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Class Information
Number: 148
Name: Metal treatment >
Description: A. This is the generic class in the art of treating metal to modify or maintain the internal physical structure (i.e., microstructure) or chemical properties of metal. Most process subject matter under this class relates to treating solid or semisolid metal with heat, without melting a substantial portion thereof, and also includes the combination of significant heating and working not provided for in other metal working classes. However, casting or casting and working of molten metal, if combined with significant heat treatment to change the microstructure of the solid metal resulting therefrom is acceptable in this class. Cooling of metal to produce microstructure change is proper for this class.










Class Number Class Name No. of Patents
148/DIG.1

Amorphous semiconductor

120
148/DIG.2

Amphoteric doping

4
148/DIG.4

Annealing, incoherent light

35
148/DIG.3

Anneal

142
148/DIG.5

Antimonides of gallium or indium

13
148/DIG.6

Apparatus

43
148/DIG.7

Autodoping

24
148/33

Barrier layer stock material, p-n type

184
148/33.5

Having at least three contiguous layers of semiconductive material

101
148/33.6

Including an alloy layer having named impurities

21
148/33.1

With contiguous layer doped to degeneracy

37
148/33.4

With contiguous layers of different semiconductive material

130
148/33.3

With non-semiconductive coating thereon

141
148/33.2

With recess, void, dislocation, grain boundaries or channel openings

112
148/DIG.8

Bi-level fabrication

3
148/DIG.9

Bi-mos

144
148/DIG.10

Bipolar transistors-ion implantation

218
148/DIG.11

Bipolar transistors

201
148/DIG.12

Bonding e.g., electrostatic for strain gauges

242
148/DIG.13

Breakdown voltage

12
148/DIG.14

Capacitor

105
148/DIG.15

Capping layer

46
148/DIG.16

Catalyst

28
148/DIG.17

Clean surfaces

94
148/DIG.18

Compensation doping

44
148/22

Compositions

92
148/23

Fluxing

369
148/26

Inorganic

188
148/24

Metallic

400
148/25

Oleaginous

159
148/27

Heat treating

93
148/30

Carbonaceous

16
148/28

Liquid

71
148/29

Oleaginous

21
148/DIG.19

Contacts of silicides

123
148/DIG.20

Contacts, special

180
148/DIG.21

Continuous process

6
148/DIG.22

Controlled atmosphere

15
148/DIG.23

Deep level dopants

23
148/DIG.24

Defect control-gettering and annealing

74
148/DIG.25

Deposition multi-step

84
148/DIG.26

Deposition thru hole in mask

135
148/DIG.27

Dichlorosilane

11
148/DIG.28

Dicing

76
148/DIG.29

Differential crystal growth rates

12
148/DIG.31

Diffusion at an edge

14
148/DIG.32

Diffusion length

4
148/DIG.33

Diffusion of aluminum

30
148/DIG.34

Diffusion of boron or silicon

18
148/DIG.35

Diffusion thru a layer

41
148/DIG.36

Diffusion, nonselective

8
148/DIG.37

Diffusion-deposition

46
148/DIG.38

Diffusions-staged

17
148/DIG.30

Diffusion

15
148/DIG.39

Displace p-n junction

12
148/DIG.40

Dopants, special

37
148/DIG.41

Doping control in crystal growth

38
148/DIG.42

Doping, graded, for tapered etching

7
148/DIG.43

Dual dielectric

75
148/DIG.44

Edge diffusion under mask

7
148/DIG.45

Electric field

25
148/DIG.46

Electron beam treatment of devices

33
148/DIG.47

Emitter dip

2
148/DIG.48

Energy beam assisted epi growth

39
148/DIG.49

Equivalence and options

14
148/DIG.50

Etch and refill

362
148/DIG.51

Etching

202
148/DIG.52

Face to face deposition

2
148/DIG.53

Field effect transistors fets

107
148/DIG.54

Flat sheets-substrates

15
148/DIG.55

Fuse

90
148/DIG.56

Gallium arsenide

62
148/DIG.57

Gas flow control

26
148/DIG.58

Ge germanium

30
148/DIG.59

