation treatment (epo)

23
257/E21.472

With high-energy radiation (epo)

8
257/E21.473

Producing ion implantation (epo)

48
257/E21.474

Using mask (epo)

7
257/E21.475

Using electromagnetic radiation, e.g., laser radiation (epo)

91
257/E21.482

Treatment of semiconductor body using process other than electromagnetic radiation (epo)

29
257/E21.498

Application of electric current or fields, e.g., for electroforming (epo)

20
257/E21.497

Thermal treatment for modifying property of semiconductor body, e.g., annealing, sintering (epo)

84
257/E21.483

To change their surface-physical characteristics or shape, e.g., etching, polishing, cutting (epo)

67
257/E21.485

Chemical or electrical treatment, e.g., electrolytic etching (epo)

107
257/E21.486

Using mask (epo)

33
257/E21.495

Deposition of noninsulating, e.g., conductive -, resistive -, layer on insulating layer (epo)

132
257/E21.496

Post treatment of layer (epo)

18
257/E21.484

Mechanical treatment, e.g., grinding, ultrasonic treatment (epo)

14
257/E21.487

To form insulating layer thereon, e.g., for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; post treatment of these layers (epo)

51
257/E21.493

Inorganic layer (epo)

41
257/E21.494

Composed of oxide or glassy oxide or oxide-based glass (epo)

41
257/E21.492

Organic layer, e.g., photoresist (epo)

37
257/E21.489

Post treatment of insulating layer (epo)

24
257/E21.491

Doping layer (epo)

1
257/E21.49

Etching layer (epo)

27
257/E21.488

Using mask (epo)

12
257/E21.52

Devices having no potential-jump barrier or surface barrier (epo)

39
257/E21.023

Making mask on semicond uctor body for further photolithographic processing (epo)

171
257/E21.033

Comprising inorganic layer (epo)

500
257/E21.035

Characterized by their composition, e.g., multilayer masks, materials (epo)

315
257/E21.036

Characterized by their size, orientation, disposition, behavior, shape, in horizontal or vertical plane (epo)

112
257/E21.038

Characterized by process involved to create mask, e.g., lift-off mask, sidewalls, or to modify mask, such as pre-treatment, post-treatment (epo)

464
257/E21.037

Characterized by their behavior during process, e.g., soluble mask, re-deposited mask (epo)

40
257/E21.039

Process specially adapted to improve the resolution of the mask (epo)

194
257/E21.034

For lift-off process (epo)

65
257/E21.024

Comprising organic layer (epo)

196
257/E21.026

Characterized by treatment of photoresist layer (epo)

155
257/E21.03

Electro-lithographic process (epo)

72
257/E21.032

Ion lithographic process (epo)

23
257/E21.027

Photolith ographic process (epo)

430
257/E21.029

Using anti-reflective coating (epo)

467
257/E21.028

Using laser (epo)

66
257/E21.031

X-ray lithographic process (epo)

21
257/E21.025

For lift-off process (epo)

184
257/E21.003

Manufacture of two-terminal component for integrated circuit (epo)

44
257/E21.008

Of capacitor (epo)

1418
257/E21.009

Dielectric having perovskite structure (epo)

1539
257/E21.01

Dielectric comprising two or more layers, e.g., buffer layers, seed layers, gradient layers (epo)

474
257/E21.011

Formation of electrode (epo)

1118
257/E21.012

With increased surface area, e.g., by roughening, texturing (epo)

355
257/E21.014

Having cylindrical, crown, or fin-type shape (epo)

225
257/E21.015

Having horizontal extensions (epo)

57
257/E21.016

Made by depositing layers, e.g., alternatingly conductive and insulating layers (epo)

221
257/E21.017

Made by patterning layers, e.g., etching conductive layers (epo)

88
257/E21.021

Having multilayers, e.g., comprising barrier layer and metal layer (epo)

631
257/E21.018

Having vertical extensions (epo)

338
257/E21.019

Made by depositing layers, e.g., alternatingly conductive and insulating layers (epo)

813
257/E21.02

Made by patterning layers, e.g., etching conductive layers (epo)

218
257/E21.013

With rough surface, e.g., using hemispherical grains (epo)

795
257/E21.022

Of inductor (epo)

362
257/E21.004

Of resistor (epo)

691
257/E21.005

Active material comprising carbon, e.g., diamond or diamond-like carbon (epo)

36
257/E21.007

Active material comprising organic conducting material, e.g., conducting polymer (epo)

102
257/E21.006

Active material comprising refractory, transition, or noble metal or metal compound, e.g., alloy, silicide, oxide, nitride (epo)

389
257/E21.521

Testing or measuring during manufacture or treatment or reliability measurement, i.e., testing of parts followed by no processing which modifies parts as such (epo)

312
257/E21.529

Measuring as part of manufacturing process (epo)

143
257/E21.531

For electrical parameters, e.g., resistance, deep-levels, cv, diffusions by electrical means (epo)

267
257/E21.53

For structural parameters, e.g., thickness, line width, refractive index, temperature, warp, bond strength, defects, optical inspection, electrical measurement of structural dimensions, metallurgic measurement of diffusions (epo)

802
257/E21.525

Procedures, i.e., sequence of activities consisting of plurality of measurement and correction, marking or sorting steps (epo)

1089
257/E21.528

Acting in response to ongoing measurement without interruption of processing, e.g., endpoint detection, in-situ thickness measurement (epo)

395
257/E21.526

Connection or disconnection of subentities or redundant parts of device in response to measurement, e.g., wafer scale, memory devices (epo)

199
257/E21.527

Optical enhancement of defects or not directly visible states, e.g., selective electrolytic deposition, bubbles in liquids, light emission, color change (epo)

136
257/E21.522

Structural arrangement (epo)

81
257/E21.523

Additional lead-in metallization on device, e.g., additional pads or lands, lines in scribe line, sacrificed conductors, sacrificed frames (epo)

85
257/E21.524

Circuit for characterizing or monitoring manufacturing process, e.g., whole test die, wafer filled with test structures, onboard devices incorporated on each die, process/product control monitors or pcm, devices in scribe-line/kerf, drop-in devices (epo)

100
257/497

Punchthrough structure device (e.g., punchthrough transistor, camel barrier diode)

87
257/498

Punchthrough region fully depleted at zero external applied bias voltage (e.g., camel barrier or planar doped barrier devices, or so-called "bipolar sit" devices)

49
257/921

Radiation hardened semiconductor device

40
257/107

Regenerative type switching device (e.g., scr, comfet, thyristor)

284
257/119

Bidirectional rectifier with control electrode (gate) (e.g., triac)

126
257/124

Combined with field effect transistor structure

100
257/125

Controllable emitter shunting

30
257/128

Having overlapping sections of different conductive polarity

36
257/122

Lateral

76
257/120

Six or more semiconductor layers of alternating conductivity types (e.g., npnpnpn structure)

51
257/130

Switching speed enhancement means

61
257/131

Recombination centers or deep level dopants

46
257/121

With diode or transistor in reverse path

88
257/129

With means to increase reverse breakdown voltage

66
257/126

With means to separate a device into sections having different conductive polarity

52
257/127

Guard ring or groove

134
257/123

With trigger signal amplification (e.g., amplified gate)

37
257/133

Combined with field effect transistor

390
257/137

Having controllable emitter shunt

98
257/138

Having gate turn off (gto) feature

168
257/134

J-fet (junction field effect transistor)

121
257/135

Vertical (i.e., where the source is located above the drain or vice versa)

181
257/136

Enhancement mode (e.g., so-called sits)

140
257/139

With extended latchup current level (e.g., comfet device)