Germanium on silicon or ge-si on iii-v

42
148/DIG.61

Gettering-armorphous layers

42
148/DIG.60

Gettering

75
148/DIG.62

Gold diffusion

10
148/DIG.63

Gp ii-iv-vi compounds

20
148/DIG.64

Gp ii-vi compounds

74
148/DIG.65

Gp iii-v (generic) compounds-processing

118
148/DIG.66

Gp iii-v liquid phase epitaxy

20
148/DIG.67

Graded energy gap

43
148/DIG.68

Graphite masking

4
148/DIG.69

Green sheets

3
148/DIG.70

Guard rings and cmos

37
148/902

Having portions of differing metallurgical properties or characteristics

150
148/904

Crankshaft

22
148/905

Cutting tool

14
148/903

Directly treated with high energy electromagnetic waves or particles (e.g., laser, electron beam)

109
148/910

In pattern discontinuous in two dimensions (e.g., checkerboard pattern)

7
148/906

Roller bearing element

130
148/908

Spring

77
148/907

Threaded or headed fastener

9
148/909

Tube

102
148/DIG.71

Heating, selective

43
148/DIG.72

Heterojunctions

253
148/DIG.73

Hollow body

18
148/DIG.74

Horizontal melt solidification

2
148/DIG.87

I2l integrated injection logic

27
148/DIG.75

Imide resists

8
148/DIG.77

Implantation of silicon on sapphire

25
148/DIG.76

Implant

8
148/DIG.78

Impurity redistribution by oxidation

2
148/DIG.79

Inert carrier gas

7
148/DIG.80

Infra-red

19
148/DIG.81

Insulators

18
148/DIG.82

Ion implantation fets/coms

127
148/DIG.84

Ion implantation of compound devices

114
148/DIG.83

Ion implantation, general

38
148/900

Ion implanted

32
148/DIG.86

Isolated zones

21
148/DIG.85

Isolated-integrated

194
148/DIG.88

J-fet (junction field effect transistor)

53
148/DIG.89

Josephson devices

6
148/DIG.90

Laser anneal

83
148/DIG.91

Laser beam processing of fets

55
148/DIG.92

Laser beam processing-diodes or transistor

39
148/DIG.93

Laser beam treatment in general

173
148/DIG.94

Laser beam treatment of compound devices

35
148/DIG.95

Laser devices

152
148/DIG.96

Lateral transistor

30
148/DIG.97

Lattice strain and defects

80
148/DIG.98

Layer conversion

5
148/DIG.99

Led, multicolor

36
148/DIG.100

Lift-off masking

86
148/DIG.101

Liquid phase epitaxy lpe

13
148/DIG.102

Mask alignment

66
148/DIG.103

Mask, dual function e.g., diffusion and oxidation

30
148/DIG.104

Mask, movable

13
148/DIG.105

Masks, metal

88
148/DIG.106

Masks, special

187
148/DIG.108

Melt back

5
148/DIG.107

Melt

14
148/DIG.109

Memory devices

17
148/DIG.110

Metal-organic cvd (ruehrwein type)

65
148/DIG.111

Narrow masking

46
148/DIG.112

Nitridation, direct, of silicon

23
148/DIG.113

Nitrides of boron or aluminum or gallium

52
148/DIG.114

Nitrides of silicon

59
148/DIG.115

Orientation

34
148/DIG.116

Oxidation, differential

38
148/DIG.117

Oxidation, selective

161
148/DIG.118

Oxide films

122
148/DIG.119

Phosphides of gallium or indium

39
148/DIG.120

Photocathodes-cs coated and solar cell

55
148/DIG.121

Plastic temperature

0
148/DIG.123

Polycrystalline diffuse anneal

47
148/DIG.124

Polycrystalline emitter

84
148/DIG.125

Polycrystalline passivation

17
148/DIG.122

Polycrystalline

174
148/DIG.126

Power fets

121
148/DIG.127

Process induced defects

9
148/95

Process of modifying or maintaining internal physical structure (i.e., microstructure) or chemical properties of metal, process of reactive coating of metal and process of chemical-heat removing (e.g., flame-cutting, etc.) or burning of metal

36
148/206

Carburizing or nitriding using externally supplied carbon or nitrogen source

97
148/207

Carburizing or nitriding uniformly throughout the entire mass (i.e., internal carburizing)

34
148/218

Combined carburizing and nitriding (e.g., carbonitriding, nitrocarburizing, etc.)

121
148/219

With working, machining, cutting, or post-carburizing and post-nitriding heating or quenching

47
148/223

Including use of vacuum

40
148/225

Iron(fe) or iron base alloy

82
148/230

Nitriding

110
148/231

Utilizing nitrogen containing agent other than ammonia or elemental nitrogen

30
148/232

With post-nitriding heat or quenching

34
148/234

Utilizing agent containing cyano (cn) radical or halogen (x) radical or metal carbonate

8
148/227

Utilizing fused agent or media

9
148/228

Nitriding

32
148/229

With post-carburizing quenching

9
148/235

Utilizing hydrocarbon, oil or oxygenated hydrocarbon (e.g., alcohol, furan, carbohydrate, etc.)

47
148/236

Utilizing solid carbonaceous material containing free carbon, coal, peat, or coke

4
148/233

With post-carburizing heating or quenching

87
148/226

With working, machining, or cutting

65
148/215

Measuring, sensing, or testing

20
148/216

Of gas composition (e.g., carbon content, etc.)

48
148/238

Nitriding

67
148/210

Of selected surface area (e.g., zone, top only, etc.)

39
148/212

Nitriding

48
148/213

Utilizing attached protective shield, mask or coating

18
148/214

With noncarburizing or non-nitriding coating

10
148/211

With working, machining, or cutting

22
148/237

Refractory metal (i.e., ti, v, cr, zr, nb, mo, hf, ta, w) or refractory base alloy

70
148/222

Utilizing ionized gas (e.g., plasma, etc.) or electron arc or beam

84
148/209

Utilizing particulate fluid bed

23
148/224

Utilizing wave energy (e.g., laser, etc.) or electric heating with work as conductor

22
148/221

With casting or solidifying from melt

23
148/208

With decarburizing or denitriding

48
148/217

With noncarburizing or non-nitriding reactive coating (e.g., oxidizing, siliconizing, boronizing, etc.)

96
148/220

With producing or treating of workpiece having plural noncarburized or non-nitrided layers or mechanically engaged article or stock

55
148/194

Chemical-heat removing (e.g., flame-cutting, etc.) or burning of metal

47
148/195

Control responsive to sensed condition of workpiece

19
148/201

Cylindrical workpiece

13
148/204

Flame piercing

2
148/200

Of edge or corner (e.g., deburring, etc.)

12
148/205

Plural nozzles or plural work-contacting jets

13
148/196

Program or pattern control

29
148/202

Scarfing (e.g., desurfacing, planing, gouging, etc.)

21
148/203

Simultaneous removing or burning of multiple sides of workpiece

2
148/197

Utilizing fluid contact other than flame

18
148/198

With solid additive

12
148/199

Metal powder

3
148/559

Heating or cooling of solid metal

108
148/560

Actinide or trans-actinide metal or alloy having greater than 50 percent actinide or trans-actinide metals

20
148/688

Aluminum(al) or aluminum base alloy

95
148/703

Treating with specified agent (e.g., heat exchange agent, protective agent, decarburizing agent, denitriding agent, etc.) or vacuum

38
148/704

In fused state

1
148/698

With ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

138
148/699

Copper(cu) containing

41
148/700

Magnesium(mg) containing

94
148/701

Zinc(zn) containing

64
148/702

Magnesium(mg) containing

53
148/689

With extruding or drawing

67
148/690

And ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

106
148/691

With working above 400`c or nonspecified hot working

70
148/692

Multiple working steps

108
148/693

With ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

131
148/694

With ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

83
148/695

With working

133
148/696

Multiple working steps

71
148/697

With ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

85
148/665

Beryllium(be) or beryllium base alloy

10
148/577

Chilling to subambient temperature

53
148/578

Iron(fe) or iron base alloy

56
148/674

Cobalt(co) or cobalt base alloy

57
148/679

Copper(cu) or copper base alloy

38
148/687

Treating with specified agent (e.g., heat exchange agent, protective agent, decarburizing agent or denitriding agent, etc.) or vacuum

31
148/686

With ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

32
148/680

With working above 400`c or nonspecified hot working

33
148/681

Multiple working steps

42
148/682

With ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

69
148/683

With ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

17
148/684

With working

63
148/685

With ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

67
148/566

Electric heating with work as conductor (e.g., alternating current, induction, etc.)