371
257/144

Cathode emitter or cathode electrode feature

93
257/140

Combined with other solid-state active device in integrated structure

156
257/143

Having anode shunt means

55
257/142

Having impurity doping for gain reduction

69
257/141

Lateral structure, i.e., current flow parallel to main device surface

143
257/145

Low impedance channel contact extends below surface

22
257/146

Combined with other solid-state active device in integrated structure

258
257/108

Controlled by nonelectrical, nonoptical external signal (e.g., magnetic field, pressure, thermal)

96
257/173

Device protection (e.g., from overvoltage)

682
257/174

Rate of rise of current (e.g., di/dt)

104
257/163

Emitter region feature

105
257/164

Multi-emitter region (e.g., emitter geometry or emitter ballast resistor)

89
257/165

Laterally symmetric regions

38
257/166

Radially symmetric regions

42
257/132

Five or more layer unidirectional structure

62
257/167

Having at least four external electrodes

93
257/109

Having only two terminals and no control electrode (gate), e.g., shockley diode

147
257/110

More than four semiconductor layers of alternating conductivity types (e.g., pnpnpn structure, 5 layer bidirectional diacs, etc.)

113
257/111

Triggered by v bo overvoltage means

57
257/112

With highly-doped breakdown diode trigger

46
257/162

Lateral structure

175
257/147

With extended latchup current level (e.g., gate turn off "gto" device)

201
257/152

Cathode emitter or cathode electrode feature

133
257/153

Gate region or electrode feature

148
257/149

Having anode shunt means

83
257/148

Having impurity doping for gain reduction

41
257/150

With specified housing or external terminal

45
257/151

External gate terminal structure or composition

38
257/177

With housing or external electrode

130
257/180

Stud mount

24
257/181

With large area flexible electrodes in press contact with opposite sides of active semiconductor chip and surrounded by an insulating element, (e.g., ring)

87
257/182

With lead feedthrough means on side of housing

59
257/178

With means to avoid stress between electrode and active device (e.g., thermal expansion matching of electrode to semiconductor)

57
257/179

With malleable electrode (e.g., silver electrode layer)

21
257/157

With integrated trigger signal amplification means (e.g., amplified gate, "pilot thyristor", etc.)

76
257/158

Three or more amplification stages

24
257/159

Transistor as amplifier

36
257/161

With a turn-off diode

31
257/160

With distributed amplified current

55
257/113

With light activation

128
257/115

With electrical trigger signal amplification means (e.g., amplified gate, "pilot thyristor", etc.)

103
257/118

With groove or thinned light sensitive portion

79
257/116

With light conductor means (e.g., light fiber or light pipe) integral with device or device enclosure or package

75
257/117

In groove or with thinned semiconductor portion

66
257/114

With separate light detector integrated on chip with regenerative switching device

53
257/175

With means to control triggering (e.g., gate electrode configuration, zener diode firing, dv/dt control, transient control by ferrite bead, etc.)

158
257/176

Located in an emitter-gate region

16
257/168

With means to increase breakdown voltage

97
257/169

High resistivity base layer

33
257/170

Surface feature (e.g., guard ring, groove, mesa, etc.)

214
257/171

Edge feature (e.g., beveled edge)

74
257/172

With means to lower "on" voltage drop

39
257/154

With resistive region connecting separate sections of device

174
257/155

With switching speed enhancement means (e.g., schottky contact)

175
257/156

Having deep level dopants or recombination centers

110
257/414

Responsive to non-electrical signal (e.g., chemical, stress, light, or magnetic field sensors)

1112
257/428

Electromagnetic or particle radiation

325
257/429

Charged or elementary particles

129
257/430

With active region having effective impurity concentration less than 10 12 atoms/cm 3

30
257/431

Light

1347
257/438

Avalanche junction

249
257/439

Containing dopant adapted for photoionization

104
257/466

External physical configuration of semiconductor (e.g., mesas, grooves)

475
257/461

Light responsive pn junction

953
257/465

Geometric configuration of junction (e.g., fingers)

266
257/462

Phototransistor

382
257/463

With particular doping concentration

248
257/464

With particular layer thickness (e.g., layer less than light absorption depth)

246
257/443

Matrix or array (e.g., single line arrays)

857
257/444

Light sensor elements overlie active switching elements in integrated circuit (e.g., where the sensor elements are deposited on an integrated circuit)

401
257/445

With antiblooming means

102
257/447

With backside illumination (e.g., having a thinned central area or a non-absorbing substrate)

196
257/448

With particular electrode configuration

579
257/446

With specific isolation means in integrated circuit

343
257/441

Narrow band gap semiconductor (

106
257/442

Ii-vi compound semiconductor (e.g., hgcdte)

221
257/458

Pin detector, including combinations with non-light responsive active devices

791
257/449

Schottky barrier (e.g., a transparent schottky metallic layer or a schottky barrier containing at least one of indium or tin (e.g., sno 2 , indium tin oxide))

215
257/451

Responsive to light having lower energy (i.e., longer wavelength) than forbidden band gap energy of semiconductor (e.g., by excitation of carriers from metal into semiconductor)

71
257/450

With doping profile to adjust barrier height

39
257/452

With edge protection, e.g., doped guard ring or mesa structure

142
257/457

With particular contact geometry (e.g., ring or grid)

164
257/453

With specified schottky metallic layer

93
257/454

Schottky metallic layer is a silicide

40
257/455

Silicide of platinum group metal

54
257/456

Silicide of refractory metal

31
257/460

With backside illumination (e.g., with a thinned central area or non-absorbing substrate)

190
257/440

With different sensor portions responsive to different wavelengths (e.g., color imager)

564
257/433

With housing or encapsulation

1124
257/434

With window means

602
257/436

With means for increasing light absorption (e.g., redirection of unabsorbed light)

604
257/437

Antireflection coating

368
257/432

With optical element

1796
257/435

With optical shield or mask means

668
257/459

With particular contact geometry (e.g., ring or grid, or bonding pad arrangement)

530
257/421

Magnetic field

1120
257/423

Bipolar transistor magnetic field sensor (e.g., lateral bipolar transistor)

121
257/426

Differential output (e.g., with offset adjustment means or with means to reduce temperature sensitivity)

72
257/425

Magnetic field detector using compound semiconductor material (e.g., gaas, insb, etc.)

127
257/427

Magnetic field sensor in integrated circuit (e.g., in bipolar transistor integrated circuit)

291
257/424

Sensor with region of high carrier recombination (e.g., magnetodiode with carriers deflected to recombination region by magnetic field)

70
257/422

With magnetic field directing means (e.g., shield, pole piece, etc.)