48
148/567

Induction

114
148/574

And cooling with fluid contact

34
148/575

Iron(fe) or iron base alloy

46
148/573

Gear, threaded article, drill or serrated work surface (e.g., saw blade, etc.)

45
148/570

Of hollow bodies (e.g., pipe, sphere, etc.)

72
148/571

Inside only

22
148/569

Railway stock (e.g., rails, wheels, axles, etc.)

17
148/572

Rod, axle, shaft, or roller

66
148/568

Wire or filament

35
148/576

Wire or filament

24
148/579

Iron(fe) or iron base alloy

75
148/622

Ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

55
148/623

Overageing

21
148/624

With working

72
148/619

Containing 10 percent or more manganese(mn) (e.g., hadfield steel, etc.)

13
148/620

With working

19
148/586

Gear

39
148/621

Highly alloyed (i.e., greater than 10 percent alloying elements)

78
148/660

Including cooling (e.g., quenching, etc.)

81
148/662

Heating step follows cooling

44
148/663

Tempering

147
148/664

Multiple cooling steps

60
148/661

Strip, sheet, or plate

134
148/659

Including spheroidizing

28
148/639

Localized or zone heating or cooling

87
148/644

Cooling

62
148/642

Heating with flame treatment

11
148/641

Simultaneous heating and cooling treatment

24
148/640

Utilizing protective or insulating shielding from heat

23
148/643

With working

33
148/605

Nine percent or more chromium(cr) (e.g., stainless steel, etc.)

68
148/607

Ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation strengthening or precipitation hardening

72
148/608

With working

81
148/611

Austenitic phase structure

33
148/606

Treating with specified agent (e.g., heat exchange agent, protective agent, decarburizing agent, denitriding agent, etc.) or vacuum

53
148/609

With working

78
148/610

With working at or below 120`c or unspecified cold working

103
148/604

Of stacked plural workpieces

7
148/590

Pipe or tube

66
148/592

Nine percent or more chromium(cr) (e.g., stainless steel, etc.)

60
148/591

Treating with specified agent (e.g., heat exchange agent, protective agent, decarburizing agent, denitriding agent, etc.) or vacuum

19
148/594

With work handling

30
148/593

With working

123
148/581

Railway stock (e.g., rails, wheels, axles, etc.)

51
148/582

Treating with specified agent (e.g., heat exchange agent, protective agent, decarburizing agent, denitriding agent, etc.) or vacuum

10
148/583

Wheel

18
148/585

With work handling

12
148/584

With working

34
148/589

Ring

32
148/588

Serrated work surface (e.g., saw blades, etc.)

12
148/580

Spring or spring material

84
148/612

Starting material contains 1.7 percent or more carbon (e.g., cast iron, etc.)

43
148/613

Decarburizing

3
148/614

Starting material is spherulitic (i.e., spheroidal) or vermicular (i.e., wormlike)

18
148/616

Treating or producing white or malleable cast iron

5
148/617

Producing malleable cast iron

5
148/618

With spheroidal graphite production

11
148/615

Treating with specified agent (e.g., heat exchange agent, protective agent, decarburizing agent, denitriding agent, etc.) or vacuum

11
148/587

Threaded article (e.g., screws, drill bits, etc.)

22
148/625

Treating with specified agent (e.g., heat exchange agent, protective agent, decarburizing agent, denitriding agent, etc.) or vacuum

37
148/629

Decarburizing or denitriding

27
148/631

Fused treating agent

19
148/632

With working

6
148/633

Gaseous agent

55
148/634

Hydrogen

49
148/635

With working

10
148/636

Liquid agent

17
148/637

And cooling or quenching

37
148/638

Treating composition contains water

42
148/628

Using vacuum

10
148/630

Utilizing particulate fluid bed

24
148/627

With localized or zone heating or cooling

18
148/626

With preserving, recovering, separately treating or handling of the specified treating agent

19
148/595

Wire, rod, or filament

93
148/597

Nine percent or more chromium(cr) (e.g., stainless steel, etc.)

37
148/596

Treating with specified agent (e.g., heat exchange agent, protective agent, decarburizing agent, denitriding agent, etc.) or vacuum

42
148/600

With work handling

36
148/598

With working

106
148/599

With working at or below 120`c or unspecified cold working

70
148/601

With coiling or treating of coiled strip

85
148/602

With working

153
148/603

With working at or below 120`c or unspecified cold working

165
148/645

With flattening, straightening, or tensioning by external force

53
148/646

With restraining of metal from expanding or contracting during heating or cooling

36
148/647

Die quenching

18
148/655

With separate handling or treating of air, water, or unspecified fluid treating media

9
148/648

With working

90
148/649

Forging

73
148/654

Including cooling (e.g., quenching, etc.)

296
148/653

With additional nonworking heating step

153
148/650

With working at or below 120`c or unspecified cold working

53
148/651

Heating step follows cold working

186
148/652

Separate cooling step follows cold working step

70
148/656

Work handling

26
148/657

Continuous strip or sheet

37
148/658

During cooling step

35
148/706

Lead(pb) or lead base alloy

18
148/714

Localized or zone heating or cooling treatment

35
148/666

Magnesium(mg) or magnesium base alloy

41
148/667

With working

42
148/563

Mechanical memory (e.g., shape memory, heat-recoverable, etc.)

188
148/675

Nickel(ni) or nickel base alloy

223
148/676

With working

98
148/677

With ageing, solution treating, (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

112
148/678

Noble metals (i.e., silver(ag), gold(au), osmium(os), iridium(ir), platinum(pt), ruthenium(ru), rhodium(rh), palladium(pd)) or alloy base thereof

71
148/707

Over 50 percent metal, but no base

72
148/561

Passing through an amorphous state or treating or producing an amorphous metal or alloy

155
148/668

Refractory metal (i.e., titanium(ti), zirconium(zr), hafnium(hf), vanadium(v), niobium(nb), columbium(cb), tantalum(ta), chromium(cr), molybdenum(mo), tungsten(w)), or alloy base thereof

105
148/669

Titanium(ti) or titanium base alloy

180
148/670

With working

162
148/671

With ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening

139
148/673

Tungsten(w) or tungsten base alloy

27
148/672

Zirconium(zr) or zirconium base alloy

144
148/564

Superplastic (e.g., dynamic recrystallization, etc.)

116
148/562

Treating single crystal

81
148/708

Treating with specified agent (e.g., heat exchange agent, protective agent, decarburizing agent, denitriding agent, etc.) or vacuum

17
148/711

In fused state

5
148/712

In gaseous state

34
148/713

In liquid state

25
148/710

Utilizing particulate form in fluid bed

11
148/709

With preserving, recovering or separately handling or treating of the agent

20
148/565

Utilizing wave energy (e.g., laser, electromagnetic, etc.) plasma or electron arc or beam

200
148/705

Zinc(zn) or zinc base alloy

18
148/100

Magnetic materials

77
148/104

Dust cores

238
148/121

Heat treatment

319
148/122

With special compositions

202
148/105

Particulate material

365
148/101

Permanent magnet

445
148/102

Age hardening

72
148/103

Treatment in a magnetic field

262
148/110

Silicon steel

40
148/112

Heat treatment

193
148/113

With special compositions

293
148/111

Working

404
148/108

Treatment in a magnetic field

279
148/120

Working

222
148/240

Processes of coating utilizing a reactive composition which reacts with metal substrate or composition therefore