329
257/415

Physical deformation

1064
257/416

Acoustic wave

360
257/420

Means to reduce sensitivity to physical deformation

218
257/417

Strain sensors

605
257/418

With means to concentrate stress

302
257/419

With thinned central active portion of semiconductor surrounded by thick insensitive portion (e.g. diaphragm type strain gauge)

615
257/467

Temperature

448
257/470

Pn junction adapted as temperature sensor

144
257/468

Semiconductor device operated at cryogenic temperature

41
257/469

With means to reduce temperature sensitivity (e.g., reduction of temperature sensitivity of junction breakdown voltage by using a compensating element)

112
257/471

Schottky barrier

367
257/474

As active junction in bipolar transistor (e.g., schottky collector)

85
257/481

Avalanche diode (e.g., so-called "zener" diode having breakdown voltage greater than 6 volts)

125
257/482

Microwave transit time device (e.g., impatt diode)

47
257/476

In integrated structure

229
257/477

With bipolar transistor

127
257/479

Connected across base-collector junction of transistor (e.g., baker clamp)

55
257/478

Plural schottky barriers with different barrier heights

47
257/480

In voltage variable capacitance diode

63
257/485

Specified materials

142
257/486

Layered (e.g., a diffusion barrier material layer or a silicide layer or a precious metal layer)

208
257/472

To compound semiconductor

227
257/473

With specified schottky metal

164
257/475

With doping profile to adjust barrier height

114
257/483

With means to prevent edge breakdown

98
257/484

Guard ring

240
257/E31.001

Semiconductor devices responsive or sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (e.g., infrared radiation, adapted for conversion of radiation into electrical energy or for control of electrical energy by such radiation processes, or apparatus peculiar to manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof) (epo)

216
257/E31.052

Adapted to control current flow through device (e.g., photoresistor) (epo)

70
257/E31.092

Device being sensitive to very short wavelength (e.g., x-ray, gamma-ray) (epo)

42
257/E31.093

Device sensitive to infrared, visible, or ultraviolet radiation (epo)

235
257/E31.094

Comprising amorphous semiconductor (epo)

136
257/E31.053

For device having potential or surface barrier (e.g., phototransistor) (epo)

77
257/E31.054

Device sensitive to infrared, visible, or ultraviolet radiation (epo)

162
257/E31.07

Characterized by at least three potential barriers (epo)

20
257/E31.071

Photothyristor (epo)

116
257/E31.072

Static induction type (i.e., sit device) (epo)

9
257/E31.055

Characterized by only one potential or surface barrier (epo)

26
257/E31.061

Pin potential barrier (epo)

248
257/E31.062

Device comprising group iv amorphous material (epo)

78
257/E31.067

Pn heterojunction potential barrier (epo)

123
257/E31.057

Pn homojunction potential barrier (epo)

159
257/E31.058

Device comprising active layer formed only by group ii-vi compound (e.g., hgcdte ir photodiode) (epo)

146
257/E31.059

Device comprising active layer formed only by group iii-v compound (epo)

91
257/E31.06

Device comprising active layer formed only by group iv compound (epo)

15
257/E31.056

Potential barrier being of point contact type (epo)

3
257/E31.063

Potential barrier working in avalanche mode (e.g., avalanche photodiode) (epo)

143
257/E31.064

Heterostructure (e.g., surface absorption or multiplication (sam) layer) (epo)

133
257/E31.065

Schottky potential barrier (epo)

144
257/E31.066

Metal-semiconductor-metal (msm) schottky barrier (epo)

48
257/E31.068

Characterized by two potential or surface barriers (epo)

48
257/E31.069

Bipolar phototransistor (epo)

121
257/E31.073

Field-effect type (e.g., junction field-effect phototransistor) (epo)

59
257/E31.083

Conductor-insulator-semiconductor type (epo)

65
257/E31.084

Diode or charge-coupled device (ccd) (epo)

67
257/E31.085

Metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor (epo)

84
257/E31.08

With pn heterojunction gate (epo)

4
257/E31.081

Charge-coupled device (ccd) (epo)

10
257/E31.082

Field-effect phototransistor (epo)

35
257/E31.077

With pn homojunction gate (epo)

6
257/E31.078

Charge-coupled device (ccd) (epo)

16
257/E31.079

Field-effect phototransistor (epo)

69
257/E31.074

With schottky gate (epo)

8
257/E31.075

Charge-coupled device (ccd) (epo)

16
257/E31.076

Photo mesfet (epo)

32
257/E31.086

Device sensitive to very short wavelength (e.g., x-ray, gamma-ray, or corpuscular radiation) (epo)

95
257/E31.087

Bulk-effect radiation detector (e.g., ge-li compensated pin gamma-ray detector) (epo)

18
257/E31.088

Li-compensated pin gamma-ray detector (epo)

6
257/E31.091

Field-effect type (e.g., mis-type detector) (epo)

27
257/E31.089

With surface barrier or shallow pn junction (e.g., surface barrier alpha-particle detector) (epo)

14
257/E31.09

With shallow pn junction (epo)

21
257/E31.002

Characterized by semiconductor body (epo)

37
257/E31.04

Characterized by semiconductor body crystalline structure or plane (epo)

72
257/E31.047

Including amorphous semiconductor (epo)

56
257/E31.048

Including only group iv element (epo)

85
257/E31.05

Having light-induced characteristic variation (e.g., staebler-wronski effect) (epo)

9
257/E31.049

Including group iv compound (e.g., sige, sic) (epo)

51
257/E31.051

Including other nonmonocrystalline material (e.g., semiconductor particles embedded in insulating material) (epo)

27
257/E31.043

Including polycrystalline semiconductor (epo)

51
257/E31.044

Including only group iv element (epo)

71
257/E31.046

Including microcrystalline group iv compound (e.g., c-sige, c-sic) (epo)

15
257/E31.045

Including microcrystalline silicon ( c-si) (epo)

28
257/E31.041

Including thin film deposited on metallic or insulating substrate (epo)

110
257/E31.042

Including only group iv element (epo)

256
257/E31.003

Characterized by semiconductor body material (epo)

50
257/E31.004

Inorganic materials (epo)

27
257/E31.005

In different semiconductor regions (e.g., cu 2 x/cdx heterojunction and x being group vi element) (epo)

18
257/E31.006

Comprising only cu 2 x/cdx heterojunction and x being group vi element (epo)

56
257/E31.007

Comprising only heterojunction including group i-iii-vi compound (e.g., cds/cuinse 2 heterojunction) (epo)

88
257/E31.026

Including, apart from doping material or other impurity, only compound other than group ii-vi, iii-v, and iv compound (epo)

79
257/E31.031

Characterized by doping material (epo)

3
257/E31.027

Comprising only group i-iii-vi chalcopyrite compound (e.g., cuinse 2 , cugase 2 , cuingase 2 ) (epo)

124
257/E31.028

Characterized by doping material (epo)

12
257/E31.029

Comprising only group iv-vi or ii-iv-vi chalcogenide compound (e.g., pbsnte) (epo)

205
257/E31.03

Characterized by doping material (epo)

6
257/E31.015

Including, apart from doping material or other impurity, only group ii-vi compound (e.g., cds, zns, hgcdte) (epo)

37
257/E31.016

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

14
257/E31.017

Characterized by doping material (epo)

34
257/E31.018

Including ternary compound (e.g., hgcdte) (epo)

80
257/E31.019

Including, apart from doping material or other impurity, only group iii-v compound (epo)

49
257/E31.02

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

45
257/E31.021

Characterized by doping material gaalas, ingaas, ingaasp (epo)

59
257/E31.022

Including ternary or quaternary compound (epo)

102
257/E31.023

Including, apart from doping material or other impurity, only group iv compound (e.g., sic) (epo)

22
257/E31.025

Characterized by doping material (epo)

1
257/E31.024

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

19
257/E31.011

Including, apart from doping material or other impurity, only group iv element (epo)

31
257/E31.014

Characterized by doping material (epo)

61
257/E31.013

Comprising porous silicon as part of active layer (epo)

11
257/E31.012

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

29
257/E31.008

Selenium or tellurium (epo)

48
257/E31.01

Characterized by doping material (epo)

9
257/E31.009

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

10
257/E31.032

Characterized by semiconductor body shape, relative size, or disposition of semiconductor regions (epo)

251
257/E31.037

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

15
257/E31.038

Shape of body (epo)

221
257/E31.039

Shape of potential or surface barrier (epo)

159
257/E31.033

Multiple quantum well structure (epo)