165
148/278

Carbide formation, decarburization or carbonizing

50
148/284

Coating composition applied forms oxide coating

162
148/285

Oxide of aluminum, beryllium or magnesium formed

123
148/286

Oxide of cobalt, chromium or nickel formed

101
148/287

Oxide of iron formed

124
148/276

Coating during or after metal oxide formation

152
148/279

Contains an atom of boron or silicon that reacts with metal substrate

129
148/283

Contains an atom of halogen, organic material or gaseous sulfur

91
148/243

Liquid reactive coating composition utilized

196
148/272

Coating or treating a metal oxide with a specified composition

116
148/273

Contains an atom of arsenic or metal atom other than alkali metal

184
148/264

Contains an atom of chromium

118
148/266

Contains an atom of sulfur, selenium or tellurium

32
148/268

Contains an atom or boron, silicon or metal atom other than alkali metal

59
148/267

Contains trivalent chromium ion or reducing agent or an organic additive

93
148/265

Post chromium treatment with specified material (other than mere air drying)

76
148/247

Contains an atom of hafnium, titanium or zirconium (excludes activating composition)

239
148/270

Contains an atom of sulfur, selenium or tellurium

59
148/271

Contains organic sulfur compound

28
148/252

Contains dicarboxylic acid or salt thereof which reacts with metal substrate

49
148/246

Contains lubricant or oil or overcoat thereof

70
148/248

Contains nonreactive organic liquid at ambient temperature (e.g., solvent, etc.)

67
148/249

Nonreactive halogenated hydrocarbon

18
148/274

Contains organic material

142
148/250

Contains organic phosphorus or organic chromium compound

81
148/253

Contains phosphorus

210
148/261

Contains an atom of arsenic, boron or metal atom other than alkali metal

116
148/262

Contains an atom of iron or manganese or a group ii metal atom (be, ca, sr, ba, zn, cd, hg)

196
148/263

Contains an atom of calcium

28
148/258

Contains an atom of chromium

74
148/259

Contains organic additive other than for ph control

122
148/260

Nitrogen-containing organic compound

86
148/254

Liquid composition applied prior to reaction of metal substrate with phosphorus (e.g., cleaning, activating, etc.)

98
148/256

Specified liquid or gaseous coating composition applied after reaction with phosphorus

63
148/257

Specified coating composition contains organic material

75
148/255

With additional coating composition containing an atom of chromium, phosphorus or sulfur

76
148/251

Contains solid synthetic polymer

236
148/244

Dye or organic pigment containing

36
148/245

Electrically insulating coating formed which is more than mere oxide formation

31
148/275

Metal substrate contains elemental aluminum or magnesium or alloy thereof

219
148/269

Metal substrate contains elemental ti, zr, hf, cu, ta, or th or alloy thereof

112
148/277

Metal oxide formed after applied coating

184
148/282

Metal substrate contains elemental copper or alloy thereof

76
148/281

Metal substrate contains elemental ti, zr, nb, ag, ta, or w or alloy thereof

127
148/242

Molten bath or molten surface utilized during reaction

77
148/280

Reactive material applied nonuniformly or reacted selectively

87
148/241

Testing or electrical or wave energy utilized

90
148/516

Producing or treating layered, bonded, welded, or mechanically engaged article or stock as a final product

154
148/526

Electric heating with work as electrical conductor (e.g., alternating current, induction, etc.)

68
148/519

Pipe or tube

115
148/520

With induction heating

47
148/521

With metal fusion bonding

60
148/517

Subambient temperature

17
148/525

Utilizing wave energy (e.g., laser, electromagnetic wave energy, etc.), plasma or electron arc or beam

223
148/522

With casting or solidifying from melt

93
148/523

Of aluminum(al) or aluminum alloy

56
148/537

With coating step

253
148/518

With electrocoating (e.g., electroplating, anodizing, sputtering, etc.)

190
148/524

With metal fusion bonding step utilizing electron arc or beam

44
148/527

With metal next to or bonded to metal

224
148/535

Aluminum(al) or aluminum base alloy present

176
148/536

Copper(cu) or copper base alloy

68
148/529

Iron(fe) or iron base alloy present

149
148/530

Next to nonferrous metal or nonferrous base alloy

101
148/531

Aluminum(al) or aluminum base alloy

92
148/532

Copper(cu) or copper base alloy

38
148/533

Zinc(zn), zinc base alloy or unspecified galvanizing

156
148/534

With working

81
148/528

With brazing or soldering

109
148/96

Superconductive metal or alloy (i.e., superconductive tc at or below 30`k)

48
148/97

Particle (e.g., ion, neutron, etc.) bombardment or electromagnetic wave energy (e.g., laser, etc.)