263
257/E31.034

Characterized by amorphous semiconductor layer (epo)

26
257/E31.036

Doping superlattice (e.g., nipi superlattice) (epo)

16
257/E31.035

Including, apart from doping material or other impurity, only group iv element or compound (e.g., si-sige superlattice) (epo)

49
257/E31.11

Detail of nonsemiconductor component of radiation-sensitive semiconductor device (epo)

113
257/E31.131

Arrangement for temperature regulation (e.g., cooling, heating, or ventilating) (epo)

138
257/E31.113

Circuit arrangement of general character for device (epo)

45
257/E31.114

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

30
257/E31.116

Device working in avalanche mode (epo)

32
257/E31.115

Position-sensitive and lateral-effect photodetector (e.g., quadrant photodiode) (epo)

113
257/E31.119

Coatings (epo)

94
257/E31.12

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

171
257/E31.121

For filtering or shielding light (e.g., multicolor filter for photodetector) (epo)

320
257/E31.123

For interference filter (e.g., multilayer dielectric filter) (epo)

58
257/E31.122

For shielding light (e.g., light-blocking layer, cold shield for infrared detector) (epo)

240
257/E31.124

Electrode (epo)

203
257/E31.125

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

131
257/E31.126

Transparent conductive layer (e.g., transparent conductive oxide (tco), indium tin oxide (ito) layer) (epo)

283
257/E31.117

Encapsulation (epo)

333
257/E31.118

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

230
257/E31.111

Input/output circuit of device (epo)

83
257/E31.112

For device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

52
257/E31.127

Optical element associated with device (epo)

611
257/E31.129

Comprising luminescent member (e.g., fluorescent sheet) (epo)

83
257/E31.128

Device having potential or surface barrier (epo)

355
257/E31.13

Texturized surface (epo)

259
257/E31.095

Structurally associated with electric light source (e.g., electroluminescent light source) (epo)

126
257/E31.096

Hybrid device containing photosensitive and electroluminescent components within one single body (epo)

117
257/E31.097

Light source controlled by radiation-sensitive semiconductor device (e.g., image converter, image amplifier, image storage device) (epo)

59
257/E31.1

Device with potential or surface barrier (epo)

5
257/E31.098

Device without potential or surface barrier (epo)

8
257/E31.099

Light source being semiconductor device with potential or surface barrier (e.g., light-emitting diode) (epo)

50
257/E31.101

Semiconductor light source and radiation-sensitive semiconductor device both having potential or surface barrier (epo)

14
257/E31.102

Formed in or on common substrate (epo)

44
257/E31.103

Radiation-sensitive semiconductor device controlled by light source (epo)

48
257/E31.107

Radiation-sensitive semiconductor device with potential or surface barrier (epo)

5
257/E31.104

Radiation-sensitive semiconductor device without potential or surface barrier (e.g., photoresistor) (epo)

8
257/E31.105

Light source being semiconductor device having potential or surface barrier (e.g., light-emitting diode) (epo)

48
257/E31.106

Optical potentiometer (epo)

8
257/E31.108

Semiconductor light source and radiation-sensitive semiconductor device both having potential or surface barrier (epo)

168
257/E31.109

Formed in or on common substrate (epo)

87
257/43

Semiconductor is an oxide of a metal (e.g., cuo, zno) or copper sulfide

835
257/42

Semiconductor is selenium or tellurium in elemental form

152
257/E43.001

Semiconductor or solid-state devices using galvano-magnetic or similar magnetic effects, processes or apparatus peculiar to manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof (epo)

49
257/E43.002

Hall-effect devices (epo)

37
257/E43.003

Semiconductor hall-effect devices (epo)

83
257/E43.004

Magnetic-field-controlled resistors (epo)

348
257/E43.006

Processes or apparatus peculiar to manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof (epo)

165
257/E43.007

For hall-effect devices (epo)

19
257/E43.005

Selection of materials (epo)

178
257/E29.001

Semiconductors devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching, capacitors, or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier (epo)

134
257/E29.002

Electrical characteristics due to properties of entire semiconductor body rather than just surface region (epo)

223
257/E29.105

Characterized by combinations of two or more features of crystalline structure, shape, materials, physical imperfections, and concentration/distribution of impurities in bulk material (epo)

30
257/E29.109

Characterized by concentration or distribution of impurities in bulk material (epo)

164
257/E29.11

Planar doping (e.g., atomic-plane doping, delta-doping) (epo)

71
257/E29.068

Characterized by materials of semiconductor body (epo)

115
257/E29.082

Only element from fourth group of periodic system in uncombined form (epo)

165
257/E29.083

Amorphous materials (epo)

50
257/E29.086

Further characterized by doping material (epo)

211
257/E29.084

Including two or more of elements from fourth group of periodic system (epo)

89
257/E29.085

In different semiconductor regions (e.g., heterojunctions) (epo)

134
257/E29.094

Only group ii-vi compounds (epo)

49
257/E29.095

Amorphous materials (epo)

9
257/E29.099

Cdx compounds being one element of sixth group of periodic system (epo)

9
257/E29.098

Further characterized by doping material (epo)

17
257/E29.096

Including two or more compounds (e.g., alloys) (epo)

33
257/E29.097

In different semiconductor regions (e.g., heterojunctions) (epo)

19
257/E29.089

Only group iii-v compounds (epo)

191
257/E29.092

Amorphous materials (epo)

13
257/E29.093

Further characterized by doping material (epo)

91
257/E29.09

Including two or more compounds (e.g., alloys) (epo)

70
257/E29.091

In different semiconductor regions (e.g., heterojunctions) (epo)

253
257/E29.087

Selenium or tellurium only (epo)

12
257/E29.088

Amorphous materials (epo)

3
257/E29.1

Semiconductor materials other than group iv, selenium, tellurium, or group iii-v compounds (epo)

63
257/E29.101

Amorphous materials (epo)

27
257/E29.102

Group i-vi or i-vii compounds (e.g., cu 2 o, cui) (epo)

10
257/E29.103

Pb compounds (e.g., pbo) (epo)

16
257/E29.104

Si compounds (e.g., sic) (epo)

520
257/E29.069

Single quantum well structures (epo)

60
257/E29.071

Quantum box or quantum dot structures (epo)

194
257/E29.07

Quantum wire structures (epo)

127
257/E29.072

Structures with periodic or quasi-periodic potential variation, (e.g., multiple quantum wells, superlattices) (epo)

57
257/E29.075

Compositional structures (epo)

31
257/E29.076

With layered structures with quantum effects in vertical direction (epo)

37
257/E29.077

Comprising at least one long-range structurally disordered material (e.g., one-dimensional vertical amorphous superlattices) (epo)

16
257/E29.078

Comprising only semiconductor materials (epo)

199
257/E29.073

Doping structures (e.g., doping superlattices, nipi-superlattices) (epo)

25
257/E29.074

Structures without potential periodicity in direction perpendicular to major surface of substrate (e.g., lateral superlattice) (epo)

33
257/E29.079

Two or more elements from two or more groups of periodic table of elements (e.g., alloys) (epo)

36
257/E29.08

Amorphous materials (epo)

23
257/E29.081

In different semiconductor regions (e.g., heterojunctions) (epo)

200
257/E29.106

Characterized by physical imperfections; having polished or roughened surface (epo)

12
257/E29.108

Imperfections on surface of semiconductor body (epo)

35
257/E29.107

Imperfections within semiconductor body (epo)

154
257/E29.005

Characterized by specified shape or size of pn junction or by specified impurity concentration gradient within the device (epo)

92
257/E29.006

Characterized by particular design considerations to control electrical field effect within device (epo)