6
148/98

Producing or treating an a3b (e.g., nb3sn, v3ga, nb3al, etc.) superconducting alloy

99
148/512

Surface melting (e.g., melt alloying, etc.)

135
148/514

Treating consolidated metal powder, per se (i.e., no sintering or compacting step present)

136
148/99

Treating in extraterrestrial environment (e.g., space, moon, etc.) or zero gravity environment

4
148/513

Treating loose metal powder, particle or flake

219
148/500

Utilizing disclosed mathematical formula or relationship

62
148/501

Nonferrous metal, nonferrous based alloy or no-base alloy

37
148/502

Aluminum(al) or aluminum base alloy

26
148/505

Utilizing therein factors or percentages related to metal or metal alloy composition (i.e., including carbon content)

75
148/506

With chromium(cr) in the mathematical relationship

32
148/507

With titanium(ti) in the mathematical relationship

15
148/503

Utilizing therein symbol for temperature

44
148/504

With working step

44
148/538

With casting or solidifying from melt

178
148/549

Aluminum(al) or aluminum base alloy

161
148/551

Continuous casting

143
148/550

With extruding or drawing

96
148/552

With working

239
148/539

Centrifugal casting

28
148/553

Copper(cu) or copper base alloy

43
148/554

With working

102
148/540

Iron(fe) or iron base alloy

72
148/543

Containing at least 1.5 percent carbon

38
148/545

With tempering, ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening, or quenching

55
148/544

With working

20
148/542

Containing at least nine percent chromium(cr) (e.g., stainless steel, etc.)

86
148/541

Continuous casting

162
148/548

With tempering, ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening, or quenching

59
148/546

With working

135
148/547

With tempering, ageing, solution treating (i.e., for hardening), precipitation hardening or strengthening, or quenching

141
148/555

Nickel(ni) or nickel base alloy

92
148/556

With working

57
148/557

With working

62
148/515

With explosive or exothermic agent

15
148/239

With ion implantation

54
148/508

With measuring, testing, or sensing

112
148/510

Change in dimension (e.g., expansion, elongation, distortion, etc.)

29
148/509

Magnetic or electrical property

32
148/511

Temperature

75
148/558

With vibration (e.g., mechanical, sound, etc.)

48
148/DIG.128

Proton bombardment of silicon

23
148/DIG.129

Pulse doping

2
148/DIG.130

Purification

7
148/DIG.131

Reactive ion etching rie

96
148/DIG.132

Recoil implantation

2
148/DIG.133

Reflow oxides and glasses

64
148/DIG.134

Remelt

7
148/DIG.135

Removal of substrate

218
148/DIG.136

Resistors

82
148/DIG.137

Resists

35
148/DIG.138

Roughened surface

30
148/DIG.140

Schottky barrier contacts

92
148/DIG.139

Schottky barrier

67
148/DIG.141

Self-alignment coat gate

71
148/DIG.142

Semiconductor-metal-semiconductor

11
148/DIG.143

Shadow masking

68
148/DIG.144

Shallow diffusion

12
148/DIG.145

Shaped junctions

44
148/DIG.146

Sheet resistance (dopant parameters)