46
257/E29.018

Comprising internal isolation within devices or components (epo)

66
257/E29.02

Isolation by dielectric regions (epo)

382
257/E29.021

For source or drain region of field-effect device (epo)

336
257/E29.019

Isolation by pn junctions (epo)

61
257/E29.007

For controlling surface leakage or electric field concentration (epo)

35
257/E29.008

For controlling breakdown voltage of reverse biased devices (epo)

42
257/E29.012

By doping profile or shape or arrangement of the pn junction, or with supplementary regions (e.g., guard ring, ldd, drift region) (epo)

343
257/E29.014

With breakdown supporting region for localizing breakdown or limiting its voltage (epo)

64
257/E29.013

With supplementary region doped oppositely to or in rectifying contact with semiconductor containing or contacting region(e.g., guard rings with pn or schottky junction) (epo)

428
257/E29.009

With field relief electrode (field plate) (epo)

363
257/E29.01

With at least two field relief electrodes used in combination and not electrically interconnected (epo)

158
257/E29.011

With one or more field relief electrode comprising resistance material (e.g., semi insulating material, lightly doped poly-silicon) (epo)

95
257/E29.015

With insulating layer characterized by dielectric or electrostatic property (e.g., including fixed charge or semi-insulating surface layer) (epo)

126
257/E29.016

For preventing surface leakage due to surface inversion layer (e.g., channel stop) (epo)

172
257/E29.017

With field relief electrodes acting on insulator potential or insulator charges (epo)

119
257/E29.022

Characterized by shape of semiconductor body (epo)

335
257/E29.023

Adapted for altering junction breakdown voltage by shape of semiconductor body (epo)

112
257/E29.024

Characterized by shape, relative sizes or dispositions of semiconductor regions or junctions between regions (epo)

79
257/E29.025

Characterized by particular shape of junction between semiconductor regions (epo)

42
257/E29.026

Surface layout of device (epo)

296
257/E29.027

Surface layout of mos gated device (e.g., dmosfet or igbt) (epo)

528
257/E29.028

With a nonplanar gate structure (epo)

216
257/E29.029

With semiconductor regions connected to electrode carrying current to be rectified, amplified or switched and such electrode being part of semiconductor device which comprises three or more electrodes (epo)

20
257/E29.036

Anode or cathode regions of thyristors or gated bipolar-mode devices (epo)

18
257/E29.037

Anode regions of thyristors or gated bipolar-mode devices (epo)

176
257/E29.038

Cathode regions of thyristors (epo)

72
257/E29.034

Collector regions of bipolar transistors (epo)

261
257/E29.035

Pedestal collectors (epo)

30
257/E29.03

Emitter regions of bipolar transistors (epo)

243
257/E29.032

Noninterconnected multiemitter structures (epo)

40
257/E29.033

Of heterojunction bipolar transistors (epo)

99
257/E29.031

Of lateral transistors (epo)

25
257/E29.039

Source or drain regions of field-effect devices (epo)

66
257/E29.04

Of field-effect transistors with insulated gate (epo)

1042
257/E29.041

Of field-effect transistors with schottky gate (epo)

125
257/E29.042

Tunneling barrier (epo)

73
257/E29.043

With semiconductor regions connected to electrode not carrying current to be rectified, amplified or switched and such electrode being part of semiconductor device which comprises three or more electrodes (epo)

33
257/E29.044

Base region of bipolar transistors (epo)

396
257/E29.045

Of lateral transistors (epo)

40
257/E29.046

Base regions of thyristors (epo)

23
257/E29.047

Anode base regions of thyristors (epo)

41
257/E29.048

Cathode base regions of thyristors (epo)

84
257/E29.066

Body region structure of igfet's with channel containing layer (dmosfet or igbt) (epo)

550
257/E29.067

With nonplanar gate structure (epo)

202
257/E29.049

Channel region of field-effect devices (epo)

33
257/E29.058

Of charge coupled devices (epo)

116
257/E29.05

Of field-effect transistors (epo)

184
257/E29.051

With insulated gate (epo)

206
257/E29.052

Nonplanar channel (epo)

74
257/E29.053

With nonuniform doping structure in channel region surface (epo)

68
257/E29.054

Doping structure being parallel to channel length (epo)

297
257/E29.056

With variation of composition of channel (epo)

251
257/E29.055

With vertical doping variation (epo)

134
257/E29.057

With pn junction gate

37
257/E29.059

Gate region of field-effect devices with pn junction gate (epo)

116
257/E29.06

Substrate region of field-effect devices (epo)

19
257/E29.065

Of charge coupled devices (epo)

22
257/E29.061

Of field-effect transistors (epo)

97
257/E29.062

With insulated gate (epo)

112
257/E29.064

Characterized by contact structure of substrate region (epo)

216
257/E29.063

With inactive supplementary region (e.g., for preventing punch-through, improving capacity effect or leakage current) (epo)

493
257/E29.003

Characterized by their crystalline structure (e.g., polycrystalline, cubic) particular orientation of crystalline planes (epo)

355
257/E29.004

With specified crystalline planes or axis (epo)

316
257/E29.111

Electrodes (epo)

48
257/E29.112

Characterized by their shape, relative sizes or dispositions (epo)

124
257/E29.113

Carrying current to be rectified, amplified or switched (epo)

61
257/E29.115

Cathode or anode electrodes for thyristors (epo)

77
257/E29.114

Emitter or collector electrodes for bipolar transistors (epo)

204
257/E29.116

Source or drain electrodes for field-effect devices (epo)

190
257/E29.122

Characterized by relative position of source or drain electrode and gate electrode (epo)

310
257/E29.119

For lateral devices where connection to source or drain region is done through at least one part of semiconductor substrate thickness (e.g., with connecting sink or with via-hole) (epo)

120
257/E29.117

For thin film transistors with insulated gate (epo)

476
257/E29.118

For vertical current flow (epo)

243
257/E29.12

Layout configuration for lateral device source or drain region (e.g., cellular, interdigitated or ring structure or being curved or angular) (epo)

156
257/E29.121

Source or drain electrode in groove (epo)

188
257/E29.123

Not carrying current to be rectified, amplified, or switched (epo)

19
257/E29.124

Base electrodes for bipolar transistors (epo)

152
257/E29.125

Gate electrodes for thyristors (epo)

71
257/E29.126

Gate stack for field-effect devices (epo)

58
257/E29.138

For charge coupled devices (epo)

129
257/E29.127

For field-effect transistors (epo)

294
257/E29.128

With insulated gate (epo)

98
257/E29.134

Characterized by configuration of gate electrode layer (epo)

109
257/E29.135

Characterized by length or sectional shape (epo)

438
257/E29.136

Characterized by surface lay-out (epo)

327
257/E29.137

Characterized by configuration of gate stack of thin film fets (epo)

491
257/E29.132

Characterized by insulating layer (epo)

112
257/E29.133

Nonuniform insulating layer thickness (epo)

499
257/E29.13

Gate electrodes for nonplanar mosfet (epo)

320
257/E29.131

Having drain and source regions at different vertical level having channel composed only of vertical sidewall connecting drain and source layers (epo)

305
257/E29.129

Gate electrodes for transistors with floating gate (epo)

1136
257/E29.139

Of specified material (epo)

44
257/E29.15

Electrodes for igfet (epo)

64
257/E29.158

Elemental metal gate conductor material (e.g., w, mo) (epo)

167
257/E29.159

Diverse conductors (epo)

43
257/E29.151

For tft (epo)

956
257/E29.16

Gate conductor material being compound or alloy material (e.g., organic material, tin, mosi 2 ) (epo)