3
148/DIG.147

Silicides

166
148/DIG.148

Silicon carbide

62
148/DIG.149

Silicon on iii-v

12
148/DIG.150

Silicon on sapphire sos

188
148/DIG.151

Simultaneous diffusion

52
148/DIG.152

Single crystal on amorphous substrate

33
148/DIG.153

Solar cells-implantations-laser beam

40
148/DIG.154

Solid phase epitaxy

32
148/DIG.155

Solid solubility

3
148/DIG.156

Sonos

8
148/DIG.157

Special diffusion and profiles

14
148/DIG.158

Sputtering

32
148/400

Stock

178
148/405

Age or precipitation hardened or strengthened

51
148/415

Aluminum base

210
148/416

Copper containing

96
148/417

Magnesium containing

298
148/418

Vanadium, niobium or tantalum containing

56
148/408

Cobalt base

37
148/419

Containing over 50 percent metal, but no base metal

86
148/411

Copper base

58
148/414

Nickel containing

58
148/412

Tin containing

39
148/413

Zinc containing

35
148/406

Magnesium base

29
148/409

Nickel base

66
148/410

Chromium containing

258
148/407

Refractory metal base

93
148/437

Aluminum base

435
148/438

Copper containing

203
148/439

Magnesium containing

375
148/440

Magnesium containing

271
148/403

Amorphous, i.e., glassy

543
148/316

Carburized or nitrided

42
148/319

Ferrous (i.e., iron base)

169
148/317

Nitrided

53
148/318

Ferrous (i.e., iron base)

162
148/423

Chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten base

111
148/425

Cobalt base

132
148/442

Containing over 50 per cent metal, but no base metal

316
148/432

Copper base

143
148/436

Aluminum containing

62
148/435

Nickel containing

118
148/433

Tin containing

160
148/434

Zinc containing

127
148/404

Directionally solidified

208
148/320

Ferrous (i.e., iron base)

632
148/321

1.7 percent or more carbon containing (e.g., cast iron)

129
148/323

Chill cast

16
148/322

Malleabilized

12
148/324

Six percent or more group iv, v or vi transition metal containing

56
148/328

Age or precipitation hardened or strengthed

239
148/330

Beryllium or boron containing

246
148/333

Chromium containing, but less than 9 percent

443
148/334

Molybdenum containing

344
148/335

Nickel containing

334
148/332

Copper containing

176
148/329

Eight percent or more manganese containing

41
148/336

Nickel containing

251
148/325

Nine percent or more chromium containing

501
148/326

Age or precipitation hardened or strengthened

180
148/327

Eight percent or more total content of nickel and/or manganese containing

284
148/331

Rare earth meal containing

70
148/337

Three percent or more manganese containing or containing other transition metal in any amount

91
148/420

Magnesium base

125
148/300

Magnetic

68
148/304

Amorphous

289
148/305

With inclusion

42
148/313

Cobalt base

113
148/306

Iron base (i.e., ferrous)

266
148/311

Cobalt containing

144
148/310

Nickel containing

137
148/307

Silicon containing

247
148/309

Containing over 1 percent aluminium

60
148/308

Specific crystallographic orientation

191
148/314

Manganese base

26
148/312

Nickel base

90
148/315

No single metal over 50 percent

98
148/301

Rare earth and transition metal containing

257
148/302

Boron containing

446
148/303

Copper containing

79
148/424

Manganese base

18
148/402

Mechanical memory

188
148/426

Nickel base

148
148/429

Aluminum containing

69
148/427

Chromium containing

130
148/428

Aluminum containing

325
148/430

Noble metal base

177
148/431

Silver base containing in situ formed oxides

84
148/401

Radioactive

24
148/421

Titanium, zirconium, or hafnium base

493
148/422

Vanadium, niobum, or tantalum base

89
148/441

Zinc base

33
148/DIG.159

Strain gauges

30
148/DIG.160

Superlattice

51
148/901

Surface depleted in an alloy component (e.g., decarburized)

14
148/DIG.161

Tapered edges

39
148/DIG.162

Testing steps

30
148/DIG.163

Thick-thin oxides

38
148/DIG.164

Three dimensional processing

54
148/DIG.165

Transmutation doping

17
148/DIG.166

Traveling solvent method

3
148/DIG.167

Two diffusions in one hole

15
148/DIG.168

V-grooves

43
148/DIG.169

Vacuum deposition (includes molecular beam epitaxy

113
148/DIG.170

Vapor-liquid-solid

4
148/DIG.171

Varistor

1
148/DIG.172

Vidicons

6
148/DIG.173

Washed emitter

2
148/DIG.174

Zener diodes

13
 
 
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