254
257/E29.161

Silicide (epo)

137
257/E29.162

Insulating materials for igfet (epo)

703
257/E29.165

Multiple layers (epo)

715
257/E29.164

With at least one ferroelectric layer (epo)

160
257/E29.154

Silicon gate conductor material (epo)

175
257/E29.155

Multiple silicon layers

190
257/E29.157

Including barrier layer between silicon and non-si electrode

242
257/E29.156

Including silicide layer contacting silicon layer (epo)

358
257/E29.152

With lateral structure (e.g., poly-silicon gate with lateral doping variation or with lateral composition variation or characterized by sidewalls being composed of conductive, resistivity) (epo)

372
257/E29.14

For gate of heterojunction field-effect devices (epo)

68
257/E29.143

Ohmic electrodes (epo)

136
257/E29.144

On group iii-v material (epo)

247
257/E29.145

On thin-film group iii-v material (epo)

17
257/E29.146

On silicon (epo)

496
257/E29.147

For thin-film silicon (epo)

390
257/E29.141

Resistive materials for field-effect devices (epo)

69
257/E29.148

Schottky barrier electrodes (epo)

192
257/E29.149

On group iii-v material (epo)

165
257/E29.142

Superconductor materials (epo)

13
257/E29.166

Types of semiconductor device (epo)

76
257/E29.169

Controllable by only signal applied to control electrode (e.g., base of bipolar transistor, gate of field-effect transistor) (epo)

19
257/E29.171

Bipolar device (epo)

23
257/E29.172

Double-base diode (epo)

5
257/E29.211

Thyristor-type device (e.g., having four-zone regenerative action) (epo)

157
257/E29.224

Asymmetrical thyristor (epo)

16
257/E29.215

Bidirectional device (e.g., triac) (epo)

119
257/E29.217

Combined structurally with at least one other device (epo)

36
257/E29.218

Combined with capacitor or resistor (epo)

39
257/E29.219

Combined with diode (epo)

28
257/E29.22

Antiparallel diode (epo)

38
257/E29.221

Combined with field-effect transistor (epo)

42
257/E29.212

Gate-turn-off device (epo)

162
257/E29.213

With turn off by field effect (epo)

20
257/E29.214

Produced by insulated gate structure (epo)

211
257/E29.223

Having amplifying gate structure (e.g., darlington configuration) (epo)

68
257/E29.222

Having built-in localized breakdown/breakover region (epo)

32
257/E29.225

Lateral thyristor (epo)

127
257/E29.216

With turn on by field effect (epo)

167
257/E29.173

Transistor-type device (i.e., able to continuously respond to applied control signal)

48
257/E29.174

Bipolar junction transistor

141
257/E29.18

Avalanche transistors (epo)

11
257/E29.182

Bipolar thin-film transistors (epo)

157
257/E29.176

Device being resistive element (e.g., ballasting resistor) (epo)

83
257/E29.188

Hetero-junction transistor (epo)

74
257/E29.189

Vertical transistors (epo)

449
257/E29.193

Comprising lattice mismatched active layers (e.g., sige strained layer transistors) (epo)

354
257/E29.191

Having emitter comprising one or more nonmonocrystalline elements of group iv (e.g., amorphous silicon) alloys comprising group iv elements (epo)

43
257/E29.19

Having two-dimensional base (e.g., modulation-doped base, inversion layer base, delta-doped base) (epo)

27
257/E29.192

Resonant tunneling transistors (epo)

55
257/E29.187

Lateral transistor (epo)

269
257/E29.177

Point contact transistors (epo)

4
257/E29.178

Schottky transistors (epo)

6
257/E29.175

Structurally associated with other devices (epo)

75
257/E29.181

Transistors with hook collector (i.e., collector having two layers of opposite conductivity type (e.g., scr)) (epo)

40
257/E29.179

Tunnel transistors (epo)

26
257/E29.183

Vertical transistor (epo)

253
257/E29.184

Having emitter-base and base-collector junctions in same plane (epo)

264
257/E29.185

Having emitter-base junction and base-collector junction on different surfaces (e.g., mesa planar transistor) (epo)

122
257/E29.186

Inverse vertical transistor (epo)

28
257/E29.194

Controlled by field effect (e.g., bipolar static induction transistor (bsit)) (epo)

85
257/E29.195

Gated diode structure (epo)

99
257/E29.196

With pn junction gate (e.g., field-controlled thyristor (fcth), static induction thyristor (sith)) (epo)

128
257/E29.197

Insulated gate bipolar mode transistor (e.g., igbt; igt; comfet) (epo)

249
257/E29.202

Thin-film device (epo)

140
257/E29.198

Transistor with vertical current flow (epo)

473
257/E29.199

With both emitter and collector contacts in same substrate side (epo)

53
257/E29.2

With nonplanar surface (e.g., with nonplanar gate or with trench or recess or pillar in surface of emitter, base, or collector region for improving current density or short-circuiting emitter and base regions) (epo)

94
257/E29.201

And gate structure lying on slanted or vertical surface or formed in groove (e.g., trench gate igbt) (epo)

439
257/E29.17

Memory effect devices (epo)

138
257/E29.226

Unipolar device (epo)

44
257/E29.227

Charge transfer device (epo)

16
257/E29.228

Charge-coupled device (epo)

29
257/E29.229

With field effect produced by insulated gate (epo)

44
257/E29.233

Buried channel ccd (epo)

65
257/E29.236

Four-phase ccd (epo)

21
257/E29.235

Three-phase ccd (epo)

14
257/E29.234

Two-phase ccd (epo)

63
257/E29.23

Input structure (epo)

95
257/E29.231

Output structure (epo)

141
257/E29.232

Structure for improving output signal (epo)

23
257/E29.237

Surface channel ccd (epo)

51
257/E29.24

Four-phase ccd (epo)

24
257/E29.239

Three-phase ccd (epo)

25
257/E29.238

Two-phase ccd (epo)

52
257/E29.242

Field-effect transistor (epo)

239
257/E29.243

Using static field induced region (e.g., sit, pbt) (epo)

201
257/E29.244

Velocity modulations transistor (i.e., vmt) (epo)

11
257/E29.254

With delta-doped channel (epo)

38
257/E29.255

With field effect produced by insulated gate (epo)

1096
257/E29.263

Comprising gate-to-body connection (i.e., bulk dynamic threshold voltage mosfet) (epo)

41
257/E29.272

Gate comprising ferroelectric layer (epo)

182
257/E29.273

Thin-film transistor (epo)

376
257/E29.295

Characterized by insulating substrate or support (epo)

323
257/E29.299

Characterized by property or structure of channel or contact thereto (epo)

768
257/E29.296

Comprising group iii-v or ii-vi compound, or of se, te, or oxide semiconductor (epo)

235
257/E29.297

Comprising group iv non-si semiconductor materials or alloys (e.g., ge, sin alloy, sic alloy) (epo)

202
257/E29.298

With multilayer structure or superlattice structure (epo)

128
257/E29.285

Silicon transistor (epo)

33
257/E29.286

Monocrystalline only (epo)

323
257/E29.287

Sos transistor (epo)

94
257/E29.288

Nonmonocrystalline (epo)

37
257/E29.289

Amorphous silicon transistor (epo)

38
257/E29.291

With inverted transistor structure (epo)

261
257/E29.29

With top gate (epo)

115
257/E29.292

Polycrystalline or microcrystalline silicon transistor (epo)

87
257/E29.294

With inverted transistor structure (epo)

243
257/E29.293

With top gate (epo)

590
257/E29.274

Vertical transistor (epo)

208
257/E29.275

With multiple gates (epo)

719
257/E29.276

With supplementary region or layer in thin film or in insulated bulk substrate supporting it for controlling or increasing voltage resistance of device (epo)

87
257/E29.277

Characterized by drain or source properties (epo)

390
257/E29.278

With ldd structure or extension or offset region or characterized by doping profile (epo)

841
257/E29.279

Asymmetrical source and drain regions (epo)

330
257/E29.281

For preventing kink or snapback effect (e.g., discharging minority carriers of channel region for preventing bipolar effect) (epo)

339
257/E29.28

For preventing leakage current (epo)

217
257/E29.284

With drain or source connected to bulk conducting substrate (epo)

58
257/E29.282

With light shield (epo)

192
257/E29.283

With supplementary region or layer for improving flatness of device (epo)

129
257/E29.262

Vertical transistor (epo)

717
257/E29.27

With buried channel (epo)

188
257/E29.256

With channel containing layer contacting drain drift region (e.g., dmos transistor) (epo)

700
257/E29.257

Having vertical bulk current component or current vertically following trench gate (e.g., vertical power dmos transistor) (epo)

1043
257/E29.258

With both source and drain contacts in same substrate side (epo)

213
257/E29.259

With nonplanar surface (epo)

218
257/E29.26

Channel structure lying under slanted or vertical surface or being formed along surface of groove (e.g., trench gate dmosfet) (epo)

848
257/E29.261

With at least part of active region on insulating substrate (e.g., lateral dmos in oxide isolated well) (epo)

219
257/E29.309

With charge trapping gate insulator (e.g., mnos-memory transistors) (epo)

876
257/E29.3

With floating gate (epo)

465
257/E29.302

Hi-lo programming levels only (epo)

308
257/E29.305

Charging by hot carrier injection (epo)

28
257/E29.306

Hot carrier injection from channel (epo)

568
257/E29.307

Hot carrier produced by avalanche breakdown of pn junction (e.g., famos) (epo)

81
257/E29.303

Charging by injection of carriers through conductive insulator (e.g., poole-frankel conduction) (epo)

38
257/E29.304

Charging by tunneling of carriers (e.g., fowler-nordheim tunneling) (epo)

712
257/E29.301

Programmable by two single electrons (epo)

84
257/E29.308

Programmable with more than two possible different levels (epo)

180
257/E29.266

With lightly doped drain or source extension (epo)

658
257/E29.268

Source region and drain region having nonsymmetrical structure about gate electrode (epo)

756
257/E29.267

With nonplanar structure (e.g., gate or source or drain being nonplanar) (epo)

386
257/E29.269

With overlap between lightly doped extension and gate electrode (epo)

252
257/E29.264

With multiple gate structure (epo)

317
257/E29.265

Structure comprising mos gate and at least one non-mos gate (e.g., jfet or mesfet gate) (epo)

91
257/E29.271

With schottky drain or source contact (epo)

114
257/E29.31

With field effect produced by pn or other rectifying junction gate (i.e., potential barrier) (epo)

48
257/E29.315

With heterojunction gate (e.g., transistors with semiconductor layer acting as gate insulating layer) (epo)

185
257/E29.316

Programmable transistor (e.g., with charge-trapping quantum well) (epo)

23
257/E29.312

With pn junction gate (e.g., pn homojunction gate) (epo)

180
257/E29.314

Thin-film jfet (epo)

44
257/E29.313

Vertical transistors (epo)

128
257/E29.311

With schottky drain or source contact (epo)

20
257/E29.317

With schottky gate (epo)

322
257/E29.32

Thin-film mesfet (epo)

48
257/E29.318

Vertical transistors (epo)

88
257/E29.319

With multiple gate (epo)

85
257/E29.321

With recessed gate (epo)

131
257/E29.245

With one-dimensional charge carrier gas channel (e.g., quantum wire fet) (epo)

116
257/E29.246

With two-dimensional charge carrier gas channel (e.g., hemt; with two-dimensional charge-carrier layer formed at heterojunction interface) (epo)

334
257/E29.248

With confinement of carriers by at least two heterojunctions (e.g., dhhemt, quantum well hemt, dhmodfet) (epo)

92
257/E29.249

Using group iii-v semiconductor material (epo)

314
257/E29.251

With delta or planar doped donor layer (epo)

57
257/E29.25

With more than one donor layer (epo)

61
257/E29.252

With direct single heterostructure (i.e., with wide bandgap layer formed on top of active layer (e.g., direct single heterostructure mis-like hemt)) (epo)

92
257/E29.253

With wide bandgap charge-carrier supplying layer (e.g., direct single heterostructure modfet) (epo)

186
257/E29.247

With inverted single heterostructure (i.e., with active layer formed on top of wide bandgap layer (e.g., ihemt)) (epo)

53
257/E29.241

Hot electron transistor (het) or metal base transistor (mbt) (epo)

132
257/E29.322

Single electron transistors: coulomb blockade device (epo)

97
257/E29.167

Controllable by plural effects that include variations in magnetic field, mechanical force, or electric current/potential applied to device or one or more electrodes of device (epo)

66
257/E29.347

Controllable by thermal signal (e.g., ir) (epo)

45
257/E29.324

Controllable by variation of applied mechanical force (e.g., of pressure) (epo)

441
257/E29.323

Controllable by variation of magnetic field applied to device (epo)

295
257/E29.325

Controllable only by variation of electric current supplied or only electric potential applied to electrode carrying current to be rectified, amplified, oscillated, or switched (epo)

87
257/E29.342

Capacitor with potential barrier or surface barrier (epo)

88
257/E29.343

Conductor-insulator-conductor capacitor on semiconductor substrate (epo)

353
257/E29.345

Metal-insulator-semiconductor (e.g., mos capacitor) (epo)

360
257/E29.346

Trench capacitor (epo)

304
257/E29.344

Variable capacitance diode (e.g., varactors) (epo)

160
257/E29.327

Diode (epo)

350
257/E29.335

Avalanche diode (e.g., zener diode) (epo)

179
257/E29.331

Charge trapping diode (epo)

37
257/E29.33

Hi-lo semiconductor device (e.g., memory device) (epo)

52
257/E29.329

Mesa pn junction diode (epo)

39
257/E29.336

Pin diode (epo)

166
257/E29.328

Planar pn junction diode (epo)

128
257/E29.333

Point contact diode (epo)

4
257/E29.332

Punchthrough diode (i.e., with bulk potential barrier (e.g., camel diode, planar doped barrier diode, graded bandgap diode)) (epo)

40
257/E29.338

Schottky diode (epo)

448
257/E29.337

Thyristor diode (i.e., having only two terminals and no control electrode (e.g., shockley diode, break-over diode)) (epo)

123
257/E29.334

Transit-time diode (e.g., impatt, trapatt diode) (epo)

67
257/E29.339

Tunneling diode (epo)

59
257/E29.341

Esaki diode (epo)

14
257/E29.34

Resonant tunneling diode (i.e., rtd, rtbd) (epo)

83
257/E29.326

Resistor with pn junction (epo)

183
257/E29.168

Quantum effect device (epo)

124
257/E45.001

Solid-state devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating, or switching without potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g., dielectric triodes; ovshinsky-effect devices, processes, or apparatus peculiar to manufacture or treatment thereof, or of parts thereof (epo)

210
257/E45.002

Bistable switching devices, e.g., ovshinsky-effect devices (epo)

765
257/E45.004

N: light-controlled ovshinsky devices (epo)

16
257/E45.003

Switching materials being oxides or nitrides (epo)

160
257/E45.005

Charge density wave transport devices (epo)

5
257/E45.006

Solid-state travelling-wave devices (epo)

15
257/E49.001

Solid-state devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier using active layer of lower electrical conductivity than material adjacent thereto and through which carrier tunneling occurs, processes or apparatus peculiar to manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof (epo)

42
257/E49.002

Devices using mott metal-insulator transition, e.g., field-effect transistors (epo)

19
257/E49.003

Quantum devices, e.g., quantum interference devices, metal single electron transistor (epo)

48
257/E49.004

Thin-film or thick-film devices (epo)

45
257/76

Specified wide band gap (1.5ev) semiconductor material other than gaasp or gaalas

621
257/77

Diamond or silicon carbide

1294
257/78

Ii-vi compound

226
257/661

Superconductive contact or lead

93
257/663

On integrated circuit

100
257/662

Transmission line or shielded

144
257/48

Test or calibration structure

1601
257/930

Thermoelectric (e.g., peltier effect) cooling

157
257/9

Thin active physical layer which is (1) an active potential well layer thin enough to establish discrete quantum energy levels or (2) an active barrier layer thin enough to permit quantum mechanical tunneling or (3) an active layer thin enough to permit carrier transmission with substantially no scattering (e.g., superlattice quantum well, or ballistic transport device)

504
257/29

Ballistic transport device (e.g., hot electron transistor)

144
257/12

Heterojunction

397
257/26

Ballistic transport device

95
257/27

Field effect transistor

154
257/13

Incoherent light emitter

1249
257/14

Quantum well

1066
257/23

Current flow across well

150
257/25

Employing resonant tunneling

316
257/24

Field effect device

545
257/15

Superlattice

443
257/20

Field effect device

382
257/21

Light responsive structure

706
257/16

Of amorphous semiconductor material

77
257/18

Strained layer superlattice

408
257/19

Si x ge 1-x

419
257/17

With particular barrier dimension

419
257/22

With specified semiconductor materials

581
257/10

Low workfunction layer for electron emission (e.g., photocathode electron emissive layer)

383
257/11

Combined with a heterojunction involving a iii-v compound

213
257/28

Non-heterojunction superlattice (e.g., doping superlattice or alternating metal and insulator layers)

111
257/30

Tunneling through region of reduced conductivity

275
257/37

At least one electrode layer of semiconductor material

77
257/38

Three or more electrode device

71
257/31

Josephson

233
257/35

Particular barrier material

173
257/32

Particular electrode material

125
257/33

High temperature (i.e., >30o kelvin)

167
257/34

Weak link (e.g., narrowed portion of superconductive line)

169
257/36

With additional electrode to control conductive state of josephson junction

154
257/39

Three or more electrode device

172
257/664

Transmission line lead (e.g., stripline, coax, etc.)

441
257/104

Tunneling pn junction (e.g., esaki diode) device

221
257/105

In three or more terminal device

63
257/106

Reverse bias tunneling structure (e.g., "backward" diode, true zener diode)

144
257/595

Voltage variable capacitance device

154
257/601

Plural diodes in same non-isolated structure, or device having three or more terminals

77
257/599

With means to increase active junction area (e.g., grooved or convoluted surface)

37
257/600

With physical configuration to vary voltage dependence (e.g., mesa)

56
257/598

With plural junctions whose depletion regions merge to vary voltage dependence

34
257/596

With specified dopant profile

66
257/597

Retrograde dopant profile (e.g., dopant concentration decreases with distance from rectifying junction)

21
257/602

With specified housing or contact

45
257/594

With groove to define plural diodes

104
257/913

With means to absorb or localize unwanted impurities or defects from semiconductors (e.g., heavy metal gettering)

80
257/629

With means to control surface effects

194
257/652

Channel stop layer

72
257/631

In compound semiconductor material (e.g., gaas)

118
257/632

Insulating coating

474
257/646

Coating of semi-insulating material (e.g., amorphous silicon or silicon-rich silicon oxide)

152
257/651

Details of insulating layer electrical charge (e.g., negative insulator layer charge)

55
257/634

Insulating coating of glass composition containing component to adjust melting or softening temperature (e.g., low melting point glass)

99
257/650

Insulating layer of glass

127
257/649

Insulating layer of silicon nitride or silicon oxynitride

341
257/647

Insulating layer recessed into semiconductor surface (e.g., locos oxide)

330
257/648

Combined with channel stop region in semiconductor

115
257/635

Multiple layers

466
257/644

At least one layer of glass

159
257/642

At least one layer of organic material

486
257/643

Polyimide or polyamide

221
257/636

At least one layer of semi-insulating material

96
257/640

At least one layer of silicon nitride

519
257/641

Combined with glass layer

113
257/639

At least one layer of silicon oxynitride

215
257/645

Insulating layer containing specified electrical charge (e.g., net negative electrical charge)

57
257/637

Three or more insulating layers

328
257/638

With discontinuous or varying thickness layer (e.g., layer covers only selected portions of semiconductor)

188
257/633

With thermal expansion compensation (e.g., thermal expansion of glass passivant matched to that of semiconductor)

73
257/630

With inversion-preventing shield electrode

146
257/487

With means to increase breakdown voltage threshold

218
257/488

Field relief electrode

268
257/490

Combined with floating pn junction guard region

134
257/489

Resistive

101
257/495

Floating pn junction guard region

161
257/491

In integrated circuit

179
257/492

With electric field controlling semiconductor layer having a low enough doping level in relationship to its thickness to be fully depleted prior to avalanche breakdown (e.g., resurf devices)

288
257/494

Reverse-biased pn junction guard region

105
257/493

With electric field controlling semiconductor layer having a low enough doping level in relationship to its thickness to be fully depleted prior to avalanche breakdown (e.g., resurf devices)

268
257/496

With physical configuration of semiconductor surface to reduce electric field (e.g., reverse bevels, double bevels, stepped mesas, etc.)

165
257/923

With means to optimize electrical conductor current carrying capacity (e.g., particular conductor aspect ratio)

83
257/922

With means to prevent inspection of or tampering with an integrated circuit (e.g., "smart card", anti-tamper)

85
257/44

With metal contact alloyed to elemental semiconductor type pn junction in nonregenerative structure

56
257/45

Elongated alloyed region (e.g., thermal gradient zone melting, tgzm)

53
257/47

In bipolar transistor structure

55
257/46

In pn junction tunnel diode (esaki diode)

71
257/924

With passive device (e.g., capacitor), or battery, as integral part of housing or housing element (e.g., cap)

119
257/659

With shielding (e.g., electrical or magnetic shielding, or from electromagnetic radiation or charged particles)

916
257/660

With means to shield device contained in housing or package from charged particles (e.g., alpha particles) or highly ionizing radiation (i.e., hard x-rays or shorter wavelength)

367
257/928

With shorted pn or schottky junction other than emitter junction

45
257/607

With specified dopant (e.g., plural dopants of same conductivity in same region)

323
257/610

Deep level dopant

109
257/612

Deep level dopant other than gold or platinum

85
257/611

With specified distribution (e.g., laterally localized, with specified concentration distribution or gradient)

140
257/609

For compound semiconductor (e.g., deep level dopant)

125
257/608

Switching device based on filling and emptying of deep energy levels

39
257/655

With specified impurity concentration gradient

309
257/657

Stepped profile

99
257/656

With high resistivity (e.g., "intrinsic") layer between p and n layers (e.g., pin diode)

289
257/653

With specified shape of pn junction

214
257/654

Interdigitated pn junction or more heavily doped side of junction is concave

49
257/915

With titanium nitride portion or region

191
 
 
